Skip to main content

Full text of "The Life of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 1737-1832: With His Correspondence and Public Papers"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for general ions on library shelves before il was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

Il has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often diflicult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parlies, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the plus We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a b<x>k is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 

countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means il can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's hooks while helping authors ami publishers reach new audiences. You can search through I lie lull text of this book on I lie web 
at |http : //books . qooqle . com/| 





Charles Carroll 



BY :'•:•: 


Author of " Tin Ufa of George Huoi" »"-"" 

VOLUME II. ■-/.•-- 

"UnnAit to AlraljIilT God lor Oil bleniiu "Mich. Aunt JtMn-Gbrlittfi . 
mu nrnbmd inn mj b*1or*d cououy. 1m fair •minclpatlou. u> Hon aH-V- 1 " potr- 
? 1M« no. nS cUxuimumooh of tun*, u Ita to U» if* or t, runOd rflfMrJ.**. " 

Jftlflh ,».-., Of A7-.WIM11 IcdntadnC*. Ul IMM,, bj «,, OftuM V0M*UU, J .M*o, . 

ballon of Ih* ntchuitlo* or {ndeptatliaci idopud hj <jm(ma auiDM eL,y II JirlV, . 
Is (no r**r or our Lord. o» thouiud mho huodr»f lod «™nr jl>_ .nlch. I i»ili«l> 
tubwribcd on IBClacoDd diy or Ausuil of [ha UVfTHr.ull of <rhkrh , am no* Jfao )*M- . 
HrvltlDg iljnff r. 1 do BflTEDT recommend lo Iho BMIU bod nrtur* MMan bMaprlncl[gOM\ _ 

" CAJtE»r.L.o(C^rolllo». 

O/y 4/ DKlMftitl 4/ In4iftndintt. * r a 

.Vrir TV** C«f> Library. .'-'- 


abe ftnlc&erbocfier press 



Qbc ItntctKbocMc pccii, *«# Bnl 


Charles Carroll of Carrollton — 1737-1833 

From a photograph of his portrait at " Dough oregiin 


From a photograph. 

Charles Carroll of Annapolis — 1702-1783 . 363 

t v 


I. — The Articles of Con federation. 1778- 

1780 1 

II. — In the Maryland Senate. 1780-1783 . 34 

III. — Maryland after the Peace. 1783— 1787 73 

IV. — In the United States Senate. 17S7- 

1790 108 

V. — Federal and State Politics. 1790-1793 155 

VI. — A Maryland Federalist. 1793-1799 . 197 

VII. — Retirement from Public Life. 1800- 

'807 334 

VIII. — The Second War with England. 1807- 

'819 *7* 

IX. — The Last of the Signers. 1820-1832 . 319 

Appendix C. — Carroll Wills .... 373 
Appendix D. — Genealogical Notes . -433 

Index 449 


t r-y?-VnpijW'>vv\*\ J W, 





TAKING up Charles Carroll's record in Congress 
from the 15th of April, 1778, to its adjourn- 
ment the latter part of June, he is seen to have been 
appointed, on the 1 8th of April, one of a committee 
of three, to consider a memorial from Joseph Car- 
son, who had furnished a supply of leather breeches 
for the army. Two days later, a letter with enclos- 
ures, received from General Smallwood, was put into 
the hands of a committee consisting of William 
Duer, Samuel Chase, and Charles Carroll of Car- 

They brought in a report on the 23d, whereupon 
it was resolved by Congress, " that the Governor and 

2 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

Council of the State of Maryland be requested imme- 
diately to embody three hundred militia of the East- 
ern Shore, under active, spirited officers, and order 
them to march with two field pieces, and a proper 
number of artillerists into Delaware, there to execute 
such orders as they may receive from a committee of 
Congress appointed for that purpose." And a copy 
of Governor Smallwood's letter was to be transmitted 
to the Governor and Council of Maryland.' Charles 
Carroll's letter to Governor Johnson, of April 21st, is 
in reference to this matter, an insurrection of Tories 
on the " neck of land betwixt Delaware and Chesa- 
peake Bay." 

It was at this time, April 23d, that the hold 
Washington had gained upon the affections and con- 
fidence of the people was displayed in the strong- 
est manner, by resolutions of Congress renewing 
the extraordinary powers conferred on him in 
the fall of 1777. They had expired on the 10th of 
April, and were now not only renewed, but greatly 
extended. The Commander-in-chief was to have 
authority to suspend officers who misbehaved ; fill 
up vacancies under the rank of brigadier; impress 
all articles and provisions necessary for his command, 
paying or giving certificates; remove and secure all 
goods and effects, for the benefit of the owners, 
which may be serviceable to the enemy, within 
seventy miles of the headquarters of the American 
army; order court-martials to try certain offenders, 
with the punishment of death or any other that 
seemed meet ; to subsist his army from the country 
1 Journal of Congress. 

Powers of Commander-in-Chief. 3 

in the vicinity ; to order stock to be taken from all 
persons without distinction ; to order the grain to be 
threshed within a limited time, etc. 

The committee to whom these resolutions of Con- 
gress were referred consisted of Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton, William Duer, and John Banister. On 
May 6th, a letter from the Board of War was read, 
and referred to a committee of three, consisting of 
Samuel Huntingdon, Carroll, and Roger Sherman. 
Two days later, Charles Carroll, was on a committee 
with Gouverneur Morris and Francis Dana to con- 
sider other letters and papers sent to Congress. A 
letter from General Washington, enclosing one from 
General Howe, respecting an exchange of prisoners, 
was referred to a committee of three, William Duer, 
Richard Henry Lee, and Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton, on the 13th; and on the same day Carroll and 
two other gentlemen were named a committee to 
whom was referred the memorial of Monsieur de la 
Neuvtlle, inspector of the army under General Gates. 
M'Kean, Carroll, and James Smith of Pennsylvania, 
were chosen a committee, on the 14th, to report on 
a letter from the Board of War, enclosing commu- 
nications from the Pennsylvania loyalists John Penn 
and Benjamin Chew. And it seems rather odd to 
find Charles Carroll of Carrollton one of a committee 
of three to whom was referred the " Representation 
of the Bishops and Elders of the United Brethren 
settled in Pennsylvania.'" On the 15th, a letter 
from General Mifflin was read and referred to Gouv- 
erneur Morris, Charles Carroll, and Francis Dana ; 
• ibid. 

4 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

and a letter from the Board of War was referred, 
three days later, to a committee of three of which 
Carroll was the chairman. 

There were now subordinate Boards of War es- 
tablished at different points, and that of Massa- 
chusetts Bay sent a letter to Congress relating to 
the firm of Gardoqui & Sons, Bilboa, and it was 
assigned, for consideration to Gouverneur Morris 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, and Elbridge Gerry. 
Samuel Chase had left Congress May nth, and on 
the 30th of May, John Henry had leave of absence, 
Plater and Carroll being the two delegates remain- 
ing to represent Maryland. On June 3d, a letter, 
from Jeremiah Wadsworth, "commissary-general of 
purchases," enclosing sundry papers, was referred to a 
committee of which Charles Carroll was chairman. 
He was also made chairman of a committee appointed 
the following day, whose duty it was" to examine the 
journal and extract from thence, in order for publi- 
cation, all the resolutions relative to the government 
of the army, the regulations of the quarter-master's, 
commissary's, and clothier's departments, and to the 
pay and settlements of the accounts of the army." ' 

The important subject of the Articles of Confed- 
eration was brought up in Congress on the 22d of 
June, and the objections of the States were consid- 
ered. The Maryland delegates read to Congress the 
instructions they had lately received from their con- 
stituents, and the objections of Maryland to the Ar- 
ticles of Confederation were taken up. Two of them 
were thought to be of no great import. The third 
1 Mt. 

Committee Work in Congress. 5 

was in the form of an amendment to Article IX., and 
directed that, after the words " no State shall be de- 
prived of territory for the benefit of the United 
States," there be inserted the words: " The United 
States in Congress assembled, shall have power to 
appoint commissioners, who shall be fully authorized 
and empowered to ascertain and restrict the bound- 
aries of such of the confederated States which claim 
to extend to the river Mississippi or South Sea." 
This was debated, and the vote taken the following 

Such a flagrant infraction of State sovereignty was 
of course negatived by Congress, six States voting 
solidly against the amendment, while one, New 
York, was divided. An unfortunate and short-sighted 
jealousy against the States possessed of unsettled 
western lands was at the root of this movement, 
and it is surprising to find Maryland statesmen 
advocating it. After all the objections of the States 
were read and considered, New Hampshire, New 
York, and Virginia expressing themselves as satis- 
fied with the Articles as reported, a form of ratifica- 
tion was prepared, Richard Henry Lee being made 
chairman of the committee named for this purpose. 
The "Powers of the States to their delegates to 
ratify the Articles of Confederation," ' were extended 
upon the journal and Congress adjourned June 27th, 
to meet again in Philadelphia July 2d. Charles 
Carroll had then returned to Maryland, and Samuel 
Chase, George Plater, and James Forbes were the 
Maryland delegates present. 
1 ibid. 

6 Charles Carroll of Carrolllon. 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton and George Plater 
wrote from Congress in June to Governor Johnson and 
the Maryland Assembly a report of its proceedings. 

8th June, 1778, York. 

Your letter of the and instant was put into our hands 
this morning by Col. Smith, and referred to the Board of 
War. We sincerely wish the state of our clothing at or 
near the army may be such as to suffer that Board to give 
the order in the extent you desire. Col. Smith will re- 
ceive their answer tomorrow. We hope and have the 
strongest reason to believe, our army will never again be 
exposed to the same inconveniences and distress they 
have hitherto suffered from the want of clothing. We 
understand 8 or 10,000 suits are in the 50 gun ship lately 
arrived in Virginia, and still larger supplies have arrived 
at the eastward. 

By all accounts from Camp and Philadelphia the enemy 
appear to be on the eve of evacuating that city. It is 
conjectured they will march through the Jersies to South 
Amboy, where it is said a number of boats are in readi- 
ness to carry them over to Staten Island. 

War between Prussia and Austria respecting the division 
of the late Elector of Bavaria's territories, by the latest 
accounts from Europe, is much to be apprehended, and 
Mr. Francy informed us that war was certainly declared 
between Russia and the Porte. The French Court had 
detained all English vessels in their ports in conse- 
quence of a refusal by the Court of London to deliver up 
an American vessel captured on the coast of France by 
an English privateer. We enclose you copies of letters 
from Lord Howe and Sir Henry Clinton's letters to Gen- 
eral Washington and to Congress, and our answer. 

Letters of Carroll and Plater. y 

These may be printed if you think proper, and we beg 
the favor of you to lay them before the Assembly. 
We are with great respect, Your Excellency's 
Most obedient humble servants 

Ch. Carroll ok Carrollton. 
Geo. Plater.' 

York, Monday P.M. 22nd June. 1778. 

Gentlemen : 

The instructions of the House of Delegates of the 18th 
instant we this morning received in a letter from Mr. 
Chase, and laid them before Congress ; whereupon at our 
earnest desire, it was resolved to take into immediate 
consideration the amendments proposed by our State 
to the Confederation, although Congress had previously 
determined to take up the amendments offered by the 
several States in the order in which the States are ranged 
in the Confederacy, beginning first with New Hampshire, 
and so on. 

This evening the three amendments offered by Mary- 
land were debated and eleven States out of twelve present, 
rejected the amendments to the 4th and 8th articles, so 
that our State only voted for them. The fate of the 
most important amendment is not yet decided, the ques- 
tion being put off by adjournment till tomorrow morn- 
ing, when it will probably be rejected by a majority of 
eight States out of twelve. 

A Confederation at this critical juncture appears to 
Congress of such momentous consequence that I am sat- 
isfied a great majority are resolved to reject the amend- 
ments from every State, not so much from an opinion that 
all the amendments are improper, as from the conviction 
1 Maryland Historical Society. 

8 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

that if any should be adopted no Confederation will take 
place, at least for some months, perhaps years ; and in 
that case, many apprehend none will ever be entered into 
by all of the present United States. The distractions 
probable consequent on such an event, and the many 
dangers and evils, which may arise from partial Confed- 
eracies (which you may more easily paint to yourselves 
than we can express) have determined some States to 
accept the present Confederation, although founded on 
principles not altogether consistent, in their opinion, with 
justice and sound policy. For if any amendments should 
be adopted, it will then be necessary to send the Confed- 
eration back to those States whose Legislatures have 
empowered their delegates to sign and ratify it in its 
present form ; for instance to New Hampshire, New 
York, Virginia, and North Carolina, the delegates of 
which States are positively instructed to ratify the Con- 
federation as it now stands, and some of them are di- 
rected to admit of no alterations, even literary ones, such 
as would not affect the true spirit and meaning of any 
Article, but only serve to elucidate that meaning and 
spirit by removing all ambiguity and doubt. 

In debating our second amendment, viz. to the 8th 
Article, it was admitted on all sides to be the true mean- 
ing and intention of that Article, that all lands, not only 
those already granted to, or surveyed for any person, 
should be subjected to valuation, and considered as a part 
of the whole wealth of the State in which they lie. It 
was contended by several members that the meaning of 
the 8th Article is clearly expressed, but confessed by 
some to be dark and ambiguous, who nevertheless voted 
against the amendment, for the reasons we have already 
assigned. The amendment to the 4th Article was con- 


Maryland Amendment Rejected. 9 

sidered by every State, Maryland excepted, as unimport- 
ant, the Article not being liable, in the opinion of any 
other State to the objection made and consequences ap- 
prehended by Maryland. 

23rd P. M. Our third amendment has just been re- 
jected by a majority of one State ; the division was as 
follows : 

Against Amendment For Amendment 

New Hampshire Rhode Island 

Massachusetts Jersey 

Connecticut Pennsylvania 

New York divided Delaware 

North Carolina absent Maryland 

South Carolina 
Inclosed you have a copy of General Washington's 
letter received this morning. 

We are with great respect, Gentlemen, &c. 
Geo : Plater, 
Ch. Carroll of Carrollton.' 

Of Maryland's opposition to the Articles of Con- 
federation, one of her historians writes : 

" Virginia still adhered to her claim to the western 
lands, and had succeeded in securing in the Articles of 
Confederation, a clause ' that no State should be de- 
prived of her territory for the benefit of the United States/ 
and Maryland refused to give in her adherence to those 
articles while that clause existed. The preceding Legis- 
lature had solemnly protested against this unjust ap- 
propriation of all the public lands won by the blood and 
1 Ms : Letter, Dr. Thomas A. Emmet, New York. 

io Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

treasure of all, and directed their delegates in Congress 
to lay their protest before that body, and to offer an 
amendment authorizing Congress to fix the limits of 
those States claiming to the Mississippi or South Sea." ' 

This one-sided and erroneous statement of Vir- 
ginia's position is still repeated in substance by 
Maryland writers, though nothing has been more 
clearly established than the two points in conten- 
tion ; the validity of Virginia's title to her western 
territory, through her charters, and the justice of her 
claim to it as won by her "blood and treasure" 
alone during the Revolution, in the expedition of 
George Rogers Clark. But if Virginia's territory 
did not extend to the Mississippi, then the land 
could not be claimed by any of the colonies. And 
as has been well said by a modern writer: 

" A denial of the western titles on the ground that the 
western lands belonged to the Crown, tended to subvert 
the very foundation on which Congress instructed its 
foreign representatives to stand while contending with 
England, France and Spain for a westward extension to 
the Mississippi. Accordingly the Maryland doctrine was 
a dangerous one ; it left no standing ground on which to 
contend for the western country but that of conquest 
and occupancy. But Congress wisely kept wide of the 
Maryland path leading to the Maryland goal, and event- 
ually worked out a solution of the Western question on 
the principle of compromise and concession." * 

1 McSherry's " History of Maryland. " 

' Hinsdale's " Old Northwest," p. 315. See also Henry's " Lilt 
of Patrick Henry," vol. ii. p. 75, for a full discussion of the subject. 

A Dangerous Doctrine, 1 1 

Charles Carroll, barrister, represented the Carrolls 
in the Maryland Senate at its spring session, 1778, 
while Charles Carroll of Carrollton was at Valley 
Forge. But at the fall session of the Assembly 
which met on the 29th of October, the latter was 
in his place promptly, his kinsman, the barrister, 
not appearing until November 9th., which was the 
first day that a quorum was present in the Senate. 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton resigned his seat in 
Congress at this time, and George Plater, William 
Faca, William Carmichael, John Henry, James 
Forbes, and Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer were 
elected delegates.' 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton was placed, as usual, 
on the most important committees ; one of these, 
appointed on the 21st, was empowered to draw up 
instructions for the Maryland Congressmen, Carroll's 
associates being Matthew Tilghman, Charles Carroll, 
barrister, Thomas Stone, and Thomas Jennings. 
Two days later he was named one of a committee 
for drafting bills on the acts of Congress providing 
for disabled soldiers and seamen, and relative to the 
Treasury of the United States. The absorbing ques- 
tion of the Articles of Confederation next occupied 
the Assembly, and on the 30th of November the 
Senate received the following message on the sub- 
ject from the House of Delegates : 

" Resolved, That in the opinion of this House it is 

fundamently wrong, and contrary to all the principles of 

equity on which a Confederation ought to be founded, 

1 Journal of the Maryland Senate. 

1 2 Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 

that the State of Maryland or any other State in similar 
circumstances, should be burthened with very heavy ex- 
pense for the subduing and guarantying immense tracts 
of country, when they are to have no share of the monies 
arising from the sale of lands, or to be otherwise bene- 
fitted thereby, and that this State ought to declare, that 
they mean not on those terms, to incur, nor will be re- 
sponsible for, any part of such expense. 

" Resolved, That in the opinion of this House we ought 
to rely on the wisdom and justice of Congress, to put 
such construction on the 8th Article of the Confedera- 
tion, as may be consistent with the general scope and 
intention thereof ; and that our Delegates in Congress 
be instructed to move for an additional article assuring 
every State in the Union, that all lands that have been or 
shall be conquered or purchased at the common expense, 
and which were not located, granted, surveyed or settled, 
at the commencement of the war, or the money arising 
from the sale thereof, shall be distributed agreeably to 
the rule laid down in the 8th Article, for adjusting the 
proportion of public expences ; which being obtained, 
the State of Maryland will cordially accede to the Articles 
of Confederation and Perpetual Union. But should so 
equitable a claim be denied, the duty we owe to ourselves 
and posterity will not permit us to ratify a scheme, which 
is fraught with the ruin of us and the States in similar 
circumstances." ' 

A committee was appointed by the Senate to 
meet a committee of the House to deliberate on 
the propositions respecting the Confederation, and 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, who was so familiar 

Resolutions finally Adopted. 1 3 

with the subject as debated in Congress, was one of 
the four Senators designated. The others were Mat- 
thew Tilghman, Robert Goldsborough, and Thomas 
Jennings. The "Declaration" relative to the Con- 
federation, with the "Instructions" to the Dele- 
gates in Congress, and the Treaty of Alliance 
entered into with France, were read in the Senate 
on the 15th of December. On this same day, Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton and Brice Thomas Beale Worth- 
ington were appointed conferrees to meet a House 
committee and prepare an account of the expendi- 
tures of all public monies in the State, to be laid be- 
fore the Assembly- 
There was a good deal of friction between the two 
branches of the Legislature at this time, on several 
points; notably on the subject of increasing "the 
diurnal allowance of members of the General As- 
sembly," a measure advocated by the House of 
Delegates but opposed by the Senate. The old 
formal terms of respect learned under the monarchi- 
cal regime, were still in use in addressing the Repub- 
lican Executive and Senate; "Your Excellency" 
for the Governor, and " May it please your Honors," 
for the members of the Upper House. The miniature 
Commons, the House of Delegates, were in turn 
simply designated " Gentlemen " by the aristocratic 

" If your Honors," say the gentlemen of the 
Lower House, in response to what they deem sar- 
castic and unfair treatment by the Senate, " had 
been equally solicitous with us to preserve the dig- 
nity of the two Houses, and to avoid unbecoming 

14 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

sarcasms and irritating sneers, the session would not 
have been prolonged beyond that period in which the 
public business might have been transacted." And 
they put it to the frugally minded Senators : " Do 
your Honors think a gentleman can live in the city 
of Annapolis for less than the proposed sum ? " [forty 
shillings, about $8.00 per day]. The House then 
tries a little irony on the Senate, in returning a bill 
which the latter would not pass without an amend- 
ment obnoxious to the House: 

u If then there are any instances in which the public 
Treasury will be robbed, either through the ignorance, 
mistake or design of men, to whom the execution of our 
laws has been committed, no doubt your Honors' known 
attachment to the frugality of finance, will suggest the 
propriety and necessity of receding from your proposed 

To this the Senate reply that it is their wish to 
avoid altercation at all times, but they see no cause 
to recede from their amendment, yet if they find on 
reflection that they are mistaken, " the next session 
will afford opportunity of applying proper remedy." 
After naming Charles Carroll of Carrollton and 
Thomas Jennings as those members of the Senate 
who were to join a House committee in preparing, 
during the recess of the Assembly, a bill for amend- 
ing and declaring the criminal law, the Senate ad- 
journed, and it was ordered that Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton revise and correct their proceedings. 1 

1 Ibid. 

Chase Creates a Sensation. 1 5 

When the Assembly met again on the gth of 
March, 1779, Charles Carroll of Carroll ton was pres- 
ent in the Senate, Charles Carroll, barrister, taking 
his seat some days later. At this session Samuel 
Chase created no small scandal and disturbance, one 
may imagine, by his accusation of treason against 
some of the most prominent members of the Mary- 
land Senate. He had made these charges publicly, 
outside of the Assembly, as it was reported, and 
was required to give an explanation of his conduct. 
He now called Samuel Wilson a " traitor," and 
declared Thomas Jennings a suspicious character, 
saying that he had been neutral in the present dis- 
pute until very lately, and that he had taken the 
oath of allegiance to two " free and independent 
States," and he could not be faithful to both of 
them. Charles Carroll, barrister, and Matthew Tilgh- 
man were accused by Chase of having said, while in 
Congress in December, 1776, that propositions of 
reconciliation should be made with General Howe. 

Asked if he had anything further to declare, this 
virtuous patriot replied, " It might look like partial- 
ity if I passed by the President." Daniel of St. 
Thomas Jenifer was President of the Senate, and he 
was then charged by Samuel Chase with having 
written a certain imprudent letter in 1777, and with 
saying, in conversation, to Dr. Craik, sometime 
during the previous spring, that " it was time to 
bring about a reconciliation." Jenifer dented this, 
and Mr. Chase and his accusations were relegated, 
for final investigation, to an early day in the succeed- 
ing Assembly. An important message, probably 

1 6 Charles Carroll of Carrol/ton. 

penned by Charles Carroll of Carrollton, was carried 
by him from the Senate to the House, March 20th, 
asking for alterations in the supplement to the 
Supply Bill for 1779. The matter of the pay of 
members coming up again, a message from the 
House was read, March 21st, a resolution "that 
three pounds current money per day be allowed to 
each member of the General Assembly during his 
attendance at this session and three pounds a day 
for itinerant charges." Charles Carroll of Carrollton 
then gave notice that he would protest against the 
resolution, which he did in the following words : 

Dissentient. 1st. Because this resolve sets a danger- 
ous precedent for future legislators to vote the people's 
money into their own pockets ; for if the former are at 
liberty to increase their own wages ad libitum, and the 
desire of gain should overcome the dictates of duty and 
honesty, the dread, and not the love of the people, would 
alone deter men of such character from enriching them- 
selves with the spoils of their constituents. 

Secondly. Because this resolve plainly discovers a 
disposition to relieve ourselves from the effects of a 
depreciated currency, while private creditors, and the 
public, remain unredressed, and continue to be 
stripped of their revenues and property by an ex post 
facto tender law, unnecessary and impolitic at its com- 
mencement, injurious and oppressive in its continuance, 
and alike destructive of private and public faith. 

Thirdly. Because this resolve appears to be a mani- 
festation of the continuance of that spirit, which there 
is reason to apprehend, influenced too many to pass the 
tender law, viz., the preference of private to the public 

Carroll Dissents to a Resolve, 1 7 

interest. By that law individuals have acquired property 
at the public cost, and the public treasury has been de- 
prived of a fund, which at the conclusion of this war, if 
properly managed, would have enabled the State to dis- 
charge all its own incumbrances, and part of its quota of 
the Continental debt, without imposing such very heavy 
taxes, as now, by the abolition of that fund, are become 
absolutely necessary to discharge the debt incurred by 
the war, and the maintainance of our civil and military 

Charles Carroll or Carroll-ion. 1 

Work was at this time mapped out for the joint 
committee of the two Houses, who were to sit dur- 
ing the recess of the Assembly, to examine the ac- 
counts of the Auditor-General, Commissary of Stores, 
and Commissary of the Loan Office, and to inquire 
into and report upon the expenditure of the public 
money advanced to certain individuals who were to 
have furnished cannon, muskets, etc., to the State. 
This committee was to have power to call on the 
Council of Safety, and the Governor and Council, 
for their proceedings, to look into the expenditure 
of all the public funds, to send for such persons, 
papers, or records as they deemed necessary, and 
they were to be allowed a clerk and doorkeeper, 
while all their expenses were defrayed by the As- 
sembly. The Senate members appointed on this 
committee were Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Brice 
Thomas Beale Worthington, and William Hind- 
man. Caustic messages then went back and forth 

1 8 Charles Carroll of Carroll/on. 

between the two Houses, on the subject of the 
communication of the Senate relating to the Supply 
Bill, which the House of Delegates declined to an- 
swer, maintaining their right to originate and frame 
money bills, in which class they considered the Sup- 
ply Bill to belong. The bill finally passed the Sen- 
ate, Charles Carroll of Carrollton alone dissenting, 
and it was carried to the House of Delegates by 
Charles Carroll, barrister, with the following mes- 

"Gentlemen : 

" The declining to answer our messages is a conduct 
so singular, and so unbecoming a branch of legislature, 
that we really should have been at a loss to conceive to 
what motives it might be ascribed, had not your mes- 
sage of this day, accompanied with a resolve in reply to 
ours, calling for an answer, discovered to us, that a warm 
and zealous attachment to the rights and privileges of 
your own House had excited some fears and jealousies of 
a design in ours to encroach on those rights and privi- 
leges ; had we been left to guess at your motive we 
might have ascribed it to a different cause. It is indeed 
remarkable, that those fears and jealousies should imme- 
diately vanish, when two days after we returned you the 
resolve of your House for increasing our own allowances 
without limitation of time, with a negative accompanied 
by a message, proposing an alteration to be inserted in 
another resolve, to which you most readily agreed. The 
consistency and propriety of your conduct in these two 
instances, we shall leave to yourselves to determine ; 
suffer us only to remark as something extraordinary, that 
your extreme sensibility and watchfulness for your rights 

The Supply Bill Debated. 1 9 

in the first instance was so soon followed by great calm- 
ness and ready acquiescence in the second. 

"The objection mentioned in our message by Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton most clearly lying against the origi- 
nal law, and as we then thought against the present bill, 
which in respect of the assessment of an additional 
pound rate is consolidated with it, and being in our 
opinion very material, we were constrained by our love 
of justice, which in all acts of legislation should at all 
times be preserved, to point it out to you. We did it 
without the least intention of infringing the rights of 
your House, and in a manner we judged most unexcep- 
tionable, that you might have an opportunity, if you 
thought proper, of making the alteration, and although 
upon reconsideration of the bill, it appears doubtful 
whether our objection does so clearly apply against that, 
as against the original, yet we still think it worthy your 
notice, as all laws ought to be couched in the most clear 
and unequivocal terms. However, gentlemen, as you 
have determined, perhaps wisely, to enter into no argu- 
ment on the occasion, which in truth we had no inten- 
tion or desire of leading you into, and as we have not in 
any instance discovered a disposition to make the least 
attempt, either directly or indirectly, to violate the rights 
and privileges of your House, we shall at present con- 
tent ourselves with sending you down the bill with our 
assent, which it was our intention to have done, had you 
not agreed with us in sentiment on the proposed objec- 
tion, and which, indeed is plainly enough implied in the 
message itself." 1 

The Senate adjourned on the 25th of March. The 

Assembly was convened again by the Governor's 

1 ibid. 

ao Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

proclamation July 15th, but Charles Carroll of Car- 
rollton was not present. At this session Thomas 
Jennings resigned his seat, probably out of indigna- 
tion at the charge made against him by Samuel 
Chase. The accusation against Samuel Wilson was 
examined into, and no proof of " torytsm " or " trea- 
son " could be discovered. Chase filed a statement 
in the journal relative to Charles Carroll, barrister, 
Thomas Jennings, and others, and the extra session 
closed August 15th. 

At the regular fall session of the Assembly both 
of the Charles Carrolls were in their places in the 
Senate, and Daniel Carroll was given a seat in the 
new Council. Thomas Sim Lee, of the distinguished 
Lee family of Virginia and Maryland, was elected 
Governor. A joint committee of both Houses was 
deputed to draw up an address of thanks to the re- 
tiring Governor, and Matthew Tilghman and Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton, with William Paca, were the 
Senators named for this purpose. A committee of 
both Houses was appointed on the 29th of Novem- 
ber to hold a conference on the subject of the proper 
measures to be used to procure supplies of flour and - 
forage, clothing, blankets, shoes, etc., for the troops 
of the State, also to consider the recommendation 
of Congress to the States, as to concerting laws " for 
establishing and carrying into execution a general 
limitation of prices." Matthew Tilghman, Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton, and Bn'ce Thomas Beale Worth- 
ington were appointed from the Senate. The re- 
port of the conference was made on the nth of 
December. They did not think it was expedient at 

Laws for Limiting Prices. 2 1 

that time to regulate prices in Maryland, and they 
suggested a meeting of commissioners from the sev- 
eral States at Philadelphia the first Monday in Janu- 
ary, 1780, to consider the subject.' 

A petition of the Quakers was read about this 
time, and sent to the House by Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton. On the 15th of December the Senate 
voted, Charles Carroll going with the majority, to 
strike out a clause in the act relating to deceased 
persons : 

"That every inventory and appraisement of estate of 
deceased person hereafter to be made, shall be in paper 
currency, at the current prices, at the time of the ap- 
praisement, and the warrant to the appraisers and their 
oath shall be to value the estate accordingly, and the 
executor or administrator shall be answerable for the 
amount of such appraisement and accountable thereof to 
the creditors or legal representatives of his testator or 

A bill to prohibit, for a limited time, the exporta- 
tion of wheat, flour, rye, etc., with the proviso, 
" That this did not prohibit any farmer or planter of 
the State from carrying his grain or other article 
therein mentioned to his usual market for sale," 
brought out a tie vote, and the motion was therefore 
lost. There were eight members of the Senate pres- 
ent, and Charles Carroll of Carrollton was one of the 
four who voted in the affirmative. Charles Carroll, 
barrister, had received leave of absence some time 
previous. At the second reading of the bill for 
' ibid 

22 Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 

more effectually preventing forestalling and engros- 
sing, it was proposed that the fine incurred should 
be changed to " not exceeding £10,000," instead of 
simply "£10,000." The motion was negatived, 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton being one of the three 
Senators who voted in its favor.' 

A message from the House expressed dissent in 
warm terms from the amendment to the bill relating 
to the estates of deceased persons. " Your last amend- 
ment," it said, " is wholly inadmissible, and if the 
cries of the fatherless and widows cannot prevail on 
your Honors to recede from that amendment, we 
have no hopes that anything we can say will have 
that effect." The vote was taken again in the Sen- 
ate on this bill, with the same result, and Matthew 
Tilghman and Charles Carroll of Carrollton were ap- 
pointed to prepare a message to send to the House, 
in defence of their course. This message gave as 
the Senate's motive for not receding from their 
amendments, that otherwise "a power would be 
thereby given to the justices of the Orphans Court 
or to the Chancellor, of altering the last wills of de- 
ceased persons in many instances, a power as we 
conceive, too extensive and dangerous to be lodged 
in any man or body of men." The message con- 
tinues : 

" We cannot suggest the reasons which occasioned the 
unanimity of your House in rejecting the amendment in 
question ; they were no doubt forcible, and therefore we 
are not a little surprised that they have been withheld 
from us, for an appeal on this occasion to our under- 
' Ibid. 

Estates of Deceased Per softs. 2 3 

standings, had been full as proper as to our feelings, not 
that we are less susceptible to pity and compassion Own 
yourselves, or less desirous of drying up the true source 
of the tears of the fatherless and widows ; the proposed 
amendments affording equal relief, and doing stricter 
justice, than the clause as it stood in the bill, evince the 
truth of these assertions ; the reflection, therefore, 
obliquely cast upon us in your message of yesterday, of 
being regardless of the cries of widows and orphans, is 
not only injurious and impolite, but has a tendency to 
destroy that temper and mutual respect which are so ne- 
cessary to be preserved by public bodies, for the judicious 
and dispassionate transaction of the public business." ' 

The bill for the confiscation of British property 
was the next point at issue between the two Houses. 
A majority in the Senate, including Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton, were for referring it to the next ses- 
sion, alleging the severity of the weather, for it was 
now December, and the " prospect of danger to the 
Eastern Shore gentlemen of being shut out from 
their homes during the winter." But the House of 
Delegates, unmindful of such considerations, insist 
on passing the bill. Then Matthew Tilghman and 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the Senate's tried and 
chosen penmen, are deputed to prepare a message 
for the House, which is carried to them by Carroll. 
It is of considerable length, and contains this clever, 
slightly sarcastic paragraph : 

" Justice, policy and necessity, you say, influence your 
conduct. It not infrequently happens that different 

24 Charles Carroll of Carrolllon. 

ideas of justice, policy and necessity, are entertained by 
different bodies of men. We are not convinced of the 
justice of the bill, less of its policy, and least of all of its 
necessity. We have not had sufficient time to make 
those strict and full researches into the law of nations, 
which you say you have made." 

After stating why they dissent, the message ends : 
" The reasons we have now given in support of our 
conduct on this bill, in consequence of the informa- 
tion and reasoning you have offered to induce a 
reconsideration, will evince the propriety of sending 
it to you again in the same manner we first returned 
it." The House send back a reply twice as long as 
the Senate's rejoinder, in which they say : " The 
length and multiplicity of matter contained in your 
message of the 23rd, by Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
has required more time to consider it, than if your 
Honors had confined your observations and reason- 
ing to the true points in controversy." The Senate 
has the last word in the correspondence, however, 
in their reply to the House sent the same day, De- 
cember 30th, the last day of the session : 

" To your long message of this day, on the subject of 
confiscation, sent us at the moment almost when both 
Houses expected to rise, we presume you do not look for 
an answer. Decency, however, requires that we acknow- 
ledge the receipt, and that it has been read. Circum- 
stances do not allow us to say more than what in 
justice to ourselves we are constrained to say, that we 
remark some misrepresentation, and much fallacy of 
argument. It was our wish at first, and nothing now re- 
mains but to refer the subject to the consideration of 

The Confiscation Bill. 25 

another session, not because your reasoning is unanswer- 
able, but because the intention of both Houses to rise 
this evening, will not admit of such answer as might 
otherwise well be given." ' 

In a letter to Dr. Franklin written at this time, 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton speaks of his determina- 
tion to resist this act for the confiscation of British 
property. " Because," he says, " I think the measure 
impolitic, contrary to the present practice of civil- 
ized nations, and because it may involve us in diffi- 
culties about making peace, and will be productive 
of a certain loss, but of uncertain profit to this State, 
for as this business will be managed, it will be made 
a job of, and an opportunity given to engrossers and 
speculators to realize their ill-gotten money." En- 
tertaining these views of the impolicy of the Confis- 
cation Bill, Charles Carroll constantly opposed it, 
both at this and succeeding sessions of the Legis- 
lature. A member of the Maryland Senate, writing 
of the services of Thomas Stone as State Senator in 

" There was a severe trial of skill between the Senate 
and the House of Delegates, on the subject of confiscating 
British property. The Senate for several sessions unani- 
mously rejected bills passed by the House of Delegates 
for the purpose ; many, very long and tart were the mes- 
sages from one to the other body on this subject, the 
whole of which were, on the part of the Senate, the work 
of Mr. Stone and his close friend and equal in all re- 
spects, the venerable Charles Carroll of Carrollton." * 

' IbU. 

1 Scharf's " History of Maryland," vol. il., p. 236, Note. 

26 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

It was not until the spring session of 1780, however, 
that Thomas Stone appears as associated with 
Charles Carroll in this matter. 

To Dr. Franklin, also, Charles Carroll of Carrollton 
gives his reasons for leaving the Continental Con- 
gress. His retirement was regarded as a serious loss 
to the government, and was deplored by many of 
his friends. But to a number of Americans, at this 
time, a seat in the State Assemblies seemed more 
honorable and useful, than one in the Congress of 
the United States. Washington had observed this 
with grief and dismay, in connection with some of 
the eminent Virginians and others. J. Clement 
wrote to Richard Henry Lee, October 3d, 1779: 
" I am sorry to hear that the first great Actors 
in the great business in hand, have left their seats 
in Congress. It is a bad sign for the common cause. 
By a letter from Mr. Carroll, he too, I find, has re- 
tired. He has written to me a very sensible letter 
on the subject of the pamphlet entitled ' The Mode 
and Terms of an Accommodation, etc' His ideas 
in general concur with mine." 1 

The following is the letter to Dr. Franklin, in 
which Charles Carroll of Carrollton gives an account 
of the work doing in the Maryland Assembly, with 
other news of public interest. 

Annapolis, December sth, 1779, 
Dear Sir : 

The bearer, Mr. Thomas Ridout, brother of Mr. John 
Ridout of this city, with whom I believe you are ac- 
quainted, has solicited me to introduce him to you. As 
1 Lee Papers. Harvard College Library. 

Letter to Dr. Franklin. 2 7 

I know him to be a young gentleman of modesty, worth 
and good sense, I have taken that liberty. Any civilities 
it may be in your power to show him, I shall esteem as 
conferred on myself. He proposes to go to England 
from France, and talks of returning again to this country 
on a peace. He is not in the least acquainted with the 
following contents of this letter. 

Your obliging favor of the 2d of last June by the 
Chevalier de la Luzerne (the only letter of all those 
which you mention to have written that is come to hand) 
I received some time last August. I have not yet had 
the pleasure of seeing the new Minister, having resigned 
my seat in Congress this twelve month past. The situa- 
tion of my domestic concerns, and the little use I was of 
in that Assembly, induced me to leave it altogether. 
The great deal of important time which was idly wasted 
in frivolous debates, disgusted me so much that I thought 
I might spend mine much better than by remaining a 
silent hearer of such speeches as neither edified, enter- 
tained, or instructed me. Whether I shall be so fortunate 
as to entertain you while reading this letter, I know not ; 
instruct, I am sure, I cannot. However, as the subject 
on which I am going to write is interesting and important, 
perhaps the sentiments of an individual who has had 
some small share in our public councils, may not be 
altogether unacceptable. 

A Minister, I presume, is used to complaints and accu- 
sations ; but I am not going either to accuse or complain 
of any person, but to describe things as they are, or at 
least, as they appear to me. The state of our public 
credit first claims the attention of all good Americans. 
The depreciation of our bills of credit is such that they 
scarcely answer the purposes of money. The Congress 
has stopped the press ; this in my opinion should have 

28 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

been done much sooner, or not done at the time it was 
done. They have recommended heavy taxation, and 
have called on is States (Georgia is out of the question) 
for 15 millions of dollars monthly ; our proportion 
therefore, is 1,580,000. Our Assembly which is now sit- 
ting will, I believe assess 9 millions of dollars to be 
raised in 9 months ; the residue is proposed to be raised 
from the sale of British property, for the confiscation of 
which a bill will be brought in this session. Whether it 
will pass or not, I can't say ; it shall not with my vote, 
because I think the measure impolitic, contrary to the 
present practice of civilized nations, and because it may 
involve us in difficulties about making peace, and will 
be productive of a certain loss, but of uncertain profit 
*to this State, for as this business will be managed, it will 
be made a job of, and an opportunity given to engrossers 
and speculators to realize their ill-gotten money. The 
following particulars will give you some idea of the 
depreciation of our currency. Gold sells, or lately sold 
in Philadelphia at 40 for one. A gentleman of this 
place and my acquaintance told me he had refused 
^5000 for a bill of exchange of £, 100 sterling at 30 days 
sight on London, and would not part with his bill for 
less than ^5600. Congress has advised our Assembly 
that they propose drawing bills of Exchange at six 
months sight on Messrs. Jay at Madrid, and Laurens, 
who is going to Holland, to the amount of ,£200,000 
sterling ; that is for £100,000 sterling on each of those 
gentlemen. At what exchange these bills will be dis- 
posed of I can't pretend to ascertain ; I have heard 25 
for one mentioned, but surely a better exchange will be 
obtained, or else the public will soon be ruined by a few 
such strokes of finance. 
Wheat sells at £ao per bushel and the rise of the mar- 

Depreciation of the Currency. 29 

ket ; Hyson tea at ^100 per pound, Indian corn at ^40 
per barrel, and Tobacco at £40 odd pounds per Ct. ; 
as to European merchandise, it is impossible to ascertain 
its value or price ; indeed everything is rising, so that 
wheat sells to-day at ^20 for instance, may sell ten days 
hence for ^40. To check this evil, Congress has recom- 
mended to the several States a general regulation of 
prices on all articles, domestic and foreign, save warlike 
stores and salt. The regulation, according to the recom- 
mendation, is to take effect the first of next February, 
and the standard fixed by Congress is twenty prices on 
all prices in 1774. If wheat, for instance, in that year 
sold for 7/6 per bushel, it may be sold on the rst of next 
February for £t, 10, o. 

Whether the several Legislatures will adopt this regu- 
lation I know not ; ours, I believe will, conditionally, 
that is if other States should. My own opinion is, that 
it will be extremely difficult to carry such a regulation 
into practice, and if it should be attempted, I fear, will 
be productive of more evil than good. Every regulation 
of price is an acknowledgment that the price allowed is 
not equal to the value of the commodity on which it is 
fixed, and consequently destructive of that freedom in 
dealing which is the life and soul of trade ; besides the 
regulation if adopted as recommended by Congress, will 
be retrospective, and of course ruinous to a great num- 
ber of people who have purchased country produce or 
merchandise at the present prices, either to sell again or 
for their own consumption. What you have read may 
properly be called a Chapter of Lamentations ; now for 
a little comfort. 

We have a good, though not a numerous army, about 
20,000 fine hardy fellows, as tough as the knots of an old 
seasoned oak, well disciplined, well-armed, and pretty 

30 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

well clothed, commanded by a man whom they rever- 
ence and love. This army is strong enough to repress 
the enemy's inroads, but not to force them in their strong- 
hold, New York ; it might be easily reinforced in the 
spring, if we had good money, but wanting that sinew of 
war, we may be compared to a vigorous young man, 
bound hands and feet, struggling in vain to get loose. 
I flattered myself some months ago that ten or twelve 
ships of the line from France, with ten thousand land 
forces, would have joined this fall Count d* Estaing's 
fleet off New York. Had such an expedition taken 
place there is the greater reason to believe the enemy's 
army must have surrendered prisoners of war ; such an 
event must have put an end to it, and have produced 
peace of which we stand so much in need. If this win- 
ter should not bring about that desirable event, cannot 
such an expedition be taken early next summer? Eng- 
land may be amused, and Ireland threatened with an 
invasion early in the spring, and under that feint 15 
ships of the line with a suitable number of frigates and 
transports, carrying between ten and twelve thousand 
Troops may sail the latter end of February or the begin- 
ning of March from Brest or Ferol. When these troops 
in conjunction with ours have reduced the British forces 
at New York, they may proceed to the West Indies and 
lake the remaining British Islands. No plan of opera- 
tions promises fairer success ; the invasion of England 
or Ireland would be attended with incomparable greater 
difficulties and peril. If an impression should be made 
on either of those Islands the rest of Europe may take 
the alarm ; but I should apprehend the independence of 
these States cannot give umbrage or offence to any other 
European Power besides England. If such an expedi- 
tion as I propose should be thought of seriously, it will 

Naval Expedition Suggested. 3 1 

be necessary to despatch a frigate very early in Febru- 
ary, 0/ sooner, to notify General Washington thereof in 
time, that he might be fully prepared to act immediately 
with the fleet on its arrival before New York ; the 
French and Spanish squadrons in the West Indies should 
be ordered to meet the fleet from Europe off New York. 

I hope, my dear Sir, you will excuse the freedom I 
have taken in mentioning what, in my opinion, will be 
the most likely method of bringing this war to a speedy 
issue ; be persuaded peace is of the utmost importance 
to us. 

I am, with the greatest regard and respect, Dear Sir, 
Your most obedient, humble servant, 

Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. 

P. S. — The crops of wheat have been very short, and 
much of the wheat destroyed by the fly ; a good deal has 
been exported in flour to the French Islands. It would 
therefore be proper and prudent for the fleet to bring 
flour enough to feed the land and sea forces till next har- 
vest comes in. A battering train of brass ordnance with 
all its apparatus, and six thousand stand of small arms to 
arm our militia will also be necessary ; the arms will be 
returned to the French General when the expedition is 
over. 1 

From his old friend Edmund Jennings, with whom 
he still kept up a correspondence, Charles Carroll 
received an interesting letter in September, 1780, 
introducing Arthur Lee of Virginia, on the latter's 
return from Europe: 
My Dear Sir : 

I have received your very kind favor of the list Sep- 
tember conveyed to me by the care of my friend Mr. 
1 Sparks MSS:. Harvard College Library. 

32 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

Ridley, but that which you inform me you wrote three 
weeks before, has not come to hand. I am much obliged 
to you for the attention you paid to those Books I took 
the liberty of sending to you ; but my dear friend, let 
me beg you to read them over again, and I trust you will 
then feel the necessity of banishing as far as possible 
those banes of public and private virtue Avarice and 
Ambition. This is the object of all that the Abbl Mably 
has said. He is too wise a man to think it possible, or 
even to wish to introduce the particular Institutions of 
antient States, as applicable or receivable, in the systems 
of the present world. But although he would not adopt 
the Latter, he is desirous of introducing the principles 
of Legislators who succeeded in their plans, as far as 
the wisdom of men could succeed in their's or at any 
other time. Tell me not, my dear friend, that if his only 
object was to show the mischief of Avarice and Ambi- 
tion, that he has taken up a great deal of time to prove 
what everybody has been long convinced of. I wish 
they were so, but I have Books most plausibly written, 
and general Education I know, serves to recommend the 
one and justify the other. They teach men, and the in- 
struction has been but too well attended to, to pursue 
the petty Passions cost what it may to the public happi- 
ness, and to heap up riches, the luxurious expenditure of 
which necessarily corrupts public virtue. If I should 
trace the present unjust system of Great Britain, I should 
prove that these vile passions are at the bottom of it, and 
perhaps should you reflect, and I know you do it with 
much concern, on the present temper of our Country, 
you would see the disorders that have arisen, greatly 
owing to their predominancy. 

I could write a volume, and perhaps shall on some 
future opportunity trouble you at least with a long letter, 

Letter of Edmund yennings. 


to explain fully my ideas on this matter. But I must 
now pursue what I had in view in addressing myself to 
you at this time. It was, Sir, to recommend to your 
particular confidence and friendship, the Honble Arthur 
Lee Esq., the Gentleman who will present this to you, of 
whose knowledge of the Affairs and attachment to the 
interests of our Country, you are well convinced, I 
know not anyone who can give you better information 
of the state of Europe at this juncture, and who will do 
it with more sincerity, for no one can wish, nor has en- 
deavored more to promote the public happiness and 
liberty. I should have ventured to have entered into the 
detail myself, if I were not well assured he is able and 
willing to give you the utmost insight into things on this 
side the water, for he has had the best opportunities of 
knowing, and has the best abilities to judge of public 
transactions. I am convinced you will attend to him 
for his and for your own sake, and what is more, I will 
venture to say to you, as I could to him, for the sake of 
our Country. 

I am, dear Sir, most faithfully etc., 

[Edmund Jennings]. 
September aSili, 1780.' 

1 Lee Papers, Harvard College Library. 


I 780-1783. 


THE second session of the Maryland Assembly 
for 1779-80, met on the 28th of March, 1780, 
and Charles Carroll of Carrollton was promptly in 
his seat. On the 31st the ballot was taken for the 
vacancies to be filled in the delegation to Congress, 
and the House and the Senate differed on a question 
of eligibility. The House maintained that those 
gentlemen who had been balloted out at the last 
session of the Assembly, could not be put in nomina- 
tion again, as had been done by the Senate, and 
upon apprising the latter body of their vote on the 
subject, the Upper House responded in curt and 
dignified language : " Gentlemen, the Resolves or 
votes of your House cannot be admitted as any rule 
for the proceeding in this. We are of opinion that 
the gentlemen proposed by us are eligible to Con- 
gress by our Constitution." 

A few days later Charles Carroll was placed on a 
committee, with Thomas Stone and three others, to 
report on the resolve of Congress recommending to 

Bill Drafted by Carroll. 3 5 

the several States to revise their laws " making Con- 
tinental notes a legal tender in discharge of debts 
and contracts, and to amend the same in such manner 
as they shall judge most conducive to justice in the 
present state of paper currency." ' The bill for re- 
cruiting the quota of Maryland's troops in the Conti- 
nental army was sent to the House of Delegates by 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, and was probably drawn 
up by him. The House returned a conciliatory 
message to the Senate, April 6th, in respect to their 
difference of opinion on the subject of the candidates 
to Congress, and a conference was agreed upon. 
The Senate conferrees appointed were Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton, Thomas Stone and Brice Thomas 
Beale Worthington, and the result of their discussion 
with the conferrees of the House was a tribute to 
their powers of persuasion, as the House now adopted 
the Senate's view: 

On the vexed question of the Confiscation Bill, 
however, there was, as yet, no prospect of agreement. 
The House of Delegates sent a message to the Sen- 
ate, April 1 2th, in regard to the requisitions of Con- 
gress, saying they had been considered, and the 
Delegates had "determined to exert their utmost 
endeavours to furnish supplies of provisions in 
kind," and " to adopt and carry into execution as 
far as possible, the advice and plan of Congress rela- 
tive to their bills of credit," These two subjects the 
House considered, involved the greater part of the 
material business of the session. But, they urged, 
"our affairs are brought to an alarming crisis," and 
1 Journal of the Maryland Senate. 

36 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

they insisted that in order to establish funds to 
afford redemption of the new bills of credit, they 
must appropriate to the State the property of the 
Tories : "With the application of British property," 
the message continues, " we are of opinion, this State 
can comply, in substance, with the two requisitions 
of Congress, and without the aid of that property we 
really fear it will be impracticable, if not impossible. 
The important and necessary business of the session 
therefore waits your honours decision on the bill for 
confiscation." ' 

Charles Carroll carried the reply of the Senate to 
the House, telling the latter that the thinness of 
their numbers had induced them to postpone the 
consideration of the bill, and suggesting that it be 
made the order of the day for Friday, the 14th. 
When it was taken up at the date specified, the 
President of the Senate, Daniel of St. Thomas 
Jenifer as having held the office of agent to the 
Proprietary wished to be excused from voting, but 
his request was denied. So also Robert Goldsbor- 
ough who owned considerable property in England, 
asked the same privilege, but it was refused him. 
The opponents of the bill succeeded in preventing 
its passage, and it was returned to the House the 
following day. Robert Goldsborough, Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton and Thomas Stone were appointed 
a committee at this time, to prepare a bill entitled 
" An Act for the security of this State and the sub- 
jects thereof, and for other purposes." 

A long message was received from the House, 

1 -JHd. 

The Two Houses Disagree, 37 

May 5th, on the subject of the Confiscation Bill, de- 
claring that its rejection by the Senate involved 
them in very great difficulties. The bill for bring- 
ing into the treasury the sum of twenty million, five 
hundred and forty thousand dollars, and sinking the 
same, was sent to the Senate, read by them, and re- 
turned to the House, with a message objecting to 
two clauses, as unconstitutionally connected with 
the bill. That same day, May 6th, the bill came 
back to the Senate, with some caustic words from 
the affronted gentlemen with whom it had originated, 
to the effect that their "honours " message, in the 
House's opinion was " irregular." It was " contrary 
to the practise of either House to return a bill on 
the first reading," they stated, " and repugnant to the 
twenty-second Article of our form of government, 
which declares that the Senate can only give their as- 
sent or dissent to money bills." They furthermore 
considered the two clauses objected to as " pertinent 
and necessarily connected " with the bill. The follow- 
ing day the bill in dispute was carried again to the 
House, the Senate declaring that the eleventh article 
of the Constitution was rendered nugatory if these 
clauses -were attached to it. They say : 

" If the bill was nothing more than a money bill, we 
should be obliged to assent or dissent to the whole by 
the 22nd Article, and could not propose amendments ; 
but certainly when matters are grafted on such a bill 
which can stand independent of it, we have a right to 
desire that such matters may be separated, and that 
without giving the bill a negative." ' 
' Ibid. 

38 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

The House still determined to carry their point, 
sent back the bill the next morning, and two days 
later, on the 10th, the Senate " unanimously re- 
jected" it, returning it with a long message setting 
forth the reasons (or their action. A conference 
was then proposed, the Senate appointing for this 
purpose Charles Carroll of CarroUton, Matthew 
Tilghman, Thomas Stone and Brice T. B. Worth- 
ington. The joint committee met on the 12th, and 
conferred on the matters involved, the tender law 
and the project of making new Continental bills 
legal tender, reporting the propositions agreed upon. 
Five pages of the Senate's printed journal is filled 
up with their message to the House on the Confis- 
cation Bill, the composition, as were all the Senate's 
messages on this point, of Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton and Thomas Stone. And a bill from the House 
for sinking Maryland's quota of the bills of credit 
emitted by Congress, was unanimously rejected by 
the Senate, and returned with a long message, 
probably written by Charles Carroll. The Senate 
bill, "Act to prevent suits being brought or con- 
tinued by any person or persons residing in the 
British dominions," was in its turn rejected by the 
House. They replied at the same time to the Sen- 
ate's "long message of the 14th," and expressed 
themselves " deeply affected " by the Senate's nega- 
tive to their bill for sinking the quota of the State. 
"We return with anxiety to our homes," they add. 
The Senate rejoined with a farewell message, and 
thus at odds, the two branches of the Assembly 
adjourned, to meet again early in June.' 
1 IHd. 

Joint Committees Confer. 39 

At the extra session in June, resolutions were 
passed by the Assembly asking of Congress arms 
(or the State, four brass pieces, also a Continental 
frigate to be stationed where it could protect the 
trade of Maryland and Virginia through the capes 
of Chesapeake Bay. An act was passed also, au- 
thorizing the commissioners who were to obtain a 
supply of flour and other provisions for the army, 
to hire or impress vessels or carriages for these pur- 
poses. Letters from the Commander-in-Chief and 
committee of co-operation were transmitted by the 
Governor to the Assembly, and a conference took 
place between the two Houses on the subject of 
these communications. The conferrees appointed by 
the Senate were Matthew Tilghman, Charles Carrol! 
of Carroilton, Thomas Stone, Brice T. B. Worthing- 
ton and William Hemsley. 

An act was passed on the 20th, for the speedy 
enrolment of the militia ; and a memorial was read 
the next day from the merchants of Baltimore, pray- 
ing that no duties should be laid on articles of trade. 
On the 26th, the "Act for sinking the quota re- 
quired by Congress of this State of the bills of credit 
emitted by Congress," was passed, eight Senators 
voting in the affirmative and but one in the nega- 
tive, nine being the whole number present. This 
single negative vote was given by Charles Carroll of 
Carroilton, the only Senator who remained firm to 
the convictions expressed by the majority at the 
previous session. Charles Carroll of Carroilton 
brought in, July 1st, an act laying a general embargo, 
prohibiting for a limited period, the exportation of 
wheat, flour and other articles. 


40 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

The House of Delegates at this time sent up a 
bill for recruiting the State battalions, to which the 
Senate added a page and more of amendments. 
And it was proposed in a message from the House 
that an adjournment should take place the next 
day, July 3d, as " the approach of harvest " made it 
necessary they should return to their homes. A 
compromise was finally reached on the recruiting 
bill, July 4th. On the following day, Charles Car- 
roll carried a message from the Senate to the House, 
giving it as their opinion that an address by the 
Assembly "to our fellow citizens will in the present 
state of affairs have a good effect." And the bill 
was passed for raising an additional battalion of 
regulars. The patriotic address to the inhabitants 
of Maryland was prepared in the Senate by Charles 
Carroll and others, and sent to the House by Mr. 
Worthington. It was resolved that fifty copies be 
printed for each county and forwarded " to the re- 
spective lieutenants," and that it be published for 
two successive weeks in the Annapolis and Balti- 
more gazettes. 1 With the proclamation of this 
manifesto the Assembly adjourned. The " Address 
to the People of Maryland " closed with these elo- 
quent and stirring words: 

" The prize we are contending for is inestimable ; the 
blood of those heroes which has been shed in this just and 
glorious cause, the inviolable ties of plighted faith, the 
necessity of conquering, gratitude to our illustrious Gen- 
eral, and to the brave men under his command, all con- 
spiring, call aloud for our redoubled efforts .... 
1 Ibid. 

Patriotic Address Issued. 41 

The fall of Charleston, and the distress of our brave friends 
in that quarter, have infused fresh vigour into the coun- 
cils of America ; let us, like the Romans of old, draw new 
resources and an increase of courage even from defeats, 
and manifest to the world, that we are then most to be 
dreaded when most depressed." ' 

When the day came for the meeting of the new 
Assembly, October 17, 1780, the only members of 
the Senate present were the two friends Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton and Thomas Stone. By No- 
vember 2d eight Senators had collected, making 
a quorum, and the session opened. Since the meet- 
ing of the Assembly in June the alliance with France 
had been consummated, and the Maryland legislators 
showed their appreciation of the brighter aspect of 
public affairs, by their resolve that the Governor 
be asked to appoint a day of thanksgiving and prayer. 
Thomas Sim Lee was elected Governor of Mary- 
land a second time, and Matthew Tilghman and 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton were appointed by the 
Senatea committee to request the attendance of the 
House to see the Governor qualified. Charles Carroll 
had leave of absence granted him on the 15th, and 
he seems to have been away from the Assembly for 
twelve days, his name first appearing again in the 
Senate journal, November 27th. In the mean- 
time, on the 17th, the election of members of Con- 
gress had taken place and Charles Carroll had been 
one of the delegates appointed. 

A committee was named on the 29th of Novem- 
ber, to prepare, in conjunction with a House com- 
' Maryland Journal ki&. Baltimort Advertistr, Joly n, 17B0. 

42 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

mittee, a draft of instructions to the Maryland 
delegates in Congress on the subject of Confederation. 
The three Senators chosen were Matthew Tilghman, 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, and Thomas Stone. 
The Confiscation Act came up again December 5th, 
but the motion to give the bill a second reading at 
that time was quickly negatived, only two members 
voting for it. A petition from the trustees of the poor 
in Frederick County, on the subject of the prisoners 
quartered there, was referred to a joint committee 
of both Houses, the conferrees from the Senate being 
the same three members named above, with one 
other in addition. They reported that Frederick 
Town in Frederick County was the only place in 
the State where the convention troops could be 
accommodated, and they proposed that application 
be made to Virginia to supply fresh provisions for 

An important joint committee, of which the Sen- 
ate members were Matthew Tilghman, Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton, and Thomas Stone, was appointed 
about this time, to write a letter to the Assemblies 
of Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia, to secure 
concerted action on the two subjects of the embargo 
on provisions and the "calling in the Continental 
and State emissions." ' On the 20th of December, 
the Senate sent to the House a message on the 
subject of the Confiscation Act, saying that the 
consideration of it had been interrupted by other 
important business, and they were now anxious to 
settle the matter, and therefore proposed a joint con- 

1 journal of the Maryland Senate. 

Stack in the Bank of England. 43 

ference, nominating as the Senate conferrees, Mat- 
thew Tilghman, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Brice 
T. B. Worthington, and John Henry. Thomas John- 
son and Samuel Chase were among the seven con- 
ferrees selected by the House of Delegates. 

Christmas Day, which fell on Monday in 1780, 
the Senate met, but nothing was done. Charles 
Carroll had leave of absence for the week, and most 
of the members were apparently observing the 
holidays, for it was not until Saturday, the 30th, that 
any business was transacted. A letter from Benja- 
min Franklin had been communicated by the Gov- 
ernor, enclosing the protest on the bills drawn by 
the State on the Bank of England, with the opinion 
of counsel on the subject. Maryland had, some 
years before the Revolution, invested twenty-seven 
thousand pounds in stock of the Bank of England, 
and it was the action of the trustees of the bank 
in uniformly protesting the bills of credit drawn 
upon it by the Maryland Legislature, for the 
dividends accruing since the commencement of 
hostilities, that was one of the reasons urged for 
the confiscation of British property in Maryland. 

No doubt this stand taken by the Bank of Eng- 
land had its effect at this time in weakening Charles 
Carroll's opposition to the Confiscation Act. He 
sent in a letter to the Senate on the 3d of January, 
resigning the seat in Congress to which he had been 
newly elected. While doubtless appreciating the 
compliment, Charles Carroll had fully decided not 
to return to Congress. Acts were passed by the 
Senate for emitting bills of credit, to raise supplies 

44 Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 

for the year, and for the defence of the Bay. The 
bill prohibiting the export of grain continued the 
embargo until the following August. The " Act 
to empower the delegates of Maryland in Congress 
to subscribe and ratify the Articles of Confedera- 
tion," was read on the 28th of January and put to 
the vote, but was defeated. Among those who 
voted for it were Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
John Henry, and Thomas Stone. 

On the following day, the Confiscation Act passed 
to its second reading, and a vote was taken, and 
decided in the affirmative, on the clause that debts 
due to Osgood Hanbury and Sylvanus Grove, to 
the amount of two-thirds of the bank stock belong- 
ing to Maryland, be taken and confiscated, and 
applied to satisfy debts due from them, and debts 
due from James Russell. The single vote against 
the measure was that of Col. Richard Barnes of 
" Tudor Hall," St. Mary's County. A message was 
received from the House expressing their " earnest 
desire" that Maryland "should confederate," and 
objecting that the Senate had given no reasons for 
declining to pass the act empowering the State to 
ratify the Articles of Confederation. The Senate 
reconsidered this bill and passed it on the 30th, and 
it was carried to the House by Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton with a message referring to the reasons 
which had influenced the State in delaying the 
ratification for so long a period. The motive ap- 
pears in the following paragraph: "It has been 
generally supposed, and in our opinion upon good 
grounds, that the claim of this State [P] to a pro- 

Tke Confiscation Act. 45 

port ionate part of the western country can be better 
supported under the present form of union, than 
that of the Confederation." ' 

In regard to the Confiscation Act, the House and 
Senate were still not in harmony, and amendments 
made by the Senate did not receive the entire 
approval of the House. The Senate stood out for 
their views, agreeing only to waive the amendment 
respecting debts due to Messrs. Hanbury and Grove. 
The House returned the bill to the Senate, hoping 
that a future session would effect an agreement on 
the points of difference, and the Senate, adopting 
some of the clauses proposed by the House, "agree 
to refer the consideration of indemnification of 
sufferers to a future session," when they trusted that 
"the present subjects of dispute may be settled to 
the general satisfaction." Charles Carroll of Car- 
rollton carried the bill and the accompanying mes- 
sage to the House of Delegates. In case the State 
should be invaded, as seemed probable, at this time, 
it was provided that the Governor should appoint 
a place for the next meeting of the Assembly. The 
" Instructions " to the Maryland delegates in 
Congress were sent from the House to the Senate, 
the 2d of February. They declare the motives 
inducing Maryland to accede to the Confederation. 
One of these was "the want of a permanent indis- 
soluble union," yet the one they were now enter- 
ing was to demonstrate a few years later the fallacy 
and unreasonableness of such expectations. Mary- 
land here reiterated her " objection " to the " exclus- 
1 ibid. 

46 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

ive claim of some of the States to the western 
territory as unjust, and injurious to the general 
welfare," and she expressed her willingness — a grave 
mistake — to give up to Spain the "exclusive navi- 
gation of the Mississippi." ' 

The second session of the Assembly of 1780-1781 
was to have met the 10th of May, but Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton and three other gentlemen were 
the only members of the Senate present on that day, 
and a quorum was not obtained until the 29th. Let- 
ters were then read from Lafayette, and from the 
President of Congress. Lord Cornwallis was in Vir- 
ginia, and Lafayette was following him up at this 
time. The Maryland Assembly was busying itself 
to supply clothes for the Southern army, and the 
delegates in Congress were instructed to apply for 
five hundred stand of arms for the Continental 
troops raised in Maryland. 

A conference took place between a committee se- 
lected from each House, on the subject of the sus- 
pected persons confined in prison since the last 
meeting of the Assembly, a list of whom had been 
sent them by the Governor. The Senate conferrees 
were Charles Carroll, barrister, Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton, Thomas Stone, and John Henry. Mat- 
thew Tilghman was added later. A plan proposed 
by the House for the " establishment of a new paper 
currency," the emitting two thousand pounds in bills 
of credit, etc., in which there was to be a form of 
subscription and a form of association, as given be- 
low, was not altogether approved of by the Senate : 
t itid. 

The Co?ifiscation Act Amended. 47 

" We promise to become subscribers of the sums 
affixed to our names, on the scheme for an emission 
etc.," and " we engage on our honor to receive at 
par, from subscribers or associators, the bills of 
credit of the new proposed emission, rating silver 
dollars at seven shillings and sixpence, etc." The 
Senate dissented to the " Association " proposed, 
and the House agreed to separate the form of asso- 
ciation from that of the subscription. 

The bill as amended, " Act for the emission of 
bills of credit, not exceeding two hundred thousand 
pounds, on the security of double the value in lands 
to defray the expenses of the present campaign," 
was passed June 23d and sent to the House by 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton. Other bills going into 
effect at this time were, one for raising two bat- 
talions of militia, and one to encourage the destroy- 
ing of wolves, these beasts of prey still infesting the 
more unsettled portions of the State. Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton probably drew up the bills passed 
June 26th, the day before the Assembly adjourned, 
for abrogating and abolishing the forty-fifth Article 
of the Constitution, and abolishing part of the thirty- 
seventh Article, as he brought them in, and was ap- 
pointed to carry them to the House of Delegates. 1 
The forty-fifth Article provided " that no field offi- 
cer of the militia shall be eligible as a Senator, Dele- 
gate or member of the Council," and the closing 
paragraph of the thirty-seventh Article contained a 
similar restriction. 

According to his usual punctual habits, Charles 
' ibid. 

48 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

Carroll was in his seat in the Senate, Monday, No- 
vember 5th, 1781, the day appointed for the Assem- 
bly to meet. But it was not until the 17th that 
there were a sufficient number of Senators present 
to organize for the session. General Washington 
was expected in Annapolis at this time, and the As- 
sembly wished to present him with a vote of thanks 
for the recent victory at Yorktown. A joint com- 
mittee was appointed to prepare the resolutions, and 
the members selected from the Senate were Mat- 
thew Tilghman, Thomas Stone, and Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton, the trio of this body's best writers. 
Charles Carroll, barrister, of the Senate, and Gen. 
John Cadwalader and Col. William Fitzhugh of the 
House of Delegates, were appointed by the Assem- 
bly to present the vote of thanks. And Barrister 
Carroll brought back to the Senate Washington's 
address in reply. 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton had leave of absence, 
as the journal records, from Thursday the 13th of 
December until the following Monday, but he was 
promptly in his place again on the 17th. Little was 
done in the Senate, however, from this time until 
after the Christmas holidays. On the 31st, the 
" Act to prevent the exportation of bread and flour 
not merchantable, and for other purposes," was 
passed, and sent to the House by Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton, who also carried sundry letters from Rob- 
ert Morris the superintendent of finance. The sup- 
ply bill and other acts were signed by the Governor 
on the 8th of January ; and on the 18th a conference 
was proposed to settle the question of certain amend- 

The Recruiting Bill. 49 

merits to the bill for appropriating lands for the use 
of the Maryland officers and soldiers, and for the 
sale of vacant lands. The Senate conierrees were 
Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, and 
John Smith, and Charles Carroll brought in their 
report to the Senate the next day. 

Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, and 
James McHenry were appointed, on the 2lst, con- 
ferrees to meet a committee of the House, on the 
subject of the bill for appointing an intendant of the 
revenue. The act to raise recruits was passed on 
the 23d of January, and sent to the House of Dele- 
gates by Charles Carroll of Carollton, the Assembly 
adjourning on this day. 1 A motion was made on the 
second reading of the recruiting bill that the clause 
applying the property of Lloyd Dulany, in part for 
that purpose, be struck out, but it was defeated, 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton voting with the ma- 
jority. The friends of the old student days, who 
had drunk together from the silver punch bowl asso- 
ciated with the Peggy Stewart in 1774, were now 
widely asunder, the Dulanys having most of them 
taken the Tory side during the Revolution. 

At the spring session of the Assembly, in 1782, 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton was present on April 
25th, the day appointed, but there was only one 
other Senator equally punctual. This was Edward 
Lloyd of " Wye House " in Talbot County. These 
gentlemen were joined by George Plater of " Sot- 
terly " and Col. Richard Barnes, both of St. Mary's 
County, on the ist of May, but it was not until the 

1 Journal of the Maryland Senate. 

50 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

ioth that the Senate was organized. A message 
was sent to them from the House of Delegates on 
the 13th, regarding the measures to be adopted to 
defend such of the inhabitants as were exposed to 
plunder by the enemy's barges, the negotiations re- 
specting the land office and the sale of vacant lands, 
with other matters, and a joint conference was pro- 
posed to settle these subjects. Five conferrees were 
appointed by the Senate, Thomas Stone, Robert 
Goldsborough, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, John 
Henry, and Richard Barnes. 

It was at this time that Sir Guy Carleton was 
commissioned to endeavor to conclude a peace, or a 
truce, with the United States, independently of 
France, but the dignity of the newly erected sov- 
ereignties was insulted by the appellation applied to 
them of " revolted colonies." And they rightly 
scorned the invitation to desert their French allies. 
The House of Delegates sent to the Senate the fol- 
lowing spirited Resolutions on the subject, which 
received the ready assent of that body, and went 
forth to the world as the declaration of the Maryland 

"Resolved unanimously, that it is the opinion of this 
House that peace with Great Britain and all the world, is 
an object truly desirable, but that war with all its calami- 
ties is to be preferred to national dishonor, and that it is 
the sentiment of this House, that any negotiation for 
peace or truce not agreeable to the alliance with France, 
is inadmissible, that every danger ought to be encoun- 
tered, every event hazarded, rather than sully our national 
character, or violate in the least degree our connection 


Maryland's Spirited Resolves. 51 

with our great and good ally, and that good faith, grati- 
tude and safety forbid any treaty for peace or truce with 
Great Britain, but in conjunction with France or with 
her consent first obtained. 

Resolved unanimously, that this House will exert the 
power of the State to enable Congress to prosecute the 
war until Great Britain renounce all claim of sovereignty 
over the United States or any part thereof, and until 
their Independance be formally or tacitly assured by a 
treaty with Great Britain, France and the United States 
which shall terminate the war." ' 

The report of the joint committee appointed May 
13th, was made the basis of a bill for the protection 
of the Bay trade. It was proposed to equip four 
barges and one galley, and the £2cxx> needed for this 
purpose was to be obtained from the sale of confis- 
cated British property. A letter was to be written 
to the commander of the French marine at York- 
town, asking for a galley, or other vessel, to co-operate 
with the barges. Concerted action with Virginia was 
considered highly desirable, and "a gentleman of 
character and knowledge " was to be sent from the 
Maryland Assembly to conferwith the Assembly and 
Executive of the Old Dominion. Each of the four 
barges was to have two pieces of cannon. And in 
conjunction with Virginia and with the aid of the 
French, a magazine was to be established at York- 
town and a hospital erected for the sick and wounded. 
In their letter to the French commander the Assem- 
bly say : 

5 2 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

" The protection and security which this enterprise will 
give to a very great number of our inhabitants who are kept 
in perpetual alarms and apprehensions, not only for the 
safety of their property, but of their persons (being liable 
to be seized at all hours of the night and carried off into 
captivity or barbarously murdered) will we' are satisfied 
be a sufficient inducement with you to afford us all the 
assistance in your power to accomplish the destruction of 
these free Hooters, for they scarcely deserve the dignified 
appellation of enemy.'" 

Robert Hanson Harrison was appointed the Com- 
missioner to Virginia, with instructions from the 
Assembly, expressing the earnest desire of Maryland 
to preserve and improve a strict union between the 
two governments founded on their " mutual interest 
and affection." It was to be represented and urged 
that the public councils of the two States ought to 
harmonize, " and that a frequent communication of 
sentiments and reciprocation of good offices would 
greatly tend to cement the friendship which ought to 
be inviolably preserved between the two Republics 
and their citizens." The Commissioner was to re- 
quest the Legislature of the sister State to direct 
their laws to be transmitted from time to time to the 
Maryland Executive, and to inform Virginia that the 
acts of Maryland would be duly communicated to 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton's name appears last 
in the journal of this session on the afternoon of 
May 22d. The ayes and noes were not taken again 
' Ibid. 

Letter to Governor Thomas Sim Lee. 53 

until June 3d, so sometime between these two dates 
he must have left the Assembly, probably on the 
30th of May, the day of his father's sudden death, 
an affliction which was to be followed eleven days 
later by the loss of his wife. 

The first sorrow which was to come to the states- 
man's home in these years was the death, in August, 
1781, of Mrs. Henry Daraall, his wife's mother and 
his own first cousin. Of this sad event he writes at 
the time to his friend Gov. Thomas Sim Lee, ac- 
knowledging a letter from the latter, and giving 
some account of Mrs. DarnaH's funeral, which took 
place at " Doughoregan Manor." The grand- 
daughter of Thomas Sim Lee was to many the 
grandson of Charles Carroll of Carroll ton, and to 
become the mother of a more recent Maryland 
Governor, John Lee Carroll. 

August 26th, 1781, DOOHBRAGEN. 

Dear Sir : 

I am extremely obliged to you for your favor of the 
34th and its enclosure. I hope the inflamation in your 
eyes is gone off, and that you enjoy perfect health. 

I am really quite out of spirits. We have just per- 
formed the last melancholy office to the remains of poor 
Mrs. Darnall, who died at Rock Creek the 24th, in the 
morning. Yesterday I went thither to attend the corpse 
to this place. She was buried in our chapel this morn- 
ing. The funeral service was performed by the Rev. J. 
Carroll who came up with me. This melancholy inci- 
dent has thrown a great damp on all our spirits, but par- 
ticularly on those of Mrs. Carroll. 

54 Charles Carroll of Carrolllon. 

We beg to be kindly remembered to you and Mrs. Lee. 
Believe me to be with great regard and sincerity, 
Your most obedient humble servant, 

Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. 1 

Mrs. Darnall, his daughter-in-law's mother, is 
named as a legatee in the will of Charles Carroll, 
Sr., which was drawn up in 1780, and she is men- 
tioned as his " cousin " and his " wife's niece." We 
see that she had lived in the Carroll family for many 
years, covering the period of the elder Mrs. Carroll's 
illness and death. Charles Carroll writes in his last 
testament, that Mrs. Rachel Darnall "always be- 
haved very dutifully to my late wife, her aunt, and 
in her last sickness was very tender of her and 
tended her with the greatest care and affection, 
and has by a long residence with me merited my 
esteem and affection," ' 

In 1780 was born the youngest of the seven chil- 
dren of Charles Carroll of Carrollton and Mary 
Darnall. This was the little Eliza whose short life 
closed three years later. The other children were 
an earlier Elizabeth, born in 1769, who died in in- 
fancy; Mary, born in 1770; Louisa Rachel, born 
in 1772, who died young; Charles, the only son, 
born in 1775; Ann Brooke, born in 1776, who also 
died in childhood, and Catherine, who was born in 
1778. But while the public life of the patriot and 
lawmaker is spread before us in the annals of the 
time, we obtain only occasional glimpses of the 

1 Family papers, Dr. Charles Carroll Lee. 
' Appendix C. 

diaries Carroll's Home Circle. 55 

happy domestic circle which had gathered around 
him. In June, 1776, we find the Rev. John Carroll 
writing to his cousin Charles Carroll, Sr., and send- 
ing his " love to Polley," Mary Carroll, then six 
years old, and, with the stateliness of old-fashioned 
courtesy, tendering his "respectful compliments" 
to the child's mother and grandmother. So Mon- 
sieur Pliarne, Mr. Carroll's amusing French corre- 
spondent, in October, 1777, remembers Mrs. Carroll 
and Mrs. Darnall with " compliments," and writes : 
" I kiss a thousand times Mollie, Charlie and Nancy." 
The death of Mrs. Darnall in 1 781, as is seen, was 
but the beginning of the afflictions that were to 
visit Charles Carroll in his home life at this period. 
In less than a year later his father and wife had 
died, to be buried also under the Manor Chapel, 
and he was to pass half a century of widowhood 
before rejoining the young wife who had been taken 
from him in her gracious prime. Writing to a friend 
July 9th, 1782, he says: " I have had the misfortune 
to lose my father and wife within a very little time 
of each other. My father died the 30th of May, 
suddenly, and my wife on the iotli ultimo, after a 
short but very painful illness." ' Mr. Carroll's 
death, it seems, was brought about as the result of 
a fall from the porch of his house in Annapolis, and 
to the shock and distress of this casualty is attrib- 
uted the fatal illness of his daughter-in-law. " The 
death of Mrs. Carroll was very sad," writes the 
author of the Carroll sketches in Appletoris Jour- 
nal : 

1 Family papers, Rev. Thomas Sim Lee. 

56 Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 

"She was devotedly attached to her grandfather 
[father-in-law]. One day he was standing on the large 
porch of his house at Annapolis, watching a ship come 
into the harbor. He stepped back too far, and was 
picked up dead. Mrs. Carroll, his grandchild [child] by 
marriage, and his constant companion, never recovered 
from the shock, nor left the room afterward until 
death." ' 

The will of Charles Carroll of Annapolis, which 
was drawn up two years before his death, made his 
son Charles Carroll of Carrollton his heir, and the 
" whole and sole executor " of his estate. A moiety 
of certain of his lands was to go to his nephew and 
nieces, Charles Carroll of " Carrollsburg," Mrs. Dan- 
iel Carroll of Upper Marlboro* (or Rock Creek), and 
Mrs. Ignatius Digges of " Melwood." * 

At the opening of the fall session of the Assembly, 
November 4th, 1782, Charles Carroll of Carrollton 
with Edward Lloyd, were again the only Senators 
present. The grief-stricken husband and son was 
faithful to the call of public duty, and, as usual, 
setting an example of promptness to his more dila- 
tory compatriots. Not until the 15th of November 
was there a Senate formed. Both Houses of the 
Assembly, at this time, concurred in the determina- 
tion that measures must be taken to enforce a more 
punctual attendance of their members. William 
Paca was elected Governor, and a joint committee 
was appointed to draw up an address of approbation 

1 Apptiloa's Jeurnal, September, 1874. 
■ Appendix C. 

Civil List Bill Defeated. 57 

and thanks to the retiring Executive, Governor Lee. 
Matthew Tilghman and Charles Carroll of Carrollton 
were the Senate members of this committee. On 
the 3d of December, a resolution of the Senate, " that 
the Governor and Council be requested to apply to 
Commodore La Ville Brun for such armed vessels 
as he may judge proper to cooperate with the barges 
of this State against those of the enemy now in this 
Bay," was sent to the House of Delegates by Charles 

The houses and lots, and the household furniture 
of Sir Robert Eden were now appropriated to the 
use of the Republican Executive, until the Assem- 
bly should otherwise determine. Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton and Col. Richard Barnes were ordered by 
the Senate, at this time, " to inquire into the nature 
of the contract made by the House of Delegates with 
Mr. Frederick Green to print the Laws of this State." 
The bill to regulate the militia was passed, with 
amendments ; but when the bill to settle and pay 
the Civil List came up for a second reading it was 
defeated, and a committee was appointed to draft 
a message to the House giving the Senate's objec- 
tions to the bill. This committee, consisting of 
Matthew Tilghman, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
John Henry, and Charles Carroll, barrister, said in 
this message that as the act might be considered a 
money bill, the Senate returned it with a negative 
only, otherwise they might have added amendments. 
The reasons for their dissent were, first, motives of 
economy, as they believed the salaries of the Council 
and others should be lowered, in consideration of 

58 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

the heavy taxes, which were likely to continue and 
grow larger; and secondly, because the bill made 
the judges dependent on the Legislature. 

This principle of the independence of the judiciary, 
they wrote " is essential to the impartial administra- 
tion of justice," and " cannot be questioned." And 
the Senate reminded the House that it was a princi- 
ple " recognized by the Declaration of Rights, which 
says the salaries of chancellor and judges ought to 
be secured to them during the continuance of their 
commissions. Their salaries have been hitherto 
settled annually," the message continues, " by the 
Civil List bill, and consequently cannot be said to 
be secured to them during the continuance of their 
commissions." And the committee add that the 
perplexities and confusion of the times have been 
the excuses for this irregularity, but now that " a 
regular and effectual administration of justice hath 
taken place among us, it is become a duty of the 
General Assembly to establish permanent salaries." ' 
A resolution of the House of Delegates, read in the 
Senate on Christmas Day, that a certain sum of 
money received by General Smallwood, on account 
of the recruiting service, be applied to the equipping 
of the barges, was assented to by the Senate, Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton, however, giving notice that he 
would enter his protest against it. And on the second 
reading of the Supply Bill, both Charles Carroll and 
James McHenry announced that they would enter a 
"Dissentient." That of Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton is as follows : 

1 Journal of the Senate. 

Dissents to the Supply Bill. 59 

Because this bill puts the management and sale of speci- 
fied articles payable in discharge of a large proportion of 
the tax, under the direction of the Governor and Council, 
a board which from its constitution and the variety of 
business it has to transact, is not so competent as one 
person to a judicious and economical administration of a 
complicated revenue. 

Because the incompetency of the Governor and Council 
is not merely presumed but founded on experience since 
the past mismanagement of the specifics and the waste of 
them induced the Legislature to commit the charge and 
sale thereof to the direction of one man, and occasioned 
the appointment of an Intendant of the Revenue from 
which the State has already reaped considerable advan- 
tages, and from whose continuance in office it would 
probably derive still greater. 

Because it were better to leave the specifics in the 
hands of the people than to draw them out in payment of 
unprofitable taxes and store them at places in which to 
judge from the past, they will be probably left to waste, 
rot, and be embezzled. 

Because, the clause enabling debtors to retain in their 
hands one sixth of the interest accrueing on monies loaned 
is retrospective, infringing prior contracts, creditors not 
having it in their option under the present system of law 
to call in the principal in order to avoid the deduction of 

Because, the principle on which this clause in the bill 
is presumed to be grounded is too fanciful and ideal, in- 
applicable to most cases and improperly applied to all. 
The principle goes upon this supposition, that every 
debtor has realized the money borrowed out of which 
one sixth of the interest may be discounted in visible, 
taxable property, and that the sum payable on his assess- 

60 Charles CarroU of CarrolUon. 

ment may equal, exceed or be less than one sixth of the 
interest discounted ; if equal the creditor in fact and not 
the person assessed pays the tax. To all cases (and a 
variety of such may exist) in which the sum payable by 
the debtor on his assessed property is less than one sixth 
of the interest retained, the principle is totally inapplic- 
able, for in such cases the debtors may retain more by 
withholding a sixth of the accrued interest than what they 
pay in their assessments, and then the creditors not only 
pay the assessment of debtors, but the latter gain from 
the former the difference between the sums paid and ex- 
cess. Admitting the monies borrowed bearing interest, 
to be invested in real, visible and taxable property, and 
the sum paid by the debtor on the valuation of his prop- 
erty to exceed a sixth of the interest withheld from his 
creditor, still is the principle improperly applied by the 
clause dissented to. If properly applied all property 
must be assessed at its real value, for instance a certain 
proportion valued at one hundred pounds ought not to 
be worth in reality more than that sum, for it is evident 
unless lands and other visible, taxable property are justly 
valued, the reduction of a sixth of the interest must be 
unjust, being made from a definite portion of property, 
viz : one hundred and five pounds, a property not ascer- 
tained as most others by the discretionary and fallible 
judgment of an assessor, and daily decreasing in value 
whilst that of lands hath risen of late years considerably 
and by many is supposed still to be rising. Thus in 
virtue of the clause objected to, a piece of land valued at 
, one hundred pounds but really worth two hundred, will 
pay only twenty-five shillings, and the owner who may 
have borrowed one hundred pounds is empowered to de- 
duct twenty shillings from one hundred and five pounds. 
Because this clause is a tack to a money bill not imme- 

Dissents to the Supply Bill. 6 1 

diatdy relating and necessary for, the imposing, assess- 
ing, levying or applying the taxes to be raised for the 
current expenses of the year, but contains matter totally 
distinct from the nature and essence of a money bill as 
defined by the form of government, viz : an impolitic 
reduction of interest from six to five per cent., which if 
continued will operate as a discouragement to private 
and public credit and force the monied men to draw 
their capitals out of the hands of the citizens of this 
State to place them in other countries in which they will 
not be subjected to such reductions. 

Because the menacing yet ridiculous and illegal pro- 
vision in the latter part of the clause will operate only on 
the timid and ignorant, and is in reality an acknowledg- 
ment of its impropriety and discovers the strongest ap- 
prehension ibat what is unjust and indeed absurd will be 
disregarded by the more informed. 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 1 

General Rochambeau was in Annapolis early in 
January, 1783, and the Assembly voted an address 
of thanks to him, and an entertainment at the pub- 
lic expense, in his honor. The address was to be 
presented by a joint committee of both Houses, the 
Senators selected being Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton, Charles Carroll, barrister, and Edward Lloyd. 
The Militia Bill afforded a point of dispute between 
the two Houses at this session, and the Senate would 
seem to have held the proper view. They wished to 
exempt from militia duty the Executive and Coun- 
cil, the members of Assembly, and the higher offi- 
cers of the judiciary, " on the principle that no set of 
1 md. 

6z Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

men in the State should be unequally burdened " 
while the House urged that these persons were "of 
the first characters and fortunes, and ought to set 
examples to the people, and show them that no 
duty, however hard or inconvenient, will be re- 
quired of them but what all ranks of men are sub- 
jected to." When the bill for the defence of the 
State from the enemy's cruisers was passed with 
amendments from the Senate, January 9th, Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton and one other Senator only, 
voted in the negative. The House returning this 
bill and refusing to take the amendments into con- 
sideration, Charles Carroll of Carrollton and Charles 
Carroll, barrister, were ordered to prepare a message 
for the House. 

If you are clearly of opinion that the bill for the de- 
fence of the State from the enemy's barges and cruisers 
is a money bill, we are not less certain that several mat- 
ters, clauses and things, are annexed to and blended 
with this bill, not immediately relating to, and necessary 
for, the imposing, levying or applying the money intended 
to be raised by it. 

The clauses repealing the act imposing certain duties 
for the purpose of sinking the bills of credit therein 
mentioned, and establishing a court for the trial of offi- 
cers, marines and mariners, for breach of any of the 
articles established for the government of the navy of 
the United States, and for trying the captains of the 
barges Fearnought, Terrible and Defence, we conceive 
do not relate, or are requisite for the imposing, assess- 
ing, levying or applying of money. 

The first clause ascertaining the naval force to be 

Message from the Senate. 63 

equipped, is also, in our opinion, unconstitutionally blend- 
ed with those parts of the bill which properly make it a 
money bill. To raise money for the purpose of equipping 
armed vessels, and to ascertain what their number and 
force shall be, are things in themselves totally distinct. 
We might agree that it would be proper to raise a certain 
sum of money to defend the trade and coasts of our bay, 
and yet, possibly we might differ about the extensiveness 
and force of the intended armament. If these distinct 
matters are cast into separate bills, we may then offer 
amendments ; for instance, we could amend a bill as- 
certaining the number and force of the vessels to be 
equipped, and might, in a message support our amend- 
ments with such reasons as might possibly gain your 
assent ; but if the clause ascertaining the armed force 
remains connected with a money bill, we are by the Con- 
stitution precluded from making amendments, and from 
freely exercising our judgments as to the quantum of the 
force proposed to be employed. To exercise our judg- 
ments freely and fully upon so material a point, and 
upon others, we are compelled to have recourse to our 
privilege and right of insisting on a separation of every 
clause, matter and thing, not immediately relating and 
essentially requisite, to a money bill. Believing that 
you would not designedly violate the Constitution, in 
making tacks to a money bill, to prevent a full and free 
discussion of objects so important, and being satisfied 
that there are several matters in the bill, which by no 
torture of criticism can be construed into the necessary 
appendages of a money bill, we presumed you were in- 
clined to waive on this occasion your privilege, and per- 
mit us to offer such amendments as we might judge 
proper, in a public, parliamentary way, a way more con- 
sistent with the independence of the Senate and the 

64 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

spirit of our Constitution than those private negotiations 
which have sometimes heretofore taken place, and most 
commonly to very little purpose. 

We therefore insist on your separating the clauses we 
have pointed out from those parts of the bill imposing, 
assessing, levying and applying the monies to be raised 
by it, and we therefore have returned you the bill with a 

There was again a difference of opinion as to the 
Per diem allowance for members of the Assembly. 
The House wanted twenty-one shillings, the Senate, 
more economical, advocated fifteen, and the bill as 
finally passed gave the members seventeen shillings 
and five pence a day, a compromise which was op- 
posed in the Senate by Matthew Tilghman, and the 
two Carrolls. January 12th, a resolution of the 
House of Delegates directing the Treasurer to re- 
ceive the bills of credit, called red money, in pay- 
ment of British property and in discharge of the 
county assessment, was negatived by an almost 
unanimous vote, Charles Carroll of Carrollton pre- 
paring the Senate's message with which it was re- 
turned. This was as follows : 

" Gentlemen, we have rejected your Resolve of the 
nth instant . . . directing the Treasurer of the Western 
Shore to receive the bills of credit not exceeding 200,000 
pounds, on the security of double the value in lands, to 
defray the expences of the present campaign, because it 
is improper to repeal a law by a Resolve, resolves not 
having the same public notoriety, force and efficacy as 

Bill for the Defence of the Bay. 65 

laws. We will give our assent to a bill for directing the 
Treasurer of the Western Shore to receive at par the 
aforesaid bills of credit, in payment of confiscated Brit- 
ish property sold for the redemption thereof, provided 
that the said bills of credit be also directed by the act to 
be received at par in payment of county assessments." 

The Senate having at length, not to delay the 
session longer, assented to the bill for the defence 
of the Bay, though disapproving of some of its 
clauses, Charles Carroll of Carrollton entered his 
protest against it as follows : 

" Dissentient j Because the sum appropriated by the 
bill to the equipment of the naval force, designed for the 
protection of the trade, and the inhabitants living near 
the shores of the Bay, amounts to a much larger propor- 
tion of the public revenue than ought to be appropriated 
to that particular purpose. 

" Because, the intended armament exceeds our ability, 
and the sum alloted will not complete and maintain for 
the time limited, the vessels purposed to be fitted out 
and their crews, and consequently they will not be able 
to give that protection and security which a letter force, 
more proportioned to our means and better equipped 
might afford. 

"Charles Carroll or Carrollton." ' 

The Civil List Bill did not at all meet with the 
approval of the Senate, as they thought the salaries 
of officers should be more moderate. So they de- 
clared to the House that they adhered to their views, 
and only assented to the bill, because the civil ofH- 
' ibid. 

66 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

. cers could not be left unprovided for, and it was im- 
portant not to prolong the session any further. The 
bill to raise supplies for the current year was carried 
to the House by Charles Carroll of Carrollton, on 
the 15th of January, accompanied by an address to 
General Greene on his victories, and the Assembly 
then adjourned. 1 

In the spring of 1783, Annapolis was gayer than 
usual at this season, for in addition to the races, 
there was the presence of the Continental Congress 
In the little town, and the crowd of visitors this as- 
semblage attracted, among whom were many of the 
French officers. It was the year in which peace was 
declared, and Annapolis had a part in the general 
rejoicing at this event. And it was on the Carroll 
grounds, " Carroll's Green," the festivities took place. 
" To-morrow," wrote Mrs. Walter Dulany, April 23d, 
to her son in England, " we celebrate Peace. I hear 
there is to be a grand dinner on Squire Carroll's 
Point, a whole ox to be roasted and I can't tell how 
many sheep and calves besides a world of other 
things. Liquor in proportion. The whole to con- 
clude with illuminations and squibs." ' 

The spring session of the Assembly was to have 
met the 21st of April, but the only Senator who 
made his appearance on that day was Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton. A Senate was formed early in 
May, and the Articles of Peace were first taken up 

1 Ibid. 

* "One Hundred Years Ago — The Life and Times of the Rev. 
Walter Dulany Addison," 1769-1B48, p. 67. By Elizabeth Hesselius 
Murray, Philadelphia, 1895. 

Annapolis Celebrates Peace. 67 

for consideration. Then came the adjustment of the 
affairs of government on the footing of established 
independence. "After a long and dreadful war," 
said the Council in a message to the Senate, they 
must turn their attention to the public creditors, to 
the demands of the government, the revision of the 
criminal law, commercial improvements, and the ad- 
vancement of religion. " The Bill of Rights and 
Form of Government," they assert, " recognize the 
principle of public support for the ministers of the 
gospel and ascertain the mode." The death of 
Charles Carroll, barrister, took place at this time. 
This gentleman left no children, and his estate went 
by will to Nicholas and James Maccubbin, the sons 
of his only sister, on the condition that they took 
the surname of Carroll. 

Owing to the indisposition of Matthew Tilghman, 
President of the Senate, no business was done on 
the 22d of May, and the following day Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton was elected President in the place 
of Mr. Tilghman. The Assembly made arrange- 
ments for the accommodation of Congress, giving 
them "the stadt-house and public circle," with the 
Governor's house for the use of the President, and 
thirteen dwelling-houses with other buildings " for 
the residence of the delegates of each of the thir- 
teen Confederated States." An important public 
paper of Charles Carroll belongs to this session of 
the Senate, his protest against the bill " concerning 
the admission and qualification of solicitors and at- 
tornies," It is a significant testimony to his fearless- 
ness, liberality, and wise statesmanship on questions 

68 Charles Carroll of ' CarroUton. 

connected with the recent war. A manuscript draft 
is preserved of this paper, serving to correct errors in 
the printed copy. 

Dissentient, Because the clause in the bill empowering 
the judges of the courts of law and equity to suspend, 
remove or strike out of the roll of attornies persons al- 
ready admitted or hereafter to be admitted as attornies, 
for supposed, not proved, disaffection to the government 
of this State, is a violation of the public faith, unneces- 
sary and impolitic. This clause violates the public faith, 
by depriving, for one and the same offence, a few indi- 
viduals (for few only in reality will be affected by the 
clause) of those rights and privileges, which they had for- 
feited for nonconformity to one act, and had purchased 
and regained under another. A small attention to the 
act for the better security of government, and the supple- 
mentary act for procuring an extra supply of provisions 
for the Continental army, passed at June session, 1780, 
will evince this violation of law and justice. By the for- 
mer act nonjurors are rendered incapable of practising 
the law ; by the latter, this disability is taken off, upon 
certain conditions to be performed by them ; on per- 
formance, they are placed on the same footing of other 
subjects, with respect to the practice of the law ; no ar- 
bitrary and discretionary power was vested in the judges, 
before the passage of this bill, to remove or suspend 
practising attornies, for the vague and indeterminate 
offence, disaffection to government. The only evidence 
which the law heretofore required of attachment to the 
Constitution and form of government of this State, was 
the taking the oath of support and fidelity thereto. Per- 
sons, who had refused or neglected to take that oath, on 
or before a particular day, are left at liberty, by the sup- 

Qualification of Attorneys. 69 

piemen tary act just mentioned, to take the oath at any 
time, and even without taking it, they are restored to all 
the privileges of citizens, save such as are expressly ex- 
cepted by that act. To destroy this conclusion, drawn 
from the above-mentioned laws, it will be incumbent on 
the patronizers of this bill to show, that the judges have, 
without it, a discretionary power of removing or suspend- 
ing practising attomies for disaffection to the govern- 
ment, although they may have taken the oath of support 
and fidelity to it. If the judges have this pre-existing 
power, where is the necessity of this clause, and of the 
amendment made to it by the Senate, pointedly provid- 
ing, that the taking of the oath, after the preliminaries of 
peace, shall not be considered by the judges in itself as 
sufficient attachment to the government ? The very 
amendment proves the inference, that the judges had no 
such power under any former act, and that they were 
bound to admit the taking the oath of support and fidel- 
ity to the State, by the qualifying attorney, as the only 
proof of his attachment to the government by law re- 
quired. The few instances which have lately occurred 
also prove, that the judges of the general court acted un- 
der this impression and construction of the laws, by 
admitting certain nonjurors to qualify as attomies, not 
conceiving themselves at liberty to exclude them from 
practising in the courts of justice, on account of reputed 
disaffection to the government, nor foreseeing that a fu- 
ture act, in derogation of the subsisting law of the land, 
would direct them not to consider such oath in itself as 
sufficient evidence of attachment to the State. It is pre- 
sumed, indeed, that had the judges been indued with 
such foresight, their integrity, and a proper sense of 
character, would not have suffered them to have trifled 
with their oaths, to accommodate their conduct to the 

70 Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 

resentment of individuals, or the views of particular men, 
not acting under the obligation of an oath. 

The clause in question not only violates the public 
faith and justice, but 13 an unnecessary and wanton vio- 
lation of both ; an examination of the arguments which 
were urged in support of this particular clause will dis- 
cover the truth of the position. The danger to the State 
from permitting a few nonjurors to qualify as attornies, 
and practise in the courts of law and equity, was much 
insisted on ; that there are but few, very few, has been al- 
ready noticed, who will or can be affected by the clause ; 
and that these few are incapacitated from voting at elec- 
tions, and holding any office of trust and profit, must be 
known to all. From whence then is this mighty danger 
to arise ? In what does its reality consist ? How is it to 
operate, and on what objects ? These discoveries remain 
yet to be made. To justify a breach of law and national 
compact between the State and its subjects, the necessity 
of that breach must be self-evident, palpable, and felt by 
all. Will it, can it be pretended, that the remote and 
ideal dangers apprehended from the admission to, and 
continuance in, the practise of the law, of the persons 
alluded to, constitute such a necessity ? The assertion 
is too absurd to gain belief, even with the most timid, the 
most inveterate, or the most deluded. If the objection- 
able clause violates law and justice, and is unnecessary, 
on what principles can its policy be supported ? Is it 
good policy to perpetuate parties and odious distinctions 
in the State ? To extinguish factions, and to allay and 
heal their animosities, to unite all ranks of citizens in the 
pursuit of one common good, has been ever inculcated 
by wise statesmen. On this point can a real difference 
of sentiment subsist ? Can it be denied, that the clause 
has a tendency to keep alive party distinctions and ani- 

An Important Public Paper. 71 

mosity ? These are the apparent and obvious conse- 
quences of the bill ; more secret, dark and insiduous, 
are to be apprehended. A monopoly in the practice of 
law may be as fatal to the State as any other monopoly. 
Combinations among monopolisers are frequent, and al- ■ 
ways pernicious. Admit a combination should be formed 
between the present practitioners of the law, not to bring 
suits for the recovery of British debts ; would not such a 
combination terminate in an actual contravention of the 
Treaty of Peace ? Have not such combinations been 
publicly mentioned ? And does not the general scope of 
the bill give room to suspect, that it is calculated to 
countenance such unwarrantable practices? From this 
source may be traced the real, though not the avowed, 
motive of excluding from the exercise of their profession 
the nonjuring and resident attornies ; hence sprung the 
departure from the principles of the naturalization act, 
which requires no previous residence in the State, as a 
qualification of the persons naturalized, to become attor- 
nies or solicitors in the courts of law and equity within 
this State. Why all this distrust, this dread of and cau- 
tion against admitting to practice as attornies, such resi- 
dents as had not taken the oath of support and fidelity 
before the signing of the Preliminary Articles of the 
Peace ? Why is two years residence now required of 
foreigners naturalized, who by the act of naturalization, 
passed in the very heat of war, might have qualified as 
attornies, immediately on taking the oath prescribed by 
that act ? Is greater danger now to be apprehended from 
British emissaries, after the acknowledgment of the inde- 
pendence of these States, than before that event ? How 
can so much distrust and jealousy of that power be rec- 
onciled with the full security resulting from a glorious 
peace, and the perfect establishment of independence ' 

72 Ckarles Carroll of CarrolUon. 

Men who are not blinded by their resentments, or in- 
fluenced by interest, will readily perceive and attribute 
those pretended fears to the true cause, a desire of pro- 
crastinating, or totally eluding, the payment of British 
debts. This bill is levelled at British creditors, not at a 
British interest, or British emissaries, as suggested in the 
debate upon it. 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 

President of the Senate. 1 

1 Journal of the Senate ; MS : owned by Hon. John Lee Carroll. 



THE affairs of the Baltimore Iron Works were in 
no very prosperous condition at the close of 
the Revolution, and the manager, Clement Brooke, 
a relative of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, had sev- 
eral measures to propose for their advancement. He 
wrote from the " Baltimore Furnace," August 7, 
1783, to the gentlemen of the Company, suggesting 
that they should keep a store of bar iron in " Balti- 
more town," and put a capable person in charge of 
it, so that sufficient might be sold to support the 
works and pay the taxes. They wanted also more 
good hands " to force on the works to the best ad- 
vantage," and the manager added : " Mr. Carter owes 
one negro woman, the estate of Mr. Carroll of Dudd- 
ington three women and five men, the State of Mary- 
land five men and two women." He complained 
that the negroes supplied were not capable of doing 
their tasks : " Three negro men sent by Mr. Carter 
last fall are all unfit hands ... a lad sent in by 
Mr. Carroll, barrister, in June, 1782, [is] very unfit 

74 Charles Carroll of Carroll/on. 

for the business," and so on. Then " a young ne- 
gro fellow bought for Mr. Carroll of Carrollton put 
in last March soon made his escape and is not found 
yet." Charles Carroll of Carrollton in forwarding 
Clement Brooke's letter to the other gentlemen of 
the Company proposed a meeting for the 27th of 

DOEHERAGEN, nth August, 1783. 

Gentlemen : The several matters mentioned in the 
above letter, are of such importance as to claim the im- 
mediate and serious attention of the Company. It is my 
opinion, that some trusty person in Baltimore town ought 
to be immediately employed by the Company to sell 
from them, on commission, as much bar iron as will en- 
able the clerks to lay in provisions, pay hirelings, other 
incidental charges and taxes, and that Mr. Brooke should 
be authorised (as I do on my behalf hereby authorize 
him) to employ some such person, and to agree with him 
about the commission. The loss which (he Company 
sustains by bartering away their bar-iron for provisions 
and in paying hirelings must be considerable. Hirelings 
are generally necessitous, and to purchase liquor and 
clothing sell the iron which they get of the Company to 
the merchants in town at an under value. 

To send to the Works unserviceable negroes, is only 
increasing expence without the prospect of a benefit, and 
injuring those who put in good slaves. The cripple, un- 
healthy, and infirm negroes which have been sent to the 
Works within these two or three years past, ought to be 
taken back by the persons who put them in, and good 
negroes, such as Mr. Brooke describes, sent in their 
places. If the partners had heretofore put in such there 
would not now be wanting sixteen hands to carry on the 

Samuel Chase in London. 75 

works. A meeting of the Company appears to me to be 
absolutely necessary, and therefore I propose one to be 
held at the Furnace the 27th of next October. 

The Works, if carried on with spirit, and managed to 
the greatest advantage, might certainly be made very prof- 
itable ; at present they hardly clear themselves. How to 
improve so improvable an estate, is the object of the pro- 
posed meeting. 1 am, Gentlemen, 

Your most humble Servant 
Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. 1 

On the 3d of November, 1783, Charles Carroll 
appeared in his seat in the Senate, with only two 
other members present. He attended from day to 
day until the 13th, when there being as yet no quor- 
um, he seems, for some reason, to have left town, 
and when the Senate was finally organized on the 
22d, he was still absent, and Daniel Carroll was 
elected President in his place. Two days later he 
had returned, and was immediately put upon a com- 
mittee to confer with a House committee on an 
apprehended disturbance in Annapolis. A bill was 
passed to empower the Governor to call out the 
militia to suppress insurrections and quiet distur- 
bances. The " Act concerning the stock of the 
Bank of England" was the next important matter 
considered. Samuel Chase had been appointed an 
agent, at the close of the war, to go to England and 
recover the amount of dividends that had accumu- 
lated from the twenty-seven thousand pounds that 
had been deposited in the Bank of England by 
Maryland, and to sell the stock. A letter from Mr. 
1 Carter Papers, owned by Chas. P. Keith. 

76 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

Chase, with other papers on this subject, read in the 
Senate, November 28th, were carried to the House 
by Charles Carroll of Carrollton. A bill relating to 
civil causes depending in the General Court for the 
Western Shore, was brought in by Charles Carroll, 
December 1st, and was doubtless drafted by him. 

The Chevalier d' Annemours, Consul-General of 
France in Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and 
Georgia, was in Annapolis at this session of the 
Assembly, and a joint committee of both Houses 
was appointed to confer with him on the business of 
his office in connection with Maryland. The Senate 
members of this committee were George Plater and 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton. The committee's re- 
port, brought in ten days later arranged as to the 
imposition of duties, and proposed that " Chambers 
of Commerce " be established for the speedy de- 
cision of controversies. A joint committee of five 
from the Senate and seven from the House, who 
were to take into consideration a letter from the 
Maryland delegates in Congress, included Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton. On the 19th of December a 
joint committee was appointed to provide a house for 
General Washington, and to prepare an address to 
him. Charles Carroll was one of the five Senators 
selected for this committee. The address to Gen- 
eral Washington, expressing the Assembly's grateful 
sense of his "distinguished services" was brought 
in by John Henry, and he and Charles Carroll were 
the Senators appointed to join with the delegation 
from the House who were to present the address. 1 

1 Jeurnaloflhe Maryland Senalt. 

Stone's Answer to "Dissentient," 77 

In the State House at Annapolis to-day where 
the historic event of the resignation of Washing- 
ton took place, the portrait of Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton looks down from the walls, with those of 
William Paca and Samuel Chase, and a large canvas 
hangs between them conveying to later generations 
the representation of the scene in Congress, as it 
transpired in this identical spot, at the hour of noon, 
December 23, 1783. 

The bill " laying a duty on British vessels and for 
other purposes," was committed for amendment to 
John Henry, Charles Carroll, and John Smith. On 
the 23d of December, Daniel Carroll, the President 
of the Senate, was indisposed, and it was necessary 
to elect someone in his place. Col. Richard Barnes 
was the Senate's first choice, but on his declining 
the honor Charles Carroll of Carrollton was elected 
President for the second time. It seems that the 
two friends Stone and Carroll were opposed on the 
subject of the bill for the admission and qualifica- 
tion of solicitors and attorneys. And on the 25th 
of December, Christmas Day, the Assembly being 
in session on the holiday, Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton as President was called on to lay before the 
Senate a letter enclosing an answer of Thomas 
Stone to Carroll's " Dissentient " filed at the last 
session. These were both read, and a motion to 
refer them to the next session was negatived. A 
motion was then carried that "no counter protest 
shall be entered on the records of the Senate." 

Resolutions of the House were afterwards read 
respecting purchasers of confiscated British prop* 

78 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

erty. These were assented to with the following 
amendments: "Provided that the interest due on 
the purchase money shall be paid on or before the 
1st of March next, Provided also, that all persons 
who were purchasers of any of the property sold as 
aforesaid, having certificates, shall have the interest 
due on the said certificates set off against the inter- 
est due to the State, to the amount of the interest 
on such certificates." Of the eight Senators present, 
seven voted in favor of this last proviso. The one 
negative vote was cast by the President, Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton. The House sustained the 
President of the Senate by assenting to the first 
amendment, but adding that they could not adopt 
the second, "with respect to allowing the interest 
due on certificates to be set off against the in- 
terest due to the State." They considered " the 
injustice in this case to be equal to that which would 
ensue from a general admission of the payment of 
all kinds of certificates in discharge of the purchases 
of British property." The reply of the Senate to 
this message, which was agreed to by all except 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton and Edward Lloyd, 
declared that " the principle of the amendment 
went to receiving all debts due the 
State by any of its citizens, in discharge of all 
debts due by the State to its citizens," and they 
had not supposed it was the intention of the House 
" to establish a preference between a soldier's, 
officer's, or citizen's evidence, or certificate of a 
debt." ' 

i ibid. 

Address to Lafayette. 79 

The Legislature of Maryland passed an act at this 
session incorporating Samuel Hughes, William Au- 
gustine Washington, Henry Lee, Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton and others, under the name of "the Pro- 
prietors of the Susquehanna Canal," for the purpose 
of " making the river Susquehanna navigable from 
the line of this State to tide-water." The Company 
were to meet, February 3, 1784, at Havre de Grace, 
to elect officers, and they were to cut a canal at 
Love Island, continuing the same to tide-water in 
Susquehanna River. 1 

The Assembly now began to have but one session 
a year, as there were no extra calls on them from 
1783 to 1787, when a second session was required 
for the business of the Federal Convention. On the 
1st of November, 1784, Thomas Stone was the one 
punctual Senator, when the Assembly met, and un- 
til the 4th he was the only one who made his ap- 
pearance, Charles Carroll of Carrollton joining him 
on that day. It was not until the 24th, however, 
that a quorum was formed. Charles Carroll then 
resigned his office of President of the Senate, and 
George Plater was elected. The new Governor of 
Maryland, elected at this time, was William Paca. 
Charles Willson Peale's portrait of Washington, 
which had been ordered by the Assembly in 1781, 
was finished, and hung up in the Senate Chamber 
in 1784. 

An address was to be prepared by a joint com- 
mittee of both Houses, to be presented to General 
Lafayette, and John Henry, Charles Carroll of Car- 

1 Laws of Maryland, 1783. 

80 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

rollton, and Daniel Carroll were the Senators ap- 
pointed for this purpose, while Charles Carroll was 
the Senator selected to unite with the delegation 
from the House who were to present the address. 
There was a conference of the two Houses to con- 
sider the proposed alteration in the 8th Article of 
the Confederation, making the number of inhabi- 
tants, under certain modifications, the measure of 
the contribution of each State, and Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton was one of the Senate conferrees. 

The scheme for opening and extending the navi- 
gation of the Potomac occupied the attention of the 
Assembly at this session, and members of each 
House were appointed to confer with commissioners 
from Virginia, on this subject. The Senators nomi- 
nated were Thomas Stone, Samuel Hughes, and 
Charles Carroll. The conference took place at An- 
napolis, the 22d of December, and Generals Wash- 
ington and Gates represented Virginia's interests, 
Washington being chairman of the meeting. Reso- 
lutions were adopted, to be submitted to the Legis- 
latures of Virginia and Maryland, which resulted in 
the act passed some days later, establishing anew 
the Potomac Company, which had been suffered to 
languish during the Revolution. General Washing- 
ton was chosen President of the Potomac Company, 
and Virginia and Maryland each were to subscribe 
for fifty shares of its stock. A road was to be built 
forty miles in length, from the headwaters of the 
Potomac to those of the Ohio and the two States 
were to direct a survey of this route. 1 

1 Pickett's " History of the Potomac Company," pp. 44, 64. 

Commercial Compact Secured. 81 

A committee from both Houses was appointed on 
the 31st of December, to confer on several matters 
of importance, notably, the most effectual means of 
carrying into effect the act of Congress imposing 
the duty of five per cent., and the acts for the ap- 
pointment of delegates to regulate the trade of the 
United States, and the proper powers to be vested 
in them. 

The following protest was made by Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton, January 13th, against the " Act 
to establish funds to secure the payment of the 
State debt within six years, and for the punctual 
payment of the annual interest thereon " : 

" Dissentient : Because the credit of five years allowed 
to the purchasers of confiscated British property is too 
long, considering (he indulgence which hath been already 
given, and the facility of paying afforded them by the 
bill, in permitting all kind of certificates to be received 
as specie in payment of their purchases. 

Because the suffering without good cause so large a 
part of the principal of the State debt to remain unpaid 
for five years, is sacrificing unreasonably the interest of 
the creditors of the State to the convenince and ease of 
its debtors, and exhibits an awkward and bungling 
scheme of finance, by protracting unnecessarily the re- 
ceipt of interest from the debtors, and the payment of 
interest to its creditors, both which operations might 
cease two years sooner on the extinguishment of the 
principal of the debt, or in proportion to that extin- 

Because good policy requires, that a State should not 
defer to a longer period the payment of its debts, when 
they might without oppression be cancelled in a shorter. 

82 Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 

Because no reason has been assigned for allowing five 
years credit to the purchasers aforesaid, other than the 
mere will of the House of Delegates, the dictates of 
which, if unsupported by argument, ought not to induce 
the Senate, contrary to their judgment, to assent to a 
bill, partial in its operations and injurious in its conse- 
quences, especially as the strongest presumption arises, 
that when no good reasons are adduced in support of a 
favorite measure, the promoters of it are actuated by 
motives improper to be avowed. 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton." 1 

Intimately connected with the project of opening 
and extending the navigation of the Potomac River, 
were the questions still unadjusted, of the jurisdic- 
tion of this river and the Pocomoke, the boundary 
streams between Maryland and Virginia, and the 
jurisdiction of Chesapeake Bay, with the regulation 
of tolls, etc. Four Commissioners were appointed 
by the Maryland Assembly, at this session, to meet 
Commisioners from Virginia and draw up regula- 
tions for these purposes. The instructions of the 
Marylanders were to be prepared by a joint com- 
mittee of both Houses, and the Senators selected to 
draft them were Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
Daniel Carroll and George Gale. The Commission- 
ers named were Thomas Johnson, Thomas Stone, 
Samuel Chase, and Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, 
and they were to meet such Commissioners as Vir- 
ginia should appoint, at Alexandria, on the 21st of 
March next, or at any other time and place more 

1 Journal ef the Maryland Senate. 

Bank Slack Controversy. 83 

convenient to the Virginians. This Commission or 
Convention met at Alexandria, Virginia, and ad- 
journed to " Mount Vernon " ; and there the com- 
mercial compact was consummated between Mary- 
land and Virginia, which was the first step in the 
process that led to the Convention of 1787, with the 
resulting changes in the character of the union be- 
tween the Thirteen States effected by the Federal 

Thomas Stone, not satisfied with the verdict of 
the preceding session on the rejection of his answer 
to Charles Carroll's " Dissentient," brought the mat- 
ter up again at this time. Having explained that 
he had been called from the Senate at its spring ses- 
sion of 1783, by urgent business, before he could do 
more than give notice of his intention to protest, 
and been disabled by sickness from attending the fall 
session, his plea was allowed, and his " Answer to the 
Protest of the Hon. Charles Carroll of Carrollton " 
was entered on the Senate records. It takes up 
five and a half of the journal's quarto pages. It 
was then agreed that Charles Carroll should have 
the privilege of making a reply. 

While thus divided in opinion with his former 
ally, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll saw himself 
forced to take up a position of antagonism to an- 
other early political friend and colleague, Samuel 
Chase. This was in connection with the latter's 
agency in England to adjust the controversy over 
the bank stock. Letters from Chase were read in the 
Senate on the 30th of November, and referred to 
the House, Charles Carroll being appointed to carry 

84 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

them there. A few days later a resolution came 
from the House of Delegates testifying their ap- 
proval of the conduct of the State's agent. But 
when, on the 14th of September, the Senate voted 
to concur in this resolution, there were two dissent- 
ing voices heard, those of Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton, and Edward Lloyd. Mr. Chase then appeared 
in the Senate, and answered questions that were put 
to him respecting the bank stock. On the 30th of 
December there was a conference between the two 
Houses on the act of Assembly concerning the 
Bank of England, and the most eligible plan for 
recovering the stock, and Thomas Stone, Charles 
Carroll of CarroUton, Daniel Carroll and William 
Hindman were the Senate conferrees. The resolu- 
tion respecting Samuel Chase was finally made the 
order of the day for January 14th, but it was then 
postponed, and a message was sent to the House, 
Charles Carroll, Daniel Carroll, and Edward Lloyd 
voting against it. The message said : 

" Gentlemen, . . . We will agree to a resolve to 
advance to Mr. Chase the sum of ^500 on account of 
the bank stock, to be applied to the payment of the agent's 
commission, if the bank stock or part of it is received : 
and if no part of the bank stock is received upon which 
the agent is to draw a commission, then to be accounted 

The two Carrolls and Edward Lloyd gave notice 
that they would protest against this message. 
When the order of the day was resumed, the reso- 
lution approving of Samuel Chase's agency was read 

Maryland's Agent Censured, 85 

a second time and dissented to. The resolution to 
advance five hundred pounds to Mr. Chase was 
determined in the negative, by a majority of one, 
Charles Carroll, of course, opposing it. The protest 
against the message of the 14th was read in the 
Senate, January 17th. 

Dissentient, Because the message holds up an opinion 
that the agency of Mr. Chase is still in continuance, and 
that he is entitled to draw a commission of four per cent, 
on the bank stock, whenever it shall be received ; an 
opinion we conceive to be erroneous, as we apprehend 
the law not to be now in force, under which he was 
appointed and commissioned, that law being of a tempo- 
rary nature, and confined to objects not now attainable, 
without a communication of new and more ample 

The only powers given to the late agent, by the act of 
April session 1783, are reducible to these: A power to 
call on the former trustees of the bank stock to surrender 
up to him their trust, and to render an account of the 
faithful execution thereof, to transfer and assign to the 
agent, or his assigns, the whole of the bank stock, and to 
account for and pay unto him any dividends, not invested 
in stock, and on payment, or receipt, to pay the trustees 
their commission and give them a discharge or acquit- 
tance. These were the principal objects of the law ; 
the other powers, thereby imparted, viz., to sell the bank 
stock, to place the money in a banker's hands, and to 
pay certain bills of exchange, were entirely dependent 
on the agent's receiving a transfer of the bank stock, and 
without such transfer being made to him, could not be 

The usual words in conferring a power to sue, are not 

86 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

to be met with in the act ; and the omission of them is 
accounted for by the agent, who has admitted, that 
neither the Legislature, or he himself, who was a mem- 
ber of it, who probably drew, or took a principal part in 
drawing the bill, had in view at the time the propriety or 
necessity of suing the trustees, or foresaw that a suit 
would be instituted by any one of them against the 

From the omission in the act of the usual words, 
demand, sue and recover, and from the intention of the 
Legislature, as admitted by the agent, we infer that no 
authority was given to him by the act to sue the trustees, 
to obtain a transfer of the bank stock. If then the agent 
had no authority to sue, a naked power only was imparted 
to him, to call on the trustees to surrender up their 
trust, and transfer to him the bank stock ; this he re- 
peatedly required one of the trustees to perform, and 
his request was as often evaded, or denied by that 

No power of compromising, or of sueing, having been 
entrusted to the agent, it should seem, that when a trans- 
fer of the bank stock had been refused, except upon 
conditions, which he was not authorised to accept, the 
object of his commission was at an end. It may indeed, 
and has been contended, that the agent might return 
again to London and make another application for a 
transfer of the bank stock, and on payment give a dis- 
charge, and that therefore the act, under which he was 
appointed, is still in force. 

Every construction given to an act of the Legislature 
ought to be reasonable ; is the construction contended 
for, to prove the act to be in force, a reasonable one ? 
Would the agent act rationally in returning to London 
to apply again for a transfer of the stock, without com- 

His Commission Not in Force. 87 

petent powers to enforce the application? Could the 
General Assembly reasonably require him to undertake 
a second voyage on so fruitless an errand ? 

The agent having exceeded his power in filing a bill 
in the English Court of Chancery against the trustees, 
and other claimants of the stock, to obtain a partial 
transfer of it, and being disappointed in the expectation, 
that a partial transfer, at least, would be decreed by the 
Chancellor to be made to him, considered his agency as 
closed, and has pointedly delivered this sentiment in his 
letter from London to the Governor, of the 14th of 
August last in these words : " Enclosed is a copy of my 
letter to Mr. Pitt, and of my instructions to my solicitors 
respecting their management of my suit against the 
trustees and other claimants of the stock, until they receive 
the directions of the General Assembly. Having thus eon- 
eluded my agency, I shall leave this city on Monday next 
for Deal, where 1 shall immediately embark for An- 

If the law in question hath expired, and to recover 
the bank stock, it should be necessary to appoint, by a 
new law, another agent, or reappoint the same person, 
with more ample powers, the quantum of the commission 
to be allowed such agent, would of course come under 
the consideration of the Legislature, and the Senate 
might then exercise its judgment in fixing the rate of 
such commission, which it will be precluded from doing, 
as matters are now conducted. Admitting the agent's 
commission, still to be in force, the advance of money is 
improper ; the agent having voluntarily undertaken the 
agency, knowing that the Governor and the Council were 
empowered to allow a commission, not exceeding four 
per cent on the net sum to be received by him in full 
satisfaction for his trouble, and that no expenses were to 

88 Charles Carroll of CarrottUm. 

be defrayed by the State, in case the bank stock could 
not be obtained, and being apprised that the Governor 
and the Council gave him the full commission in con- 
sideration of the risk, and the expenses he might be 
subjected to in the execution of his trust. 

Charles Carroll of Carroll ton, 
Daniel Carroll, 
Edward Lloyd." 

The Non- Juror's Bill, or the " act to repeal part of 
an act for the better security of government," di- 
vided the House and Senate at this session. The 
bill was to remove the disability of non-jurors, and 
while the House favored it the Senate refused to 
pass it. Charles Carroll of Carrollton was the only 
member who voted in the affirmative on its second 
reading. The act was in line with the liberal policy 
he had always advocated in regard to the Tories, 
and he did not hesitate to stand alone, among his 
colleagues in the Senate, in support of it. When 
the bill was returned to the House, the latter re- 
sponded, that they were not able to conjecture the 
reasons that influenced the Upper Chamber in its 
action ; that they had favored the measures, to al- 
low non-jurors to hold office and vote at elections, 
from principles both of humanity and policy, but 
would recede from the first-mentioned provision if 
the Senate would consent to the second. A com- 
mittee of three, including Thomas Stone and Daniel 
Carroll, was appointed by the Senate to answer this 
message. When the reply was prepared and put to 
the vote, Charles Carroll was again the single mem- 
1 ibid. 

Tory Disabilities Discussed. 89 

ber voting against the majority. The message, 
which was two pages long, said, in part : " We can 
see no benefit at present to be derived to the pros- 
perity of the State, from adopting ideas which you 
are pleased to call humane, but apprehending cir- 
cumstances may take place, in which the pernicious 
effects of your ill-judged tenderness would soon ap- 
pear, we cannot coincide with you in the proposed 
display of liberality." 

The British occupation of the western posts, the 
Senate argued, was a menace to the United States, 
and the Tories should not expect exemption from 
their political disabilities while this was the condition 
of affairs : " When the Treaty of Peace is fully exe- 
cuted, the Federal Government strengthened, and 
we shall receive satisfactory proof of the attachment 
of the non-jurors to our Constitution," then, added 
the Senate, we will pass the bill. The House re- 
plied to this in a long message. " As Your Hon- 
ors," they said, "stated the reasons which influenced 
your conduct, without any expectation that they 
would have any weight with us, you cannot be of- 
fended with our assuring you, that your opinion was 
well-founded; and we are inclined to believe, that 
your reasons were calculated rather to alarm the 
pride and passions of our constituents, than convince 
their judgment." A tart and sarcastic rejoinder 
went in return from the Senate, January 22d, ap- 
proved of by all the members except Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton. They made the most of an alleged 
error of the House, as to a portion of the bill which 
they wished repealed, being void already : 

go Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

"Gentlemen, Having been much instructed by the 
matter, and duly impressed with gratitude for the man- 
ner of your very polite answer to our message of the 19th 
of this month, we cannot refrain from congratulating you 
upon the happy discovery made yesterday, that the very 
part of the act referred to is void, which but a few days 
before you pressed for a repeal of with much seeming 
earnestness. . . . However this matter ends, great 
credit must be allowed you for your humanity, liberality 
and wisdom, but above all, for the great and generous 
mind you discover in shifting your position with so much 
facility, after the first attempt to accomplish your very 
laudable views has not met with merited success, owing 
to the opinion of this House, unhappily dictated by the 
extremity of folly." ' 

The English of this paragraph of the Senate's 
message is certainly far removed in style from that 
to be found in the messages penned by Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton. 

The session of the Assembly which opened in No- 
vember, 1785, was a long one, extending to the 12th 
of March, 1786. As usual, Charles Carroll was 
promptly in his seat, but he was obliged to wait ten 
days, from the 7th to the 17th, before a quorum was 
obtained. General Smallwood was elected Gov- 
ernor. And among the subjects occupying the at- 
tention of the Senate was the measure so strongly 
advocated by Charles Carroll at a previous session, 
the provision of permanent salaries for the members 
of the Judiciary. Daniel Carroll, Thomas Stone, 
and Charles Carroll of Carrollton were appointed a 
1 ibid. 

Assembly Bills Discussed. 91 

committee to prepare a message to the House, say- 
ing that the Senate deemed it the duty of the Legis- 
lature to pass such a bill at this time. Thomas 
Stone, Charles Carroll and one other member were 
appointed a committee, the 12th of December, to 
prepare a message to go to the House of Delegates, 
declining a conference on the subject of Henry Har- 
ford's memorial, asking compensation for his losses 
as late Proprietary. The Senate thought a confer- 
ence needless, and that Mr. Harford should receive 
no compensation. 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton was then made 
chairman of a committee to write a message to the 
House on the subject of enlarging the High Court 
of Chancery. The House proposed a conference on 
the subject, and Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll, and 
William Perry were named the Senate conferrees. 
Other committees upon which Charles Carroll was 
placed were: that for amending the bill preventing 
the exportation of unmerchantable tobacco ; that 
for ascertaining the value of land in the several coun- 
ties for purposes of assessment ; and that for draft- 
ing the bill for the valuation of personal property. 
When a motion was made and carried, that the act 
to direct descents be read a second time, Charles 
Carroll voted in the negative, and he voted for the 
motion that the consideration of the bill be put off 
to the next session, and that it be published in the 
Baltimore and Annapolis papers. 

The bill to repeal part of the Act of Assembly 
concerning the admission and qualification of solici- 
tors and attorneys, was brought in by Charles Car- 

92 Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 

roll of Carrollton at this session. And on the subject 
of the bank stock, the Senate sent a message to the 
House agreeing that the State pay all legal costs, 
and the fees paid or to be paid, by the State agent, 
Mr. Chase, to attorneys, counsel, etc., in the suits in 
the High Court of Chancery of Great Britain re- 
specting the bank stock, the five hundred pounds al- 
ready advanced the State agent being first applied 
to these purposes. On this message, the President 
of the Senate, Daniel Carroll, with Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton and Edward Lloyd voted in the nega- 
tive. The House and Senate were, as usual, at issue 
on various questions ; amongst others the proposed 
commercial convention between Maryland, Virginia, 
Pennsylvania, and Delaware, the Senate thinking 
such a Convention derogatory to the dignity of 

In the messages from the Senate to the House of 
Delegates, Charles Carroll of Carrollton was gener- 
ally on the committee to draft them. There was 
the customary sensitiveness on the subject of money 
bills, between the two branches of the Legislature. 
"We are fully satisfied," the Senators say on one 
occasion, " no inconvenience or mischief would arise 
if the Senate could not only amend, but originate 
money bills; but the framers of our Constitution 
have thought differently." And they complain of 
the embarrassment and delay caused in the public 
business, from the Senate's not having the right to 
amend money bills; "we shall be very careful," 
they add, " how we subscribe to the doctrine, that 
the bills which you may be pleased to style money 

Act to Emit Paper Money, 93 

bills, become really such on that account." On the 
6th of March the act was passed investing the 
United States in Congress assembled, with the power 
to levy particular duties, for the use of the United 
States, on certain enumerated articles, and five per 
cent, on all other foreign merchandise imported into 
Maryland. 1 

The Senate met again for the regular fall session, 
on the 6th of November, 1786, but it was not until 
the 30th that a sufficient number of members were 
present to transact business. General Smallwood 
was re-elected Governor of the State, and elections 
were made in the Senate and for delegates in Con- 
gress. Then for two months the two branches of 
the Legislature disputed over the various questions 
that divided them ; the Supply Bill, the Debtor's Bill, 
and last but not least, the bill for the emission of 
paper money. It was at this session also, that the 
commissioners were to be elected to the Convention 
in Philadelphia. Edmund Randolph, the Governor 
of Virginia, sent a letter to the Maryland Assembly 
proposing this Convention "to revise the Confedera- 
tion of the United States," and a conference took 
place between the House and the Senate on the 
subject. The Senate conferrees were Thomas Stone, 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, and William Hemsley. 
On the 2d of December the " Act for the Emission 
of Bills of Credit " was read a second time and unani- 
mously rejected. Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton, and Richard Ridgely were appointed 
a committee to prepare a message to the House 

1 Journal of the Maryland Senate. 

94 Charles Carroll of CarrdUon. 

giving the Senate's reasons for this action. This 
message fills five pages of the printed journal. It 
said in part : 

" Both reason and experience evince that if the bills 
of credit proposed to be emitted should depreciate con- 
siderably, they will neither relieve the people, or answer 
the exigencies of government, but will increase the diffi- 
culty on both to procure real money, by adding an arti- 
cle of purchase to those which are already the objects 
of sale. . . . Your bill would derange our commerce, 
banish specie. The cautious and timid would hoard it 
up. Considered with a view to commerce as well as 
finance, it appears not only useless but injurious. . . . 
The foregoing reasons are particularly pointed at your 
bill ; some of them indeed apply against paper money 
in general, as a circulating medium ; but as the sinking 
our quota of the federal domestic debt is an object of 
great importance, if any funds can be provided to give 
a value to State paper, to be exchanged for the liquidated 
paper of Congress, at a reasonable rate, the exchange to 
be voluntary with the holder of the continental paper, 
and the State paper to be made receivable for the funds 
pledged, but not to affect the public engagements, pri- 
vate dealings, or the other revenue of the State, we 
would agree to adopt such a measure." 

The Senate admitted, in their message, that the 
situation of the country was critical, and they pro- 
posed that the duties on imports should be increased, 
and that a moderate direct tax be raised in specie. 
On the 6th of January the House of Delegates sug- 
gested an adjournment to the 20th of March. 
Thomas Stone, John Henry, Charles Carroll, and 

Senate Refects the Bill. 95 

two other members were appointed a committee to 
reply to this proposal. They perceived, they said, 
with " inexpressible regret," that the House was de- 
termined to adjourn, after a session of eight weeks, 
when the Continental Treasury was empty, and no 
assessment bill had been passed to raise the money 
needed for both State and Federal purposes ; no 
steps had been taken to raise a troop of horse, as 
required by Congress, and the deputies to meet in 
Philadelphia had not been appointed : " We cannot 
account for your postponing the consideration of 
these great and interesting subjects, and your ad- 
journment to the 20th of March, unless it be to ap- 
peal to the people upon the bill for an emission of 
paper money which we rejected." After speaking 
of the other measures on which they disagreed, the 
message says, of the bill above referred to : 

"We are satisfied that the objections to the bill are 
unanswerable, and that if the sense of the people could 
be fairly collected, the majority would be against the 
measure. We are also convinced that the majority 
would increase, if time were given to discuss, under- 
stand, and form a right judgment on the subject. You 
propose to adjourn to a time so short that it is impossi- 
ble a deliberate consideration of the question and free 
interchange of sentiments can take place." 

This message was sent the 20th of January, the 
day of the proposed adjournment, and the House 
rejoined promptly: 

"The length of your message and the communication 
of it within a few hours only of the proposed time for 

96 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

closing the session, prevents us from making full obser- 
vations upon it. We shall outy say in reply, that we 
have paid every possible attention to the public affairs 
of the Union, and the interest and happiness of our 
people. You have thought proper to overrule every 
material system proposed by us for these purposes, and 
have brought forward nothing essential in their stead. 
The people must decide upon our conduct and yours, 
as to the utility, policy and rectitude of the systems 
respectively proposed ; and we trust we can meet our 
God and our country with consciences as quiet and un- 
disturbed as your own. We repeat our request to close 
this session this evening." 

The Senate replied, saying that the "system of 
an emission of paper money, the only one proposed 
by the House, was utterly incompetent to afford the 
relief desired," and reminding the Representatives 
that it was not the province of the Senate " to point 
out ways and means of raising money." The Senate 
then ordered that one thousand copies each of the 
messages on the subject of the emission of paper 
money be printed to be distributed among the peo- 
ple, and the Assembly soon afterward adjourned, 
but to the 20th of April instead of the 20th of March, 
extending the time for the consideration of the 
question at issue one month. 1 

How this agitation in the Assembly affected the 
people in the State, is shown in a letter written by 
Robert Lemmon, a prominent merchant of Balti- 
more, to Councillor Carter of Virginia, March 5th, 
1787. Charles Carroll of Carrollton also refers to 

Opposition in the State. 97 

this matter in a letter of his written about the same 

" Out dispute respecting an emission of paper money 
runs very high. You have, I suppose, heard of the great 
differences upon that subject, between the two branches of 
our Legi statu re— how they adjourned without doing any 
business of consequence after a session of two months. 
The opponents are daily increasing, and I am inclined to 
think if an emission takes place, it will be for a small 
sum. The schemes of designing men being daily dis- 
closed, creates a greater opposition and discovers a large 
emission to be intended to serve private, rather than 
public usefulness." ' 

When the Legislature met in April, its two great 
objects, said the House in a message to the Senate, 
were "the raising of supplies for Congress and this 
government, and the relieving of our people with 
respect to their difficulties and distresses on account 
of their private debts." The House was to under- 
take the first-named measure, and the Senate 
was asked to draw up the Debtor's Bill. John 
Henry, Charles Carroll of Carroll ton, and John Hall 
were appointed a committee by the Senate to 
answer this message, and in their reply they said 
they thought the work of drawing up an act for the 
relief of debtors, " without interfering with the con- 
tracts of individuals," was one of great difficulty, 
and they proposed a joint conference on the subject. 
The House assented and nominated members for 
the purpose, the Senate selecting as conferrees 

1 Carter Papers, owned bj Charles P. Keith. 

98 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

Charles Carroll, John Hall, and William Perry, and 
Richard Ridgely was added later. The report of 
this conference was brought in by Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton, and it stated that it was the opinion 
of the conferrees "that the instalment of private 
debts is a measure at this time necessary," and "that 
the creditor should be obliged to accept of the 
proposed instalment from the debtors." Then fol- 
lowed fourteen provisions for carrying out the plan 
advocated. The law to repeal acts repugnant to 
the Treaty of Peace with Great Britain was put into . 
the hands of a committee of three, George Gale, 
Charles Carroll, and John Hall, and Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton was named first on the committee of 
three who were to prepare a message to go with the 
bill to the House. The bank stock difficulty was 
approaching solution at this time, the Legislature 
resolving that the agent of the State for the recovery 
of the bank stock, might with the approbation of 
Governor Smallwood, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
and Thomas Johnson, or any two of them 

"compound, settle and agree with the trustees of said 
Stock, or any other person or persons concerning the 
same, on such terms and conditions as they may think 
for the advantage of the State, on consideration of the 
situation of said stock, present circumstances of this 
State, and the benefit that maybe derived from a speedy 
and reasonable compromise, and that the money arising 
from the stock that will remain in this government may 
be laid out in such manner as the said gentlemen 01 any 
two of them shall think most beneficial to this State." ' 
1 Journal of the Senate, 

Ckarles Carroll's Leadership. 99 

The delegates to the Federal Convention in Phila- 
delphia were elected by the Maryland Assembly, on 
the 23d of April. These were Robert Hanson Harri- 
son, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Thomas Stone, 
James McHenry, and Thomas Sim Lee. But only 
one of these gentlemen accepted the appointment, 
and this was James McHenry. And the delegation 
as finally elected on the 26th of May, the last day of 
the session, consisted of James McHenry, Daniel 
of St. Thomas Jenifer, Daniel Carroll, John Francis 
Mercer, and Luther Martin. The Senate, this time, 
proposed the day of adjournment, in a message of 
three lines and a half, May 25th, saying they had 
despatched all the business on their table, and had 
given the House sufficient time for the preparation 
of the Supply Bill, and wished to rise the following 
day. The House made a dejected rejoinder. 
" Having no hope," they said, " of making adequate 
provision to comply with all the demands upon us by 
prolonging the session," they would try to finish up 
all immediate business that evening. 1 The spectre 
of paper money had been effectually laid, the Senate 
having won a decisive victory, a triumph in which 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton bore a leading part. 
This, is one of the instances alluded to in a former 
chapter where, in the words of Judge, Taney's bio- 
grapher " the integrity and firmness of the Senate 
withstood the unwise course of the more popular 
branch," and the issue of paper money proposed by 
the House of Delegates, under the leadership of 
Samuel Chase was rejected by the Senate " under 

ioo Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

the lead of Thomas Stone and Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton." ' 

From Charles Carroll's correspondence in these 
years, of which, however, not many traces remain, 
some knowledge may be gleaned of the more per- 
sonal and private side of his life at this period, to 
supplement the public record. We find him, June 
5, 1784, ordering from his merchants in Marseilles, 
" by the first vessel bound from Marseilles to Balti- 
more town, 12 dozen quart bottles of your best 
Frontignac wine and 500 pounds weight of your 
best Turkey coffee." Thus was the wine-cellar de- 
pleted doubtless during hostilities, to be stored anew 
with foreign vintages, while the smoking beverage 
of the breakfast-table was to be the Frenchman's 
coffee rather than the Englishman's tea. Among 
Charles Carroll's Virginia correspondents were Col. 
John Fitzgerald, of Alexandria, and Mr. James 
Hunter, of Fredericksburg. To the former he wrote 
in 1785-86, on the subject of the Potomac Canal 
Company, which then wanted five per cent, on tha 
subscriptions of its members, and to which Charles 
Carroll had subscribed a thousand pounds. Letters 
of Robert Carter of " Nomini," written in 1784, 1786, 
and 1787, which are extant, relate to the business 
of the Baltimore Iron Works, and are replies to let- 
ters of Carroll, now lost. They give evidence of the 
tatter's continued and conscientious interest in his 
duties as a shareholder in the Patapsco, or Baltimore 

A scheme in which Charles Carroll of Carrollton 
1 Tyler'i " Life of Roger Brooke Ttoey," p. iai. 

Young Charles Sent Abroad. 101 

with many others of his faith were concerned, about 
this time, was the project for establishing a Jesuit 
College in America, to be located at Georgetown, 
then a part of the State of Maryland. " Proposals " 
for this purpose appeared in a prospectus issued 
1786-1787, and heading the list of gentlemen in 
Maryland who were to solicit subscriptions was the 
name of Charles Carroll of Carrollton. In Virginia, 
Colonel Fitzgerald and George Brent were appointed 
for this purpose, and at New York, Dominick 
Lynch. ' 

In 1785, Charles Carroll sent his son, then a little 
over ten years of age, to Europe, to be educated as 
his ancestors had been, in the Jesuit schools of 
France. The father writes from " Doohoragcn " 
[sic] July 31st, to Messrs. Wallace, Johnson, and 
Muir, merchants in London, and tells his corres- 
pondents : 

" This will be delivered to you by ray son whom I have 
sent to London on his way to Liege to be there educated 
in the English College. . , . My cousin, Daniel 
Carroll of Duddington will accompany my son to Liege 
to see his brother who is now in the English College. 
. . . In a day or two I shall set off from this place to 
George Town to see my son embark."' 

This embarkation of young Charles was com- 
memorated on canvas. And it seems that the child 
did not sail from Georgetown, as his father had ex- 
pected, but from the Carroll house at Annapolis. 

1 Shea's " Life and Times of Archbishop Carroll," p. 308. 
* Family papers. Rev. Thomas Sim Lee. 

102 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

Such, at least, is the tradition, which is supported by 
the details in the old picture. The heads are said 
to be all portraits. In the family group saying 
farewell, are Charles Carroll of Carrollton and his 
two daughters, while the dusky face of a negro boy, 
the young master's valet and playmate, lends its 
distinctive Southern character to the scene. This 
negro's son, known to the present generation of the 
family, as " Old Patrick," died only a few years ago. 
He was a fine specimen of the courteous, well-bred, 
kind-hearted, and loyal servant of the house, which 
the system of domestic slavery in America produced, 
and which " emancipation " has banished from the 
continent. "Old Patrick" had many interesting 
reminiscences to give of the " Signer " whom he well 
remembered, and at whose funeral he had been a 

Daniel Carroll of " Duddington " who accompanied 
his young cousin to Liege, was the eldest son of 
Charles Carroll of " Duddington " and " Carrolls- 
burg," and grandson of the elder Daniel Carroll of 
" Duddington." This younger Daniel Carroll had 
two brothers, Charles Carroll of " Bellevue," the one 
who was at Liege in 1785, and Henry Carroll. The 
following letters were written by Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton to his cousin of Duddington, while the 
latter was abroad in 1786-1787. Daniel Carroll, it 
will be seen, had been a suitor for the hand of his 
fair relative, Mary Carroll, and it was a match which 
her father evidently preferred to the one she was 
about to make. But in young Carroll's absence, an 
English rival had succeeded in supplanting him. 

Letter to Daniel Carroll. 103 

28th May, 17S6, Annapolis. 
Dear Cousin : 

I have received your letters of the 15th November and 
12th February. You may apply to Mr. Johnson for re- 
imbursement of the 18 guineas which your trip to Liege 
cost you, and on producing this letter to him I desire 
that he will pay you that sum, and charge it to my ac- 
count. By your letter of the 12th February, I find you 
intended to set out in a few days for France. I make no 
doubt you will employ your time in that country in im- 
proving yourself and particularly in learning French. I 
would not advise too long a residence in Europe. It 
will be attended with considerable expense, which your 
estate, not being a very productive one, you cannot well 
afford. You no doubt will endeavor not only to improve 
yourself in the French language, but also by the acquire- 
ment of some of the polish of their manners. Observe 
the cultivation of the country, particularly of the vine- 
yards, and learn the most improved methods of making 
wine ; attend also to their manufactures, inquire into 
their prices from the manufacturers themselves ; endeavor 
to fix some useful correspondences in France. These 
observations, and these correspondences may hereafter 
turn to account, and in some measure compensate the 
expense you have been put to in making them. 

Miss Darnall and my daughter join me in sincere 
wishes for your health and happiness. Little Kitty grows 
a fine girl. 

I am your affectionate kinsman 
and humble servant, 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

To Daniel Carroll of Duddmgton, Esq., London. 1 

1 Family paper*, Mrs. William C. Pennington. 

104 Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 

Annapolis. 13th March, 1787. 
Dear Cousin : 

I am favored with your letter of the aoth September. 
As the intelligence I am going to give you may make 
some alterations in your plans, although disagreeable, I 
must impart it to you. My daughter, I am sorry to in- 
form you is much attached to, and has engaged herself 
to a young English gentleman of the name of Caton. 
I do sincerely wish she had placed her affections else- 
where, but I do not think myself at liberty to control her 
choice, when fixed on a person of unexceptionable char- 
acter, nor would you, I am sure, desire that I should. 
My assent to this union is obtained on these two con- 
ditions, that the young gentleman shall extricate himself 
from some debts which he has contracted, and shall get 
into a business sufficient to maintain himself and a family. 
These conditions he has promised to comply with, and 
when performed there will be no other impediment in 
the way of his marriage. Time will wear away the im- 
pression which an early attachment may have made on 
your heart, and I hope you will find out in the course of 
a year or two, some agreeable, virtuous, and sweet-tem- 
pered young lady, whose reciprocal affection, tenderness, 
and goodness of disposition will make you happy, and 
forget the loss of my daughter. 

I would advise you to return home next autumn. It 
is time you should look after your own affairs ; indeed 
these do not suffer from your absence. Your worthy 
father-in-law [step-father] is as attentive to and watch- 
ful of your interest as you would be yourself, but I know 
he wishes you would return as soon as possible. Your 
residence in Europe may occasion you to spend more 
money than you can well afford, and this expense may 
subject you to considerable embarrassment hereafter. 

Letter to Daniel Carroll. 105 

Your brother Charles is lately arrived ; the ship he 
came passenger in was cast away off Cape Hatteras, no 
lives lost. Your brother, I believe, will study the law in 
this city under Judge Hanson. I have heard lately from 
Charley. I am told he begins to apply to his book. I 
wish you would endeavor to get information how he 
comes on in his studies. 

This State is at present a good deal agitated by an 
appeal made to the people by the House of Delegates 
concerning a bill for a paper emission rejected at the last 
session by the Senate. If any dependence can be placed 
in reports, a majority of the people will be against an 
emission on loan, the plan of the House of Delegates. 
The Assembly will meet again the roth of next month, 
when this question will be decided. 

A convention is to meet at Philadelphia next May for 
the purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation, 
correcting its defects, and enlarging the powers of Con- 
gress. The meeting, it is thought, will be full, and con- 
sist of the first characters in this country. 

MissDarnall and Molly desire their kind compliments 
to you. Kitty sometimes talks of " Cousin Long-legs." 
She is still puny, and often complaining, grows tall, and 
if she should hereafter enjoy a better share of health, I 
think will make a fine woman. 

An insurrection of numbers of malcontents, in the 
State of Massachusetts, has been lately suppressed by 
the exertions of that government, which I hope will in- 
crease its energy, and have a good effect in other States, 
where similar dispositions might otherwise have occa- 
sioned similar commotions. 

I have mentioned every occurrence worth communi- 
cating, and therefore conclude this letter with a 

io6 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

of real regard and attachment Wishing you health and 
happiness, I remain, Dear Cousin 
Your affectionate kinsman and very humble servant, 
Charles Carroll, of Carrollton.' 

Mary Carroll was married, in the fall of this year, 
at seventeen years of age to Richard Caton an Eng- 
lish gentleman who had settled in Baltimore in 1785, 
He became one of the prominent citizens of the 
town, entering a mercantile firm for the manufacture 
of cotton in 1790, and at one time interesting him- 
self in geological researches. Catonsville, a suburb 
of Baltimore, bears his name, as it was built up round 
the old mansion given to Mary Carroll by her father 
on her marriage. " Folly Caton " as her portrait 
testifies was very attractive and pretty. She " was 
distinguished," says a recent writer, " for the grace 
and elegance of her manners as well as for her many 
sweet and amiable qualities. She was a particular 
favorite of Washington's and one of the most charm- 
ing ornaments of the Republican Court." ' She 
was the mother of three beautiful women who 
married into the English aristocracy and are still 
remembered as "The American Graces." A fourth 
sister who married in her own country is the only 
one, however, who left descendants, 

" Kitty Carroll " the little girl who made jokes on 
Polly's lover, " Cousin Long-legs," was sent to the 
English Convent at Liege in 1789, when eleven 
years of age. Charles Carroll of Carrollton wrote 
from New York, July 6, 1789, to Messrs. Wallace, 
Johnson, and Muir: 

1 IKd. ' Harper 1 Magatine, September, 1880. 

Kitty Carroll Goes to Liege. 


" The last letter which I wrote to your Mr. Jos. John- 
son was by my daughter Kitty who sailed from Baltimore 
the 20th of May and I hope has safely arrived in London 
before this time. I must request Mr. and Mrs. Johnson's 
attention and care of my dear little girl while in London, 
where her stay, I hope was very short : the maid who 
accompanied her Mr. Johnson will be pleased to have 
shipped by the first vessel sailing and bound to Mary- 
land after Kitty's departure from London, for she is not 
to go with Kitty to Liege." ' 

Joshua Johnson, Charles Carroll's correspondent, 
at whose house little Kitty was to stay while in 
London, was a Marylander, a brother of Governor 
Thomas Johnson. 

1 Family papers, Rev. Thomas Sim Lee. 


I 787-I 79O. 

THE important business before the Maryland 
Senate, at its November session, 1787, was the 
new Federal Constitution. A committee of four 
appointed to report on the "act of the late Federal 
Convention," included Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
and Daniel Carroll of Rock Creek, the latter having 
been a member of the Convention where he voted 
generally on the side of the " Federalists," the name 
claimed by the advocates of the proposed system of 
government. Their opponents, however, who feared 
that the federal character of the Constitution was 
not sufficiently defined in this instrument as re- 
ported by the Convention, and desired to see it 
amended before it was adopted by the States, as- 
serted that the term Federalist more properly 
described one who held their views. But a party 
cannot always select its own name. So it came 
about that the ultra Federalists received the title 
of Antifederalists, then were known later as Re- 
publicans, and finally under the lead of Thomas 

Death of Thomas Stone. 109 

Jefferson, as Democrats, the name the party still 
retains. The committee's report provided that the 
Constitution be submitted to a Convention, to be 
elected the 3d Monday in January, to meet at 
Annapolis the following March, " and if they assent 
to and ratify the Constitution, that they give notice 
thereof to the Congress of the United States."' 
The House submitted other resolutions to the Sen- 
ate on this subject, which were finally accepted by 
them in place of their own, in order not to protract 
the session. 

The death of Thomas Stone in October, an- 
nounced in the Senate at this time, removed one of 
Maryland's strongest men from the political arena, 
just at the opening of the new era, and was a great 
loss to the Ant: federalists among whom he had been 
numbered. In the division of sentiment as to the 
merits of the Federal Constitution the two parties, 
which were soon to be massed in serried ranks as 
Federalists and Democrats, took their birth. Here 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton separated from some 
of his old friends, becoming known as a leader of 
the Federalists. And prominent among the Anti- 
federalists in Maryland at this period were Samuel 
Chase, John Francis Mercer, and Luther Martin. 
The latter in an able and impassioned letter widely 
circulated through the public press, gave expression 
to the principles of his party, the " Federal Repub- 
licans," as they then preferred to style themselves. 

Very little business was done in the Senate after 
the question of the Convention was settled. Charles 

1 Journal of the Maryland Senate. 

1 10 Charles Carroll of Carrolllon. 

Carroll brought in a report, December the 8th, from 
the committee of three to whom was submitted for 
amendment the act respecting civil suits and coun- 
ty courts. A communication had been received 
from Uriah Forrest, Esq., by Charles Carroll of Car- 
rollton on behalf of the Senate, and Thomas Johnson 
on behalf of the House of Delegates, relating to 
the claim of Messrs. Van Staphorst, of Amsterdam, 
against the State of Maryland ; and a joint com- 
mittee of both Houses was appointed to receive 
information from Carroll and Johnson on this sub- 
jeet. This committee reported that the loan pro- 
cured in Holland of 270,000 florins, through the 
Messrs. Van Staphorst, was obtained from a number 
of individuals in Holland on the credit of the State, 
and the Van Staphorsts as agents were not answer- 
able, or in any manner security, to the lenders for the 
principal of the loan, or interest thereon. And they 
declared that it was a mistake to suppose that the 
State was indebted to the Messrs. Van Staphorst for 
the loan aforesaid. The Senate, on the 1 5 th of De- 
cember, sent a message to the House to the effect 
that whereas "the continental State money which 
was drawn out of the Treasury some time last win- 
ter and spring, by order of the Commissioners of the 
Treasury of the United States, considerably affected 
the revenue and resources of Maryland, and sub- 
jected the people to a burthen, etc., measures 
should be taken to obviate the consequences of a 
proceeding so injurious to our constituents." Charles 
.' Carroll of Carrollton and William Perry were ap- 
pointed by the Senate to unite with a committee of 

The Maryland Convention. 1 1 1 

the House, consisting of Thomas Johnson and three 
others, " to investigate the transaction and to report 
what steps to pursue [or redress." This committee 
brought in its report the following day, which was 
read and assented to. The Assembly then ad- 
journed, December 17th, to meet again the 2d 
Monday in May. 1 

The Maryland Convention, called to vote on the 
Federal Constitution, met in Annapolis on the 21st 
of April. The only account of its proceedings which 
has come down to us is that furnished by the Anti- 
federalists of the Convention in their "Address to 
the People of Maryland," showing this body to have 
been a complete travesty of a deliberative assembly. 
A discussion of the Constitution, clause by clause, 
was forbidden. Those who were opposed to ratifica- 
tion without previous amendments were not per- 
mitted even to read these amendments, and the 
Federalists obstinately refused to speak in answer to 
the objections made by the Antifederalists. Subse- 
quent amendments agreed to by a committee consist- 
ing of members of both parties, were not reported at 
all, though they were read to the Convention by its 
chairman, George Plater. The efforts of the Anti- 
federalist minority to get any hearing at all, or the 
slightest regard paid them, proved fruitless ; the 
Federalists refusing to have the yeas and nays taken 
on the final vote ; " nor would they permit the vote 
to be entered on the journal, by which the yeas and 
nays were prohibited, to preclude the consideration 
of any amendments." * 

1 Ibid. ' Elliot's " Debates of Slate Conventions," vol. ii. 

1 1 2 Charles Carroll of CarroUton, 

Among the prominent men of Maryland in this 
Convention who were Antifederalists, were the two 
Chases, Samuel and Jeremiah Townley Chase, Will- 
iam Paca, William Pinckney, John Francis Mercer, 
and Luther Martin ; the last two having been mem- 
bers also of the Federal Convention. Another emi- 
nent Marylander who desired to see the Federal 
Constitution amended before it was riveted upon 
the States, was General and Governor William 
Smallwood. Samuel Chase wrote to General Lamb 
of New York from Baltimore, June 13th, soon after 
the adjournment of the Maryland Convention, on 
the subject of communications from the society of 
the " Federal Republicans." This was an organi- 
zation of Antifederalists banded together in an 
effort to secure amendments to the Constitution, 
and having their headquarters at New York. " I 
believe," wrote Chase, " a very great majority of the 
people of this State are in favor of amendments, 
but they are depressed and inactive . . . Gov- 
ernor Smallwood, Mr. Mercer, Mr. J. T. Chase, our 
Attorney-General, and a few more, are decided 
against the government. An attempt will be made 
to elect none but Federalists, as they falsely call 
themselves to our House of Delegates." ' 

The effect of the adoption of the Federal Con- 
stitution on Maryland's State Constitution, is thus 
referred to by one of her historians. " In several 
articles, the 2nd and 8th sections, the new national 
Constitution clashed with and repealed provisions 
(the 26th and 33d) of the existing Constitution of 
' Leake's " Life of Lamb," p. 310. 

Adopts Federal Constitution. 113 

Maryland, although adopted by a Convention of the 
people assembled by a simple resolution of the Leg- 
islature, and followed by no other sanction or ratifi- 
cation; a proceeding seemingly subversive of the 
59th article of the State Constitution." 1 The Ma- 
ryland Constitution gave the Governor the entire 
control of the militia, of all the land and sea forces 
of the State, and also the power to lay embargoes, 
etc., during the recess of the Assembly. McSherry 
explains that the statesmen of Maryland probably 
" understood the restriction of the 59th article, taken 
in connection with the 42nd section of the ' Declara- 
tion of Rights,' as binding only on the Legislature, 
and in no manner interfering with the right of the 
people to alter and amend or renew that instrument 
by means of a Convention assembled by a simple 
resolution — a construction strongly contended for at 
the present day (1849). They seem to have consid- 
ered, that as a Convention of the people had power 
to frame a Constitution at the outset, so a similar 
body, under the very theory of the government, 
properly constituted, would always have power to 
alter or renew it ; and the 42nd and 59th articles sim- 
ply provided an additional means and conferred a 
new power, by which amendments might be made, 
through the Legislature, thereby rendering un- 
necessary a too frequent resort to Conventions.'" 
The Bill of Rights forbade any change except in 
the manner to be provided by the Constitution. The 
latter declared no alteration could be made unless 
1 McSherry's " History of Maryland, " p. 323. 
' liid., p. 330. 

1 1 4 Charles Carroll of Carroll/on. 

an act for the purpose " shall pass the General 
Assembly and be published at least three months 
before a new election, and shall be confirmed by the 
General Assembly after a new election," etc. And 
there can be no justification given for the course pur- 
sued. The Federal Constitution " repealed in effect 
one clause of the State Constitution, and took away 
from the State a portion of its sovereignty and 
nationality."' Moreover this Federal Constitution 
was never properly submitted to the people of the 
State, and cannot be said to have received a legal 
sanction by constituted authority. 

What were the views of Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton, on the summary proceedings of the Maryland 
Convention do not appear, as none of his corres- 
pondence at this time has been preserved. He was 
promptly in his seat in the Maryland Senate at its 
May session. A letter was received from George 
Plater, president of the Convention, May 15th, 
enclosing " the resolve and ratification of the Federal 
government." On the 23d Charles Carroll brought 
in the insolvent debtor's bill, which repealed a 
former act on the subject, and revived another 
one, entitled, " Act for the relief of insolvent debt- 
ors."* After some routine business, the Assembly 

The Maryland Senate met again, and for the last 
time, under the more elastic, and in many respects 
" more perfect " union represented by the Articles 
of Confederation, November 3d, 1788. The first 
business of importance was the election of Senators 
1 Ibid. 'Journal of the Senate. 

Senator for the Western Shore. 1 1 5 

to sit in the newly organized Federal Congress. 
John Henry, George Gale, Charles Carroll of Car- 
rollton and Uriah Forrest were put in nomination, 
two for the Eastern and two for the Western Shore. 
John Henry was elected Senator for the Eastern 
Shore on the second ballot, and on the third ballot 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton was elected the Sena- 
tor for the Western Shore. The Incorporating 
Bill, or " Act to incorporate certain persons in every 
Christian Church or congregation throughout this 
State," was committed for amendment to John 
Henry, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, and three 
others, on the 1 1 th, of December, and was brought in 
as amended, by Henry, two days later. Charles Car- 
roll was made chairman of a committee of three 
who were to draw up a message to the House of 
Delegates on the subject of an act to lay a further 
tax on the people of Harford County to complete 
the public buildings of said county. A message 
from the House was received on the 19th tn refer- 
ence to the Incorporating Bill. It was thought to 
be a subject too complicated, and of too great 
importance for hasty action, and the House pro- 
posed that it be published for the consideration of 
the people. This bill takes up four pages of the 
Senate's journal. The only other matter of moment 
coming before the Assembly at this time, was the 
act to cede ten miles square for the seat of the 
Federal Government. The Legislators adjourned 
on the 23d of December, in time for the Christmas 
holidays. 1 

r 1 6 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

The first Congress of the United States under 
the new Constitution met in the city of New York, 
April, 1789. This Union of 1789, which replaced 
the Union under the Articles of Confederation, as 
that had succeeded to the unwritten compact be- 
tween the colonies formed at the outbreak of the 
Revolution, and existing on the promulgation of 
the Declaration of Independence, was instituted by 
the States for the purpose, as Luther Martin ex- 
pressed it in the Federal Convention, of support- 
ing and upholding these governments. It was to 
sustain their dignity and give them a common agent 
in their intercourse with foreign powers. "The 
American Confederacy," wrote a Federalist of 1818, 
"is constituted by the union of 20 States, each 
in itself separately considered sovereign and inde- 
pendent, and having its own executive, legislature, 
judiciary, local constitution and laws.'" And a 
Federalist in 1833, describing the government, and 
the origin of political parties speaks of the United 
States in 1788 as "thirteen independent sovereign- 
ties," who "called into the deliberative Assemblies 
of the time all the able men of the country" for 
the purpose of voting upon a Constitution which 
would unite them, it was thought, in a compact 
more conducive to the happiness and prosperity 
of these States than that under which they were 
then living. " It is believed " he adds, " that a large 
majority of the thinking men were decided that 
there must be some confederation of the States," 

1 " Letters from Washington on the Constitution and Laws," 
Washington, 1819. 

Federal Hall in New York. 1 1 7 

He complains that those " who were in favor of 
adopting the proposed Confederation" were stigma- 
tized by Jefferson as "monarchists" and "dis- 

It was as a Federalist then, as Federalism was 
understood by its friends during his life time, that 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton appeared in the United 
States Senate in 1789. The City Hall in New York, 
corner of Wall and Nassau streets, was fitted up 
for the sessions of Congress, and called Federal 
Hall. The House of Representatives met in a room 
on the first floor, and the Senate Chamber was 
upstairs. There were also galleries on the second 
floor, two belonging to the House of Representa- 
tives, and one, an iron gallery communicating by 
an ante-room with the Senate Hall. The building 
contained in addition several rooms, for committees, 
a library, etc. The New York " Register for 1789" 
gives us the place of residence of the Senators and 
Representatives. Charles Carroll had rooms at " 52 
Smith Street," and in the same house with him 
were the Maryland Representatives, Daniel Carroll, 
William Smith and George Gale. Carroll's col- 
league in the Senate, John Henry had rooms at 
"27 Queen Street."* 

As the Senate sat with closed doors through these 
first years of its existence, we must look for accounts 
of its proceedings, to private memoirs and corres- 
pondence. The number of Senators did not then 

1 Sullivan's " Familiar Letters on Public Characters," pp. 
37, 3i. 
'Griawold'a " Republican Court," pp. 120-166. 

n8 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

exceed eighteen. Charles Carroll took his seat, 
Monday, April 13th, and was added on this day to 
the Judiciary Committee. 1 John Henry arrived 
April 20th. From the invaluable " Journal " of 
William Maclay, one of the Senators from Penn- 
sylvania, we get the only detailed description pre. 
served of the Senate debates from April 1789 to 
March 1791, and through this source Charles Car- 
roll's record may be traced during the two years 
he was a member of this body. Maclay's first entry 
was made April 24th. A subject agitating Con- 
gress at this the beginning of a new and untried 
course, was that of titles of honor. What titles, if 
any, should be bestowed upon the President and 
other dignitaries of the government ? John Adams 
and Richard Henry Lee came prominently forward 
in favor of titles, and Charles Carroll of Carrollton 
showed in the discussion this day that he was 
opposed to them.' The question whether Congress 
should, at the Inauguration of the President, accom- 
pany him to St. Paul's Church and attend divine 
service, was opposed by Maclay, and carried " by 
the Churchmen," as he says, on the 27th. " Carroll " 
he adds, " though he had been the first to speak 
against it, yet was silent on this vote. This proves 
him not the man of firmness which I once thought 
him." ' 

Charles Carroll no doubt, showed good sense as 
well as courtesy in not further opposing a religious 

1 History of Congress, vol. I. Senate. 
'Journal of William Maclay, p. I. 1789-1791. 
' Ibid., p. 4. 

New York, 1890. 

Washington's Inauguration. 1 1 9 

service advocated by a majority of his fellow Sena- 
tors. The great day arrived, the 30th of April, and 
the sturdy, plain-spoken Democrat from Pennsyl- 
vania, an abhorer of ceremonies and etiquette, gives 
an amusing and graphic recital of the Senate's de- 
liberations, as to how they should receive the Presi- 
dent, and whether they should stand or sit during 
his address. Lee and Izard bring forward the Eng- 
lish precedents, and the Vice-President " this son of 
Adam " for whom Maclay had a special aversion has 
a few words to say also. Then, adds the journalist 
" Mr. Carroll got up to declare that he thought it of 
no consequence how it was in Great Britain ; they 
were no rule to us, etc." Maclay goes on to de- 
scribe the coming in of the Speaker and the House 
of Representatives, amidst some confusion in the Sen- 
ate, and how they wait an hour and more for the 
President, because the Senate committee had neg- 
lected to go after him. Finally he comes in, bowing 
right and left, advancing between the Senate and 
Representatives. The Vice-President rose and told 
him he should take the oath, which he does on the 
balcony. Then they return into the Senate Cham- 
ber, and all are seated, and when the President rises 
to address them all rise. Washington is much em- 
barrassed and rather ungainly in his gestures. From 
the hall they go to St. Paul's Church where prayers 
are said by Bishop Provoost. The Senate then re- 
turn to their Chamber and continue their session. 
They took up the President's address, which John 
Adams calls " his most gracious speech," an expres- 
sion strongly disapproved of by Maclay. A com- 

1 20 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

mittee of three, consisting of William S. Johnson of 
Connecticut, William Paterson of New Jersey and 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, was appointed to pre- 
pare an answer to the address. 1 Charles Carroll had 
established his reputation as a clear and forcible 
writer, and it is noticeable here as in the councils of 
his own State that when important papers were to 
be drafted his vigorous pen was called into requisi- 

On the 5th of May the weighty question as to 
how bills were to be sent to the other House was 
discussed for two hours. The House of Representa- 
tives had offended the Senate by sending them a 
bill in a letter, instead of despatching it by a mem- 
ber of their body, and now that the bill prescribing 
the oath was to go to the House, a motion was 
made that it should be carried by the Secretary. 
Maclay thought that this was a bad way of sending 
bills as it interrupted business, and if the Senate 
wanted to retaliate in kind the bill should be put in 
a letter, but the most friendly and cordial way for 
the two Houses to carry on their intercourse was 
through members, as in the State Legislatures. The 
motion was carried, however, against Maclay and his 
adherents. " Ellsworth was with us," he writes, 
" and so was Mr. Carroll, but he concluded with say- 
ing he would this time vote for the Secretary to go 
down with the bill." * The committee appointed to 
prepare a reply to the President's address made its 
report on the 7th of May. 

1 History of Congress, vol. i. Senate. 
* Journal of William Maclay. p. io. 

Reply to the Presidents Speech. I a I 

" One part was objected to which stated the United 
States to have been in anarchy and confusion, and the 
President stepping in and rescuing them. A very long 
debate. The words were struck out. Mr. Lee offered 
part of a sentence, which, I thought filled the sentence 
with propriety. It was however lost. Mr. Paterson of- 
fered a clause ' rescued us from evils impending aver us. 
This was carried ; but half the Senate nearly made sour 
faces at it. Mr. Ellsworth said it was tautological, but 
seemed at a loss as to mending it. I rose, ... I ad- 
mitted that there appeared something tautological in the 
words, and it was not easy to mend them consistent with 
elegant diction, but, if the first syllable was taken from 
the word Spending it would then stand ' evils pending 
over us.' The objection would be obviated, but I would 
not say the language would be eloquent. But, since I 
was up, I could not help remarking that I thought the 
whole clause improper ; that to state the whole Union 
as being in anarchy or under impending ruin was sancti- 
fying [sanctioning?] the calumnies of our enemies, who 
had lung labored in the foreign gazettes to represent us 
as a people void of government. It was fixing a stain on 
the annals of America, for future historians would appeal 
to the transactions of this very day, as a proof of our dis- 
ordered circumstances." ' 

The speech was then again put in the hands of 
the committee, " for the purpose of dressing it." 
And Maclay adds later : 

" The committee returned with the message, and it really 
read vastly better, and was altered in the exceptional 
phrases. In one place, speaking of the Government, it 
1 Ibid., p. 20. 

122 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

mentioned ' dignity and splendor' I submitted it to the 
gentlemen who had the amending of it whether ' respecta- 
bility ' was not better than splendor. Mr. Carroll of the 
committee, did not defend the word 'splendor,' but said 
' respectability ' had been used before if he recollected 
right. Mr. Paterson said it sounded much better than 
' respectability,' and rounded the period. Dr. Johnson 
said ' splendor ' signified in this place the highest perfec- 
tion of government. These were the three members of 
the committee. I mentioned that if the word respectabil- 
ity had been used immediately before, it would be im- 
proper ; that dignity alone, I thought, expressed all that 
was wanted. As to the seeking sounding names and 
pompous expressions I thought them exceptionable on 
that very account, and that no argument was necessary 
to show it ; that different men had a train of different 
ideas raised by the same word; that 'splendor' when 
applied to government, brought into my mind, instead of 
the highest perfection, all the faulty finery, brilliant 
scenes, and expensive trappings of royal government, and 
impressed my mind with an idea quite the reverse of re- 
publican respectability, which I thought consisted in firm 
and prudent councils, frugality and economy." ' 

But the word " splendor " was allowed to remain, 
much to the gratification of the Vice-President, as 
Maclay observes, who with " joy in his face," rose 
in the chair and repeated twice over " he hoped the 
government would be supported with dignity and 
splendor." In this address to the President, he was 
thanked for his speech, and the country congratula- 
ted " on the complete organization of the Federal 

1 Ibid., p. H. 

Carroll Opposed to Titles. 123 

Government"; and reference was made to the 
" great events which led to the formation and estab- 
lishment of a Federal Government."' The words 
" National Government " by which the modern suc- 
cessors of the Federalists now designate the confeder- 
ation of the United States were not in the political 
vocabulary of the makers of the Constitution. 

When the subject of titles was brought up again, 
some surprising things were said on the topic of Icings 
and monarchical government. Oliver Ellsworth de- 
claring "that kings were of divine appointment," 
Maclay, of course, opposed this anti-republican senti- 
ment. " Mr. Carroll rose," he says, " and took my 
side of the question. He followed nearly the track 
I had been in, and dwelt much on the information 
that was now abroad in the world [diminishing the 
veneration for titles.] He spoke against kings." * 
Ellsworth, Carroll and Few were appointed on the 
nth, a committee to consider and report on the 
mode of carrying into effect the section of the Con- 
stitution classing the members of the Senate, and 
fixing their terms of office. They gave in their re- 
port two days later. John Henry was put in the 
first class of Senators and Charles Carroll into the 
third. Then lots were drawn, and among those who 
vacated their seats at the end of the second year 
were William Maclay and Charles Carroll of Carrol, 
ton.'" On the evening of the nth, of May, some 
of the legislators were in attendance at the theatre. 

1 History of Congress, vol i. Senate. 
1 Journal of William Maclay, p. 34. 
■ History of Congress, vol. i. Senate. 

124 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

It was Washington's first appearance in public since 
his elevation to office, and he invited William Maclay 
and others to seats in his box.' His guests on this 
occasion included the Governor of New York, 
George Clinton, the French and Spanish ministers, 
the Count de Moustier and Don Diego Gardoqui, 
the Senators from New Hampshire, Connecticut, 
Pennsylvania and South Carolina, and the Senators 
from " M," probably meaning Maryland, as the Presi- 
dent would doubtless wish to distribute his favors 
equally, between the Eastern, Middle, and Southern 
States. There were also some ladies in the box, we 
are told ; Mrs. George Clinton, most likely, the Gov- 
ernor's wife, the Marchioness de Brehan, sister of 
the French Minister, and the beautiful Mrs. Ralph 
Izard, with other women of the official circle. We 
can fancy John Henry and Charles Carroll of Car- 
rollton a part of the brilliant company on this gala 
night. The play was the " School for Scandal," and 
the farce the " Old Soldier." ' 

Titles came up again for discussion on the morn- 
ing of the 14th. This " base business," as Maclay 
calls it, had gone so far that a title for Washington 
had been reported some days before by the Titles 
Committee " His Highness the President of the 
United States of America and Protector of the 
Rights of the Same." But the House of Representa- 
tives had firmly refused to concur in the report, 
and both Houses had in effect rejected titles. Yet 
a motion was made that this report in favor of titles, 

1 Griswold's " Republican Court," p. 164. 
1 Journal of William Maclay, p. 30. 

Report of Committee Tabled. 125 

which had been laid on the table, should be entered 
on the files of the Senate. Charles Carroll opposed 
this, and was seconded by William Maclay. The 
latter writes : 

" Mr. Carroll expressed great dislike at the forepart of 
the motion, which stated the acts of the Senate to be in 
favor of titles, when, in fact, no such resolution ever had 
passed the Senate. . . . Mr. Carroll declared that 
the idea held forth was that the Senate were for titles, 
but it was well known they were not all for titles. He 
was opposed, and so were sundry other gentlemen. He 
wished only for a fair question, that it might be seen who 
were for them and who were not. He wished the yeas 
and nays and let the world judge." ' 

But he failed to cany his point in getting the 
names declared of the title-coveting members. 
When the address to the President was to be signed, 
" a mighty difficulty was signified from the chair 
and the wisdom of the House called on to determine 
if the Chair had done right." Mr. Adams had 
hitherto signed his name "John Adams, Vice-Presi- 
dent," but it was as President of the Senate he was 
known in that House, said Maclay, and it was in that 
character he should sign his name to the acts of the 
Senate. " Mr. Carroll got up and said he thought it 
a matter of indifference, and concluded that he 
agreed it should be signed ' Vice-president.' His 
looks, I thought, betrayed dissent. But the god- 
dess of good-nature will apologize for this slight aber- 
ration from sentimental rectitude. He has for some 
1 Ibid., pp. 35, 36. 

1 26 Charles CarroU of Carrollton. 

time past been equally with myself opposed to the 
opinions of the Chair, and this was his peace-offer- 
ing." ' 

On the 19th, Charles Carroll of Carrollton was ap- 
pointed one of a committee of three to revise the 
journal of the Senate for publication,' in which 
undertaking these gentlemen were to expunge all 
but the barest statements of results — all debates 
which would have given the record character and 
color. They little knew that the " journal " was to 
be given to their posterity a hundred years later in 
a guise they could never have contemplated. In a 
discussion on the tariff, the Impost Bill as it was 
called, the question of a discrimination in favor of 
nations having commercial treaties with the United 
States, came up, May 26th. " I declared for the 
discrimination," writes Maclay; "Mr. Carroll rose 
on the same side with me." The particular point 
was, whether the five cents per gallon on Jamaica 
spirits, in favor of France, should be stricken from 
the bill. Many opposed all commercial treaties, 
some objected to this special discrimination as likely 
to offend Great Britain, declaring commercial war 
with her. " Mr. Langdon spoke," adds Maclay, 
"and seemed to be of our opinion. I did not hear 
a 'no' however, on the question but Mr. Carroll's 
and my own.'" The subject nearest the heart of 
the New Englanders, it seems, was the duty on mo- 
lasses. They wanted it struck out altogether, or 

' /bid., p. 39. 

' History of Congress, vol. i. Senate. 

■ Journal of William Maclay, pp. 51, 5a. 

Debate on the Impost Bill. 1 2 7 

greatly reduced, and Maclay thought, to prevent 
them from striking at anything else in retaliation, 
the duty should be reduced to four cents per gallon. 
" All ran smooth," he writes of the debate on the 
26th, "till we came to the molasses. Till quarter 
after three did the New England members beat this 
ground, even to the baiting of the hook that caught 
the fish that went to buy the molasses." ' 

At length the duty was reduced from five cents to 
four. But on the following day, immediately after the 
minutes were read, Caleb Strong of Massachusetts, 
astonished the Senate by getting up and beginning 
" a long harangue on the subject of molasses. One 
looked at another. Mr. Carroll had taken his seat 
next to me. Several of the gentlemen murmured. 
At last Mr. Carroll rose and asked pardon for inter- 
rupting any gentleman, but said that matter had 
been determined yesterday." The Vice-President, 
however, sustained Strong, on some untenable, 
technical ground, and it was evident to Maclay that 
the point had been agreed on between Adams and 
the New England Senators, in order to secure a 
greater reduction of the duty. But the question was 
postponed until the following day, Maclay in the 
meantime arming himself for the fray, getting statis- 
tics from his friends for " the war on molasses." He 
arrived at the hall of the Senate before any one else. 
"Langdon, Carroll and the Vice-President came," 
and the four talked together informally before the 
Senate opened : 

1 28 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

" The discourse was general on the subject of govern- 
ment. 'If our new government does well,' said oui 
Vice-President, 'I shall be more surprised than ever 1 
was in my life.' Mr. Carroll said he hoped well of it j 
it would be sufficiently powerful. ' If it is,' said Mr. 
Adams, ' I know not from whence it is to arise. It can- 
not have energy. It has neither rewards nor punish- 
ments.' Mr. Carroll replied the people of America were 
enlightened. Information and knowledge would be the 
support of it. Mr. Adams replied, information and 
knowledge were not the sources of obedience ; that 
ignorance was a much better source." ' 

When the Senate met, after various other articles 
had been taken up and disposed of, Richard Henry 
Lee and William Grayson, the two Senators from 
Virginia, opposing protective duties generally, the 
molasses conflict was declared on again. The Presi- 
dent of the Senate then made such an extraordinary 
speech, concluding " that after the four cents had 
been carried it was in order to move for any lower 
sum," that " somebody whispered he ought to get 
his wig dressed."' But the controversy ended, for 
the time being, leaving the duty four cents, as be- 
fore determined. When the Senate met on the 
29th, after steel nails, spikes, etc., the article of salt 
came under consideration : " Up rose Mr. Lee, of 
the Ancient Dominion ... He concluded a 
lengthy harangue with a motion for twelve cents, 
which in his opinion was vastly too low. He was 
seconded by Mr. Carroll of Maryland. Ellsworth 

1 Hid., p. 54. * IHd., p. 56. 

Duties on Sugar and Salt. 1 29 

rose for an augmentation, but said if twelve was 
lost he would move for nine. Lee, Carroll, Ells- 
worth and Mr. Morris, speakers, in favor of the aug- 
mentation." ' William Maclay, with Ralph Izard 
and William Few, spoke against the augmentation, 
maintaining that as salt was such a necessary of 
life it should be " touched with a gentle hand, if 
at all." Thomas Fitzsimons, one of the Represen- 
tatives from Pennsylvania, a Roman Catholic, and 
a personal friend of Charles Carroll's, had furnished 
the latter, it seems, with " the documents which he 
had collected on the subject of revenue, as well 
respecting Pennsylvania as the Union in general." 

On the 3rd of June, Robert Morris, Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton, John Langdon, George Read, and 
Richard Henry Lee were appointed a committee 
to report the mode of communicating the acts of 
Congress " to the several States in the Union," and 
the number necessary for that purpose. The report, 
which was brought in the following day, provided 
that in ten days after passing the act, twenty-two 
printed copies be lodged with the President, and he 
be requested to send two to each of the "supreme 
Executives in the several States." " The " Union " 
at this time consisted of eleven States only, North 
Carolina and Rhode Island having remained in the 
old Confederation from which the other States had 
seceded. Maclay tells of an amusing scene in the 
Senate on the 4th, when titles were again on the 
carpet. The discourse was on the question of styl- 

1 Hid,, p. 57, J8. 

* History of Congress, vol. i. Senate. 

1 30 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

ing the members " honorable " in the minutes, a 
" most serious affair," as the Vice-President declared. 
He wanted "right honorable," and Lee seconded 
him : " Up now rose Grayson, of Virginia, and gave 
us volley after volley against all kinds of titles what- 
ever. Louder and louder did he inveigh against 
them. Lee looked like madness. Carroll and my- 
self exchanged looks and laughs of congratula- 
tion." ' 

When the Impost Bill was taken up soon after, 
the New Englanders were for reducing the duty on 
molasses to three or two cents per gallon. Maclay 
and others spoke against the reduction. " I must 
not omit," says Maclay, " that Carroll got up and 
spoke well on our side. He stated the inequality 
of duty on molasses and sugar as sweets ; that a 
gallon of molasses was equal, as a sweet, to seven 
pounds of good brown sugar. Seven cents on one, 
four on the other." The imposts being discussed 
again Friday, the 5th, the Senate came to the arti- 
cle of teas, " imported from any other country than 
China." An amendment was moved " that should 
confine the direct trade from India and China to the 
United States to our own vessels." Robert Morris 
thought the matter should be left until experience 
proved its necessity. " Mr. Carroll got up, said if 
the matter was right it should be tried now and not 
wait for experiment, which might be attended with 
detriment, and seconded the motion.'" The Sen- 
ate soon after adjourned to Monday, to enable the 

1 Journal of William Maclay, p. 65. * Ibid., p. 68, 

Votes for Tariff Report. 131 

members to attend a " levee," at which Maclay is 
somewhat scandalized, as important bills were wait- 
ing their action. 

On the 9th he finds "a new phenomenon had 
made its appearance. . . . Pierce Butler from 
Carolina had taken his seat and flamed like a me- 
teor." The motion made Friday and seconded by 
Charles Carroll, had been negatived. And a report 
brought in by a committee on the tariff, charged 
such high duties that they amounted to a prohib- 
ition. Charles Carroll, with Robert Morris and 
three of the New Englanders, were for the report, 
while Few of Georgia, the two South Carolinians, 
and Richard Henry Lee were against it, in the dis- 
cussion that ensued. Maclay did not like the report, 
"but concluded to vote for it, all things considered, 
rather than by rejecting it, to have all set afloat on 
that subject again." ' The debate waxed warm on 
the nth: "Butler flamed away, and threatened a 
dissolution of the Union with regard to his State, 
as sure as God was in the firmament." Maclay 
writes among his meditations of the 14th : 

" My mind revolts, in many instances against the Con- 
stitution of the United States. Indeed I am afraid it 
will turn out the vilest of all traps that ever was set to 
ensnare the freedom of an unsuspecting people. . . . 
Memorandum : Get if I can, The Federalist without 
buying it. It is not worth it. But, being a lost book, 
Izard or someone else will give it to me. It certainly 
was instrumental in procuring the adoption of the Con- 

' Ibid., p. 71, 

132 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

stitution. This is merely a point or curiosity and amuse- 
ment to see how wide of its explanations and conjectures 
the stream of business has taken its course." ' 

The question was raised on the 17th, as to how 
the Senate should give its advice and consent to 
nominations made by the President. Maclay thought 
the matter was in the nature of an election, and the 
vote should be taken by ballot, " that when the per- 
son was put in nomination, the favorable ticket 
should have a yea and the others should be blanks." 
He was seconded by Few of Georgia. Charles Car- 
roll, among others, spoke against Maclay's sugges- 
tion. The subject was continued the following day : 
" Mr. Carroll spoke long for the viva voce mode. He 
said the ballot was productive of caballing and bar- 
gaining for votes. He then wandered so wide of 
the subject as to need no attention." * The vote 
by ballot was decided upon. The Judiciary Bill 
was taken up on the 22nd of June, and debated up 
to the middle of July. 

An important bill, that for organizing the Depart- 
ment of Foreign Affairs, as it was called, was dis- 
cussed in the Senate on the 14th of July. The 
resolution upon which it was based, as drawn up by 
Madison in the House of Representatives, contained 
the provisions that members of this Department 
" shall be appointed by the President, by and with 
the advice and consent of the Senate, and to be re- 
movable by the President." Maclay spoke at length 
on the subject of the President's power as defined 
' Ibid., p. 75. ' Ibid., p. 80. 

New Power Given the President. 133 

by the Constitution. The President, he said, should 
not have the power of removal from office since he 
had not the power of appointment ; " The depriving 
power should be the same as the appointingpower." 
The next day the journalist continues, 

"Mr. Carroll showed impatience to be up first. He 
got up and spoke a considerable length of time. The 
burden of his discourse seemed to be the want of power 
in the President, and a desire of increasing it. Great 
complaints of what is called the atrocious assumption of 
power in the States. Many allusions to the power of the 
British kings. The King can do no wrong. If anything 
improper is done, it should be the Ministers that should 
answer. How strangely this man has changed ! " ' 

The two who were allies at the beginning of the 
session were now drifting widely apart. John Adams 
considered this debate on the power of removal of 
so much importance that he has made notes of it 
which are fuller than those of Maclay, though he 
has omitted points which had struck his opponent. 
Carroll's speech as minuted by the Vice-President is 
as follows : 

" The executive power is commensurate with the 
legislative and judicial powers. The rule of construction 
of treaties, statutes and deeds. The same power which 
creates must annihilate. This is true where the power 
is simple, but when compound not. If a minister is sus- 
pected to betray secrets to an enemy, the Senate not 
sitting, can not the President displace nor suspend? 

1 Ibid., p. 113. 

134 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

The States-General of France demanded that offices 
should be during good behaviour. It is improbable that 
a bad President should be chosen — but may not bad 
Senators be chosen ? Is there a due balance of power 
between the executive and legislative, either in the Gen- 
eral Government or State Governments ? (Montesquieu 
quoted here). English liberty will be lost when the 
legislative shall be more corrupt than the executive. 
Have we not been witnesses of corrupt acts of legisla- 
tures, making depredations ? Rhode Island yet perse- 

The Senate was equally divided on the question, 
nine for and nine against the President's " unquali- 
fied power of removal" and the casting vote of the 
President of the Senate decided it in favor of the 
Executive. Maclay describes the excitement in the 
Senate on the 16th, when the vote was taken; the 
" huddling away in small parties," John Adams be- 
ing " very busy indeed, running to every one." Then 
the Senate met and a heated debate ensued, after 
which several changed sides ; " But now recantation 
was in fashion." When it was found out the vote 
was a tie, " the Vice-President with joy cried out, 
1 It is not a vote ' without giving himself time to 
declare the division of the House and give his vote 
in order." Of William Grayson's speech on this 
occasion, Maclay says ; " It was not long but he had 
in it this remarkable sentence; 'The matter pre- 
dicted by Mr. Henry is now coming to pass; con- 
solidation is the object of the new Government, and 

1 Adams's " Works of John Adams," vol. iii., pp. 408-413. 

Judiciary Bill Passed. 135 

the first attempt will be to destroy the Senate, as 
they are the representatives of the State Legisla- 
tures.' " ' 

The Judiciary Bill, or bill to establish the Federal 
Courts was passed on the 17th of July. Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton had been on the committee ap- 
pointed to prepare it, and of course gave his vote 
for it. Those voting against it were Pierce Butler, 
William Grayson, John Langdon, Richard Henry 
Lee, William Maclay and Paine Wingate. * "I 
opposed this bill from the beginning," writes Maclay ; 
" It certainly is a vile law system, calculated for ex- 
pense and with a design to draw by degrees all law 
business into the Federal Courts. The Constitution 
is meant to swallow all the State Constitutions by 
degrees, and thus to swallow, by degrees, all the 
State judiciaries." ' 

On the 20th July, Maclay went home on three 
weeks leave of absence, in bad health, and in low 
spirits at the course of the Federalists who were 
shaping the new Government into a form at variance 
with the principles of the Constitution, as he be- 
lieved. This same day the Impost Bill passed to a 
second reading, and was committed to Morris, Lang- 
don, Carroll, Dalton, and Lee for additions and 
alterations. ' The bill for allowing compensation to 
the President and Vice-President of the United 
States, on its second reading, August 6th, was re- 

' Journal of William Maclay, p. Il6, 
1 History of Congress, vol. i. Senate, 

* Journal of William Maclay, p. 117. 

* History of Congress, vol. i. Senate. 

1 36 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

ferrcd to a committee of eleven, which included 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton. ' Ralph Izard, Rufus 
King, and Charles Carroll were at the same time 
appointed a committee to wait on the President of 
the United States, and confer with him on the mode 
of communication proper to be pursued between 
him and the Senate, in the formation of treaties, 
and making appointments to offices.' 

William Maclay, returning to his post of duty, 
makes the first entry in his journal, on Sunday, 
August 16th. He goes that day to see his friends, 
and to hear of what has transpired in his absence. 
The "Court party," as he calls the Federalists, "is 
gaining ground," as he understands. Washington 
had dined and wined the Senators and expressing 
at his table his objection to the voting by ballot in 
agreeing to his nominations, this was to be abandoned 
for the viva voce vote. The report of the committee 
of three appointed to confer with the President, 
was taken up on the 21st, and contained the re- 
solution, "declaring that the Senate should give 
their advice and consent in all cases [to presiden- 
tial nominations] viva voce vote." And Robert 
Morris urged his colleague to change his views on 
this point, as the Senate had done, " for his own 
sake," which Maclay interprets to mean that other- 
wise he will be neglected in official circles. Despite 
this warning he gives an audible " No," against the 
resolution, which found only one faint echo from the 
other side of the Senate: "so that now the Court 

' Ibid, * Executive Journal, 1789. 

Treaty with ike Southern Indians, 137 

party triumphs at large." ' Maclay pictures the scene 
in the Senate, on the 22nd, when the President and 
Secretary of War come in, bringing a treaty with the 
Southern Indians, which the Senators are expected 
to consent to simply on hearing it read. When the 
whole matter was postponed and referred to a 
committee, the President " wore an aspect of stern 
displeasure," and withdraws at length "with a dis- 
contented air " ; and adds Maclay naievely, " had it 
been any other man than the man who I wish to 
regard as the first character in the world, I would 
have said, with sullen dignity."' When the Presi- 
dent appeared again in the Senate on Monday, the 
24th, he had recovered his equanimity, and was 
"placid and serene," consenting to amendments to 
the articles of the treaty. The Compensation Bill was 
debated the following day. This was the act to fix 
the compensation, or per diem of members of the 
Senate and House of Representatives, and the offi- 
cers of both branches of Congress. Maclay moved 
that the pay be five dollars a day, and Robert Morris 
wanted it eight, the two Pennsylvanians representing 
opposite theories here as on other occasions. The 
one advocated economy and plain living, the other 
a handsome income which should be spent freely. 
At length Rufus King moved for a committee, as it 
was a matter "of a delicate nature," to whom the 
bill might be referred. The committee of five ap- 
pointed included Charles Carroll of CarroIIton. ' 

1 Journal of William Maclay, p. 127. ' Ibid., p. 131, 

' History ot Congress, vol. i.. Senate ; Journal of William Maclay, 
P. 135- 

138 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

The debate on the permanent residence of Con- 
gress was the chief subject of interest in the Senate 
from this time on to its adjournment. But there 
was also another matter of importance receiving its 
attention, namely the proposed amendments to the 
Constitution. The Federalists had many of them a- 
greed ro these amendments, in the State Conventions, 
and had pledged themselves to secure them, after 
the adoption of the Constitution, in the manner 
provided by that instrument. On the 25th of Aug- 
ust the Senate considered the resolve of the House 
of Representatives, " that certain Articles be pro- 
posed to the Legislatures of the several States, as 
amendments to the Constitution of the United 
States." ' In spite of his not playing the courtier, 
Maclay finds himself dining with the President on 
Thursday, August 27th, where he meets Mrs. Wash- 
ington, Mr. and Mrs. Adams, and a number of other 
prominent persons. " It was a great dinner," he 
tells us, " and the best of the kind I ever was at." 
But after giving the bill of fare, he adds : " It was 
the most solemn dinner ever I sat at. Not a 
health drunk ; scarce a word said until the cloth 
was taken away." Then healths were drunk all 
round, the ladies sitting a good while, but " a dead 
silence almost," and after they withdrew it con- 
tinued nearly as dull.' Charles Carroll was, prob- 
ably, often a guest at the dinners of the President, 
and it is not likely they were as stiff, on every 
occasion as the one here described. 

1 History of Congress, vol. i. Senate. 
1 Journal of William Maclay, p. 137. 

Objects to High Salaries. 139 

When the report of the committee on the Com- 
pensation Bill was taken up in the Senate, August 
28th, " the doctrine seemed to be that all worth was 
wealth, and all dignity of character consisted in 
expensive living." All themembersof the commit- 
tee, except Lee and Carroll, are mentioned as 
speaking boldly in advocacy of high salaries, and the 
majority in the Senate voted as if they endorsed 
these views. " Mr. Carroll of Maryland," adds 
Maclay, "though the richest man in the Union 
was not with them." ' Maclay received a storm of 
abuse for his efforts to have no discrimination made 
between the pay of Senators and that of Represent- 
atives. The salary bill, fixing the pay of Federal 
officers, was discussed on the 1st of September, and 
Maclay, though ill and suffering" extreme pain," 
sat through the session, that his vote might be given, 
as the parties were evenly balanced, and he had the 
satisfaction of knowing that his suffrage decided 
" in favor of the lowest sum." But the next day he 
was not able to attend, and advantage was taken of 
his absence to increase the salaries in several in- 

At this time the Senate voted on the clause in 
the amendments to the Constitution, increasing the 
number of Representatives. It was provided by 
Article I. of the Constitution, that after the first 
enumeration of inhabitants "there shall be one 
Representative for every 30,000 until the number 
shall amount to 100." And the amendment was to 
strike out "one" and make it "two" hundred.* 

1 Ibid., p. 139. * History of Congress, vol. i. Senate. 

140 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

The motion was defeated, Charles Carroll and John 
Henry voting with the majority, and Maclay's vote 
would no doubt have been in favor of the amend- 
ment. But Maclay remained confined to his room 
with a lame leg, suffering also from the doctors, as 
he says, and unable to get information of all that 
was going on in the Senate and out of it, " or to 
minute it down if I could," he adds. Among the 
sick man's callers on the nth was "Mr. Carroll 
of Carrollton," who came in company with Dr. John- 
son, one of the Senators from Connecticut. 1 

The President sent a message to the Senate on 
the 17th, on the subject of treaties with the Indians. 
It was committed to Charles Carroll, Rufus King, and 
George Read. The President wished to know whe- 
ther a treaty " is to be considered as ratified " 
simply by his proclamation. Carroll brought in the 
report of the committee the following day, to the 
effect, " That the signature of treaties with the Indian 
nations has ever been considered as a full completion 
thereof." ' Maclay is again in his place on the 21st 
of September, ready for the debate on the permanent 
seat of government, in which he is deeply interested 
as a Penn sylvan ian, a site on the banks of the Sus- 
quehanna being then fixed upon. The bill was 
debated on the 22nd, 23rd, and 24th. As he went 
into the Hall early on the 23rd, Maclay says, " Mr. 
Carroll came in ; told mc Mr. Morris was against the 
bill and wanted to bring forward ' Gcrmantown ' 
and the ' Falls of the Delaware.' " And Morris 
1 Journal of William Maclay, p. 151. 
* History of Congress, vol. i. Executive journal. 

The Seal of Government. 1 4 1 

moved to strike out the proviso in the bill, which 
required Pennsylvania and Maryland to provide for 
removing the obstructions to the navigation of the 
Susquehanna, below the site to be selected. " Mr. 
Carroll got up and answered Mr. Morris mildly," 
writes Maclay.' 

John Adams who has preserved a record of the 
debate, gives Carroll as " against the motion to ex- 
punge the proviso ; considers the Western country 
of great importance. Some gentlemen in both 
Houses, seem to under-value the western country, 
or despair of commanding it. Government on the 
Potomac would secure it."' Maclay was quite cer- 
tain that " if the proviso is struck out, the two Mary- 
landers will vote against us." Robert Morris and 
some of the Pennsylvanians in the House of Rep- 
presentatives were playing a shifting game, saying 
in effect, as Pierce Butler put it : " Let us keep the 
Federal town on the Susquehanna, and let there be 
no navigation out of it, and then you must come to 
Philadelphia. But, rather than have the Susque- 
hanna opened which will take some of our trade 
away, we will not let you put the Federal town 
there." ' Maclay talked much, and worked hard, to 
get the bill passed as it then was, prophesying, " that 
at the next session Virginia would come forward 
with five members from North Carolina, and be 
joined by two or three from Pennsylvania, and we 
should infallibly go to the Potomac." ' 

1 Journal of William Maclay, p. 160. 

' Works of John Adams, vol. iii., pp. 41a, 413. 

* Journal of William Maclay, p. 159. * Hid., p, 161, 

14a Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

On the second reading of the bill to establish the 
seat of government, the motion was made by Wil- 
liam Grayson and Richard Henry Lee, to strike out 
"in the State of Pennsylvania" after the word 
Susquehanna, and it was lost, Carroll and Henry 
voting for the amendment and Maclay, of course, 
against it. ' Then Grayson and Lee moved for the 
Potomac and it was carried against them. Robert 
Morris moved that the ten miles square be located 
at Germantown, adjoining the city of Philadelphia, 
pledging the State to give $100,000 for this object. 
The vote was equally divided, and John Adams de- 
cided it in favor of Morris's amendment, much to 
Maclay's disgust. On the 25th, Charles Carroll 
moved "to strike out the residence being in New 
York until the Federal building should be erected," 
and Maclay voted with him. Congress adjourned 
on the 29th of September, and Maclay, very glad to 
be rid of his political vexations, took a place in the 
stage and set off for Philadelphia on his way home.' 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton doubtless hurried 
back to Maryland that he might have some time 
for his personal and plantation affairs, before the 
opening of the Assembly. He spent the month of 
October, probably, at " Doughoregan Manor," and 
early in November we find him in Annapolis, ap- 
pearing in the Senate on the 4th. John Eager 
Howard, one of Carroll's warm friends, the hero of 
Cowpens, was elected Governor of Maryland on the 
16th, and on the following day Charles Carroll and 

1 Ibid., p. 164 ; History of Congress, vol, i. Senate. 
* Journal of William Maclay, p. log. 

Bill for Abolishing Slavery. 143 

Richard Ridgeley were appointed to join a commit- 
tee of the House "to prepare an address to the 
President of the United States." Carroll was made 
chairman of two other committees also about this 
time. On the 30th of November, when the " Act 
to ratify certain articles in addition to and amend- 
ment of, the Constitution of the United States of 
America, proposed by Congress to the Legislatures 
of the several States," was read a second time, it 
was moved and seconded that the Senate agree to 
the second Article. This second Article of the 
Amendments, as passed by Congress in the Resolve 
of the House of Representatives of August 24, 1789, 
and agreed to later by the Senate, related to the 
compensation of Senators and Representatives — and 
provided that laws to vary this pay should not take 
effect until an election had intervened. The " Act 
to promote the gradual abolition of slavery-, and to 
prevent the rigorous exportation of negroes and 
mulattoes from the State," was committed, Decem- 
ber 4th, after some debate, to Charles Carroll and 
two other gentlemen, who were instructed to confer 
on the subject with a committee of the House. 
Charles Carroll reported from the committee to pre- 
pare a message to the House, as follows: 

" Gentlemen : 

A bill for the gradual abolition of slavery, and for pre- 
venting the rigorous exportation of negroes and mulattoes 
from this State, has been originated in this House, and 
lain some time for consideration. The great importance 
of this subject, whether considered with a view to the 
persons whom it concerns, or to the advantage and hap- 

144 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

piness of the community at large, appears to be such as 
to require peculiar investigation, and the most serious 
attention of the legislature. Hence it is conceived, that 
discussion of this subject by a joint committee of both 
Houses will be proper, that by a candid exchange of 
sentiments such a system may be reported, as will be 
thought most agreeable, as well to the sense of both 
branches of the legislature, as to the sense of our fellow- 
citizens. With this view we have framed the resolution 
which accompanies this message, and do request that 
a committee be appointed, on the part of your House, to 
investigate the subject of the bill above mentioned, with 
the committee chosen on the part of the Senate, to whom 
under this expectation we have referred the same." ' 

The House apparently took no notice of this 
message, and December was ordered that 
this bill be referred to the next session. Other 
committees of importance appointed by the Senate 
of which Charles Carroll was made chairman were 
the following: the committee to prepare amend- 
ments to "the act to dispose of the reserved lands 
westward of Fort Cumberland in Washington County, 
and to fulfil the engagements made by the State to 
the officers and soldiers of the Maryland Line in the 
service of the United States ; " and the act respect- 
ing the debtors and creditors of the State, " under 
the act to establish funds to secure the payment of 
the State debt within six years, and for the payment 
of the annual interest thereon." * The Senate ad- 
journed on Christmas-day. 

1 Journal of the Maryland Senate. * Ibid, 

First Congress, Second Session. 145 

About this time the Roman Catholics of America 
presented an address to General Washington, as 
President of the United States, which was signed on 
behalf of the clergy by the Bishop-elect of Balti- 
more, the Rt. Rev. John Carroll, and on behalf of 
the laity by Charles Carroll of Carrollton and Daniel 
Carroll, Dominick Lynch of New York, and Thomas 
Fitzsimons of Pennsylvania. Washington replied 
in a courteous letter, dated March 12th, 1790.' 

The second session of the first Congress met in 
New York on the 4th of January, 1790, and John 
Henry arrived on the 19th. But it was not until 
the 15th of March that Charles Carroll took his 
seat. Maclay reached New York on the 5th of Jan- 
uary, and was in the Senate the following day. 
North Carolina sent in her ratification of the Con- 
stitution at this time, and her Senators soon after 
took their seats. ' Maclay tells of the President's 
address to Congress, and the answer to it ; of his 
dining with Washington, and being treated with 
great attention. " He is but a man, but really a 
good one, and wc can have nothing to fear from 
him, but much from the precedents he may estab- 
lish," is the conclusion of the Democratic Senator. 
The bill to promote the progress of useful arts, on 
its second reading, March 15th, was committed to 
Carroll. Johnson, Maclay, Few, and Paterson, ' 
Charles Carroll having arrived in the Senate that 
day. A characteristic conversation that John Adams 
has with the distinguished Marylander, two days 
1 Life and Times of Archbishop Carroll, pp. 348,350. 
• History o( Congress, vol. i. Senate. ' Ibid. 

146 Charles Carroll of Carrottton. 

later, has been preserved in Maclay's journal. He 
writes : 

"Before the Senate was formed this morning, Mr. 
Carroll of Carrollton happened to be sitting next to 
me. We were chatting on some common subject. The 
Vice-President was in the chair which he had taken on 
the performance of prayer. He hastily descended and 
came and took the chair next to Mr. Carroll's. He be- 
gan abruptly : ' How have you arranged your empire on 
your departure ? Your revenues must suffer in your 
absence. What kind of administration have you estab- 
lished for the regulation of your finances? Is your 
government intrusted to a viceroy, nuncio, legate, pleni- 
potentiary, or chargi ctaffaires ? ' etc. etc. Carroll en- 
deavoured to get him down from his imperial language 
by telling him he had a son-in-law who paid attention 
to his affairs, etc. T was in vain. Adams would not 
dismount his hobby. At it again ; nor was there an 
officer in the household, civil or military departments of 
royal or imperial government that he had not an allusion 
to. I pared my nails and thought he would soon have 
done, but it is no such easy thing to go through the de- 
tail of an empire. Guardian goddess of America, canst 
thou not order it so, that when thy sons cross the Atlan- 
tic they may return with something else besides European 
forms and follies f But I found this prayer ruffled me 
a little, so I left them before Adams had half settled the 
empire." ' 

Mrs. Caton accompanied her father to New York 
at this time, where she became a favorite in society, 

1 Journal of William Maclay, p. 9f6. 

Second Session of Congress. 147 

and was admired both for her beautyand amiability, 
General Washington, it is said, being very fond of 
her. And her portrait, painted by Robert Edge 
Pine, 1 preserved by her descendants is full of grace 
and charm. 

The Assumption Bill, Alexander Hamilton's 
scheme for funding the State debts, was agitating 
Congress at this its second session. It was a meas- 
ure vehemently opposed by the Democrats, as cal- 
culated to give too much power to the general 
government. Charles Carroll was in favor of it, and 
Maclay writes on the 22d of a visit he pays Carroll 
with another gentleman: "We got on the subject 
of the State of South Carolina having instructed 
their representation. Could any hints have gone 
from here, said he, to set them on this measure? 
He [Carroll] is a Roman Catholic, and the intimate 
friend of Mr. Fitzsimons." ' Mr. Fitzsimons who 
was one of Hamilton's supporters, it seems, had 
gone back to Pennsylvania to prevent that State 
from instructing her delegates as to how they should 
vote, and Maclay thinks he is suspected of having 
been working for the same end, though with an 
opposite motive. Charles Carroll brought in a re- 
port on the bill for promoting the progress of useful 
arts, and twelve amendments were added to it, March 
30th. On this same day the bill for regulating the 
military establishment of the United States was 
committed to Few, Ellsworth, Butler, Schuyler, 
Carroll, Langdon, and Strong. Mr. Few reported 

1 Griswolds's " Republican Court," p. 209. 
'Journal of William Maclay, p. »SO. 

148 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

this bill on the 6th of April. 1 " Some trifling 
amendments were made in the compensation to the 
officers," writes Maclay, " but the bill was materially 
the same ... I spoke against the whole bill, as the 
egg from which a standing army would be hatched, 
as it is a standing army in fact, for the smallness of 
the number does not diminish the principle."* 

The progress of the Revolution in France could 
not fail to be of deep interest to Americans, and as 
yet Federalists and Democrats had not divided on 
the question of its merits as they were to do subse- 
quently. So Maclay records one day : 

" Carroll of Carrollton edged near me in the Senate 
Chamber and asked me if I had seen the King of France's 
speech, and the acts of the ' Tiers Etats,' by which the 
distinctions of the nobility were broken down. I told 
him I had, and I considered it by no means dishonorable 
to us that our efforts against titles and distinctions were 
now seconded by the representative voice of twenty-four 
millions. A flash of joy lightened from his countenance. 
How fatal to our fame as lovers of liberty, would it have 
been had we adopted the shackles of servility which en- 
lightened nations are now rejecting with detestation ! " * 

The Military Bill was discussed, at intervals, from 
April 15th to April 21st, when it passed the Senate, 
with amendments. It was said by the friends of the 
bill that the troops were augmented because Georgia 
wanted them to protect her from the Indians, and 
Charles Carroll took this ground in advocating the 

1 History of Congress, vol, i. Senate. 
* Journal of William Maclay, p. 13a ■ Ibid., p. 333. 

The Military Establishment. 149 

measure. But Gunn of Georgia said that Georgia 
was at peace, and there was no need to increase the 
troops on her account. Rufus King asserted that 
soldiers were wanted because there was a conspiracy 
between the Kentuckians and the Spaniards, and 
Maclay arose in great indignation, to defend " the 
characters of the people on the Western waters." 
Maclay maintained that the Constitution never con- 
templated a standing army in time of peace — " a 
well-regulated militia " was provided, and that was 
all. And he declared that the Constitution of Penn- 
sylvania was abhorent of a standing army, and it 
was to be inferred that the United States Constitu- 
tion was equally opposed to it. " Ellsworth as- 
serted that military establishment meant and could 
mean nothing short of a standing army. Carroll 
used the same language, and expressly said, that 
though the Constitution of Pennsylvania might for- 
bid it, we were not to be governed by any State 
Constitution." ' 

When the Senate met on the morning of the 22d 
of April, the news had just been received of the 
death of Benjamin Franklin. The House of Repre- 
sentatives voted to wear crape on their arms for a 
month, in honor of this distinguished man but in 
the Senate it was observed that they had " suffered 
Grayson to die without any attention to his memory, 
though he belonged to our body, and perhaps had 
some claims to a mark of sorrow." So when Charles 
Carroll of CarrolHon rose, the next day, and made a 
motion that the Senate should follow the example 

1 Ibid., p. 345, 

1 50 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

of the House and wear crape for the loss of Dr. 
Franklin, some members objected, Maclay says, to 
gratify the South Carolinians who hated Franklin. 
He had made himself obnoxious by signing one of 
the first memorials by which Northern Abolitionists 
sought to influence Congress in an unconstitutional 
interference with property rights at the South. 
Maclay had seconded Carroll's motion, but, he adds, 
" as the matter strictly speaking, was not senatorial 
or such as belonged to us in our capacity as a public 
body, and as it was opposed, Carroll looked at me, 
and I nodded assent, and it was withdrawn." ' 

Rhode Island had not as yet joined the new 
Union and it was now proposed to make her suffer 
for her delay. Maclay, in his dryly sarcastic manner, 
reports that on the 28th, "as we had nothing to do 
in the Senate, Carroll moved for a committee to 
consider what was to be done about Rhode Island, 
etc. One was accordingly appointed." It was or- 
dered that Carroll, Ellsworth, Morris, Izard, and 
Butler " be a committee to consider what provisions 
will be proper for Congress to make in the present 
session respecting the State of Rhode Island." The 
"agitating the affair of Rhode Island," was consid- 
ered by Maclay and his friends as " only to furnish 
a pretext to raise more troops," and he regarded 
Carroll as a tool of " the Secretaries " (Hamilton 
and Knox) in bringing it forward. This committee 
reported through its chairman on the 5th of May, 
and the subject was considered on the 10th, Morris 
finally reporting the bill, "to prevent bringing 
1 IHd., p. S47- 

Rhode Island and the Union. 1 5 1 

goods, wares and merchandise from the State of 
Rhode Island and Providence Plantation into the 
United States, and to authorize a demand for money 
from the said State." ' It was recommitted and 
Charles Carroll reported additional clauses on the 
18th of May, when the bill passed, Maclay with Lee 
and Walker of Virginia, Butler of South Carolina, 
Henry of Maryland, and others voting against it. 
It was a subject which in a great measure was a 
party one, dividing the Federalists and Democrats. 
Maclay writes on the 5th of May : " The Rhode 
Island committee reported. The amount of it was 
to put that State in a kind of commercial Coventry, 
to prevent aH intercourse with them by the way of 
trade. I think the whole business premature." He 
spoke against the " Rhode Island resolves " on the 
10th, declaring : 

"That the business was under deliberation in Rhode 
Island ; that the resolves carried on the face of them a 
punishment for rejection, on the supposition that they 
would ruin our revenue. Let us first establish the fact 
against them that an intercourse with them had injured 
our revenue before we punish them with a prohibition 
of all intercourse. This resolution I considered pre- 
mature. The other for the demand of twenty-seven 
thousand dollars I considered as equally so. Let the 
accounts be settled, and Rhode Island has a right to be 
charged with, and has a right to pay her proportion of 
the price of independence. By the present resolutions 
the attack comes visibly from us. She is furnished with 

1 History of Congress, vol. i. Senate. 

152 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

an apology and will stand justified to all the world if we 
should enter into any foreign engagements." 

Again on the l ith, " the Rhode Island resolutions 
were taken up," says Maclay ; " They admitted on 
all hands that Rhode Island was independent, and 
did not deny that the measures now taken were 
meant to force her into an adoption of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, and founded their argu- 
ments in our strength and her weakness. I could 
not help telling them plainly that this was playing 
the tyrant to all intents and purposes." On the 
14th, when the Rhode Island bill was under discus- 
sion again, Maclay writes : " I contented myself with 
giving my negative to every particle of it. I knew 
I could gain no proselytes, and that, as the bill could 
not be justified on the principles of freedom, law, 
the Constitution, or any other mode whatever, argu- 
ment could only end in anger." The "Yorkers," 
he says, only thought of getting in two more Sena- 
tors, on whose votes they could count, in regard to 
the question as to the permanent residence of Con- 
gress. And Ralph Izard of South Carolina, who 
nevertheless voted for the bill, declared : " If gentle- 
men will show us how we can accomplish our end 
by any means less arbitrary and tyrannical I will 
agree with them." Robert Morris, another warm 
advocate of the resolutions, said of the money clause : 
" This is the most arbitrary of the whole of it." 

Richard Henry Lee made a long speech against 
the bill on the 18th, and Maclay made a last effort 
on the same side : 

Both Equally Independent. 153 

" The bill had been assigned to various motives, self 
defence, self preservation, self interest, etc. I began 
with observing that the Convention of Rhode Island 
met in a week ; that the design of this bill was evidently 
to impress the people of Rhode Island with terror. It 
was an application to their fears, hoping to obtain from 
them an adoption of the Constitution, a thing despaired 
of from their own free will, or their judgment. It was 
meant to be used in the same way that a robber does a 
dagger, or a highwayman a pistol, and to obtain the end 
desired by putting the party in fear ; that where inde- 
pendence was the property of both sides, no end 
whatever could justify the use of such means in the 

Here were the seceding States of 1787 endeavor- 
ing to force Rhode Island into their new Union in 
1790 by tyrannical resolutions and penalties, as un- 
justifiable almost as a recourse to arms. Twelve 
Senators voted for and eight against the bill. Both 
South Carolina and Maryland gave one vote on this 
occasion, in opposition to States Rights, and Carroll 
and Izard were the only two Southern men who 
took the affirmative side on this question. But no 
statesman of this epoch could have contemplated 
the actual "tyranny" of making war upon Rhode 
Island to bring her into the Union. The spectacle 
was reserved for the succeeding century, of a set of 
sovereign States forcing, by a resort to arms, other 
States, " where independence was the property of 
both sides," into a " Union" they did not desire; 
an arbitrary and iniquitous course, not to be "justi- 

1 Journal of William Maclay, pp. 358, 359. 363, 264, 366, 967. 

1 54 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

fied on the principles of freedom, law, the Constitu- 
tion, or any other [doctrine] whatever. No end 
whatever could justify the use of such means in the 



I 79O-I 792. 

THE bill " providing for means of intercourse be- 
tween the United States and foreign nations," 
at its second reading in the Senate, on the 3d of 
May, was committed to Strong, Ellsworth, Carroll, 
Maclay, and Few.' Maclay writes of the debate this 
day " on the subject of etiquette, and the expense 
attending and necessary to constitute the very es- 
sence of an ambassador." An appeal was made to 
the Chair, and Maclay disbelieved John Adams's 
" tales of a traveller," and " voted in the face of all 
his information. A commitment of the bill was 
called for," he adds, " and I was, contrary to my ex- 
pectations, put on it." Three days later he reports 
of the proceedings of this committee : 

" On the bill for the salaries of ministers plenipoten- 
tiary, cltargi d' affaires, etc. I bore my most pointed 
testimony against all this kind of gentry ; declared I 
wished no political connection whatever with any other 
1 History of Congress, vol. i. Senate, 

1 56 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

country whatever. Our commercial intercourse could 
be well regulated by consuls, who would cost us nothing. 
All my discourse availed nothing. The whole commit- 
tee agreed with me that they were unnecessary. Why 
then appoint any, or make provision for the appointment 
of any, for so sure as we make a nest for one the Presi- 
dent will be plagued till he fills it ? We agreed to the 
bill as it stood, but I proposed twice to strike out all 
about ministers plenipotentiary." ' 

The committee met the Secretary of State by 
special appointment on the evening of the 24th, and 
an interesting description is given by Maclay of 
Thomas Jefferson, the slender figure, lounging man- 
ner, and face with a " sunny aspect," impressing the 
austere Pennsylvanian as wanting in dignity, while 
his discourse " partook of his personal demeanor. 
It was loose and rambling, and yet he scattered in- 
formation wherever he went, and some even brilliant 
sentiments sparkled from him." But Maclay evi. 
dently did not think Jefferson much more reliable 
than Adams on the subject under discussion. 

" The information which he gave us respecting foreign 
ministers, etc., was all high-spiced. He had been long 
enough abroad to catch the tone of European folly. 
He gave us a sentiment which seemed rather to savor of 
quaintness. ' It is better to take the highest of the lowest 
than the lowest of the highest.' Translation ; ' It is better 
to appoint a chargi with a handsome salary than a minis- 
ter plenipotentiary with a small one.' He took his leave 
and the committee agreed to strike out the specific sum 
to be given to any foreign appointment, leaving it to the 
1 Journal of William Maclay, p. 357. 

The Permanent Residence Bill. 157 

President to account, and appropriate thirty thousand 
dollars generally for that purpose." ' 

Two bills debated in the Senate at this time were 
the Funding Bill and the Bill for the Permanent Re- 
sidence of Congress. With the latter went the dis- 
cussion of an adjournment for the next session from 
New York to Philadelphia, a motion which met with 
much opposition from certain quarters. And Wil- 
liam Maclay's journal gives us some idea of the ex- 
citement the intrigues on this subject occasioned. 
" How shall I describe," he writes on the 8th of 
June, " this day of confusion in the Senate." The 
proposed removal to Philadelphia was the burning 
topic of the hour. The South Carolinians wanted 
to remain in New York until the site of the Federal 
city was selected : " Now it was that Izard flamed 
and Butler bounced, and both seemed to rage with 
madness," reports the Pennsylvanian. He makes 
no mention of Charles Carroll on this day, but men- 
tions him as speaking on the 1st of June, and Mary- 
land's votes with those of Virginia, were counted by 
Maclay as favoring the move to Philadelphia.' 

Charles Carroll was appointed on the 8th of June, 
one of a committee of three, to consider the matter 
of adjournment, and the business it was necessary 
to finish at this session.' The House of Representa- 
tives, about this time, voted for the temporary resi- 
dence of Congress to be in Baltimore, of which 
" Butler wished Carroll joy," Maclay writes. The 
latter preferred Baltimore to New York, and after 

1 Hid., p. 873. " Ibid., pp. 879, 38$. 

* History of Congress, vol. i. Senate. 

1 58 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

visiting Mr. Jefferson's office on some business, be- 
fore going to the Senate on the 14th, he called at 
the lodgings of Mr. Carroll, "to forewarn him that 
an objection would be made to Baltimore that there 
were no public buildings, and that he should be pre- 
pared on this subject." ' On the 24th of June, the 
bill for establishing a " post-office and post-roads 
within the United States," which had been read the 
first time two days before, was committed to John- 
ston, Langdon, Carroll, Strong, and Maclay.* 

A meeting of the committee took place early the 
following morning, and Maclay tells of a conversation 
had with Charles Carroll on this occasion : " I found 
Mr. Carroll there. We had much loose talk. He 
told me his plan, which was to take Butler's bill [re- 
lating to the Federal city], amended so that the re- 
sidence should be ten years in Philadelphia, at the 
end of which the permanent residence should be on 
the Potomac." The Post-Office committee met 
again on the 26th. Maclay writes : 

" The bill came up from the Representatives with 
every post-road described, both main and cross roads. 
Carroll and Strong were for blotting out every word of 
description, and leaving all to the Postmaster- General 
and the President of the United States. I proposed a 
different plan : that one great post road should be de- 
scribed by law from Portland, in New Hampshire, to 
Augusta, in Georgia, passing through the seats of the 
different governments, and that two cross-roads only 
should be described from New York to Canada, and 

1 Journal of William Maclay, pp. 289, 291. 
9 History of Congress, vol. i. Senate. 

Maryland's Generous Offer. 159 

from Philadelphia or some other proper place to Fort 
Pitt, for the accommodation of the Western country. 
The other, or block system prevailed." ' 

When the committee met on Monday, the 28th, 
there was " such running and caballing of the Sen- 
ators nothing could be done." The Residence Bill 
was coming up, and little else could be thought of. 
Richard Henry Lee and Charles Carroll were the 
leaders in the Senate who advocated the Potomac 
for the permanent residence of Congress, and Mad* 
ison pressed its claims in the House, while the Presi- 
dent was known to favor the river on which was 
located his beloved " Mount Vernon." Maryland 
had made the most generous offer of territory for 
this purpose, proposing, through her Representa- 
tives, to cede to the United States a district ten 
miles square In any portion of her territory which 
Congress might select. So, though the Susque- 
hanna and the Delaware made rival bids, the Poto- 
mac carried off the prize, as it was considered. 
William Maclay, who favored the river of his own 
State was suspicious of his Maryland friend at this 
juncture, and thought he was temporizing with the 
" Yorkers." He speaks of the Potomac party in the 
Senate as " Carroll and Co." However, when the 
vote was finally taken, June 30th, giving the tempo- 
rary residence to Philadelphia for ten years (this 
clause having been moved by Charles Carroll on the 
29th) and the permanent residence to the Potomac, 
Maclay professed himself satisfied. 

1 Journal of William Maclay, p. 308. 

160 Charles Carroll of Carroltton, 

" I am fully convinced Pennsylvania could do no bet- 
ter. The matter could not be longer delayed. It is in 
fact, the interest of the President of the United States 
that pushes the Potomac. He [Washington], by means 
of Jefferson, Madison, Carroll and others, urged the 
business, and, if we had not closed with these terms, a 
bargain would have been made for the temporary resi- 
dence in New York." ' 

Next in the order of business, but as many of the 
legislators believed, far transcending the Residence 
Bill in importance, was that for the Assumption and 
Funding of the State debts. And here Charles 
Carroll also bore a leading part. Maclay as a good 
Democrat, and a conscientious opponent of Hamil- 
ton, upon whose report made in March the bill was 
based, took strong grounds against it in all its feat- 
ures. He was fully persuaded that the majority of 
those who supported it were bribed, and that the 
bargain had been "to give the Assumption of State 
debts for the residence." Maclay himself was ap- 
proached more than once on this point, and told 
that if he would vote for the Assumption he might 
obtain the Federal city for the Susquehanna, a prop- 
osition he spurned with scorn. The vote on the bill 
was fourteen to twelve. Jefferson has recorded how 
he was duped into turning the scale, by securing 
Virginia's vote for the Assumption. The bill had 
been rejected in the House about the time of his 
arrival in New York : 

" So high were the feuds excited by this subject, that 

on its rejection business was suspended. Congress met 

1 IUd. t p. 3lfl. 

Assumption of State Debts. 161 

and adjourned from day to day without doing anything, 
the parties being too much out of temper to do business 
together. The Eastern members particularly, who with 
Smith from South Carolina, were the principal gamblers 
in these scenes, threatened a secession and dissolu- 
tion." ' 

Hamilton pointed out to Jefferson " the danger 
of the secession of their members, and the separa- 
tion of the States," and Jefferson, who knew noth- 
ing of the circumstances, to "save the Union" 
agreed to invite a friend or two to dinner to discuss 
the subject. So two of the " Potomac members," 
White and Lee, over a bottle of wine, were induced 
to change their votes. 

It was moved in the Senate, June 14th, " that pro- 
vision shall be made the next session of Congress 
for loaning to the United States a sum not exceed- 
ing twenty-two millions of dollars," and on the 2d 
of July this resolution was- referred to a committee 
consisting of Charles Carroll. Richard Henry Lee, 
Strong, Ellsworth, and Paterson.' Carroll brought 
tn his report on the 12th, that the loan should be 
made " in certificates issued by the respective States 
for services or supplies towards the prosecution of 
the late war." Maclay was one of the committee on 
the original Funding bill, for funding the Federal 
debt, a committee which had been appointed June 
nth, and reported on the 15th of June, and of the 
proceedings of the 2d of July he writes: "Ells- 
worth moved a commitment of the resolution with 

1 "Work* of ThotaM Jefferson," Congress Edition, vol. ix., 
p. 91. ' History of Congress., vol. i. Senate. 

162 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

regard to the State debts. I saw we were taken un- 
awares on this subject. They carried the commit- 
ment and the committee both against us. Carroll 
joined them." He writes again on the 12th : 

" A number of us gathered in a knot and got on the 
subject of the assumption, the report of which had just 
been handed in by Mr. Carroll. It was in favor of it. 
And now from every appearance Hamilton has got his 
number made up. He wanted but one vote long ago. 
The flexible Read was bent for this purpose some time 
ago, and Carroll having joined to make up the defection 
of King. The mine is ready to be sprung. Since I am 
obliged to give up Carroll's political character, I am 
ready to say, ' Who is the just man thatdoeth right and 
sinneth not?' " ' 

On the 15th, Maclay continues: 

" The Vice-President took up the Funding bill with- 
out any call for it. ... I saw Carroll writing a 
ticket with a number of names on it, sand and put it by. 
In the meantime up rose Ellsworth, and moved that both 
the Funding bill and the resolutions for the assumption 
should be referred to a committee. . . . The Vice- 
President, who was to appearance in the secret, seemed 
impatient until I had done, and putting the question it 
was carried. . . . They carried the committee, all 
of their own number. This done, the Senate adjourned. 
Henry came and sat beside me a good while. He told 
me that Carroll wrote his ticket with the seven names 
(that being the number of the committee) before any 
business whatever was done. This I had observed in 
part myself. We did not need this demonstration to 

1 journal of William Micky, pp. 314, 332, 

Carroll Selects the Committee, 163 

prove that the whole business was prearranged, nor can 
any person be now at a loss to discover that all three 
subjects — residence, assumption, and the funds equiva- 
lent to six per cent [Maclay had voted for four per cent] 
— were all bargained and contracted for on the principle 
of mutual accommodation for private interest." ' 

And Washington was, after all, at the bottom of 
the whole thing. Maclay concludes, the " best 
interests " of the people were *' sacrificed to the 
vain whim of fixing Congress and a great commer- 
cial town (so opposite to the genius of the Southern 
planter) on the Potomac." These were severe ani- 
madversions upon his hero, Washington, and upon 
the upright and public-spirited Marylander, Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton. It was true, no doubt, that 
South Carolina and Massachusetts, having the larg- 
est State debts, wanted them assumed by the gen- 
eral government ; that New York, Pennsylvania, and 
Maryland all had delegates in the House or Senate 
who were not opposed to the assumption, and would 
vote for it, perhaps, the more readily if they thereby 
secured a vote in return for the particular modifica- 
tion of the Residence Bill they favored. The objec- 
tions to the Funding and Assumption Bill, the two 
separate measures having been amalgamated into 
one, were, in the eyes of the States Rights advo- 
cates, the approaches towards centralization the 
project involved. 

Maclay believed that it lowered the power of the 
State ; that it would complete " the pretext for 
seizing every resource of government and subject of 

1 Ibid., pp. 337, 338. 

1 64 Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 

taxation in the Union, so that even the civil list of 
the respective governments would have to depend 
on the Federal Treasury;" and he maintained also, 
that the large sum assumed, was intended to cover 
the speculations that had been made in the State 
debts. Virginia, through her Legislature, protested 
against the bill as unconstitutional, and oppressive, 
as it taxed the States unevenly, the citizens of those 
States which had paid their debt being forced to pay 
the debts of those States which were delinquent. 
And the fact became apparent, in due time, that the 
public debt had been increased unnecessarily to 
twenty-one million dollars, when eleven millons 
would have been amply sufficient. 

The funding system, as against the plan hitherto 
pursued of compounding with public creditors, was 
opposed by Maclay upon " republican as well as 
economical principles." And he states the position 
of those who advocated it in the United States, in 
the course of his argument against what he thinks 
so detrimental to the Federal Republic. He says : 
" I deny the power as well as the justice of the pres- 
ent generation charging debts, more especially irre- 
deemable ones, upon posterity; and I am convinced 
that they will one day negative the legacy." " But," 
he adds, " I will take gentlemen at their word, and 
believe that it is the glare of British grandeur, sup- 
posed to follow from her funds, that has influenced 
their conduct, and that their intentions are pure, 
wishing to render America great and happy by a 
similar system." 1 And whatever may be thought 
1 Ibid., p. 337. 

Letter to Governor Howard. 165 

of some others, with these motives we may no doubt 
credit George Washington, and Charles Carroll of 
Carroll ton. 

The following letter, in Charles Carroll's hand- 
writing, dated on Sunday, two days before the vote 
was taken on the "Consolidated Funding Bill," as 
Maclay calls it, was forwarded by the Maryland 
Senators to John Eager Howard, Governor of the 
State : 

New York, July, 18. 1790. 

Almost all the Stales have appointed persons of ability 
and proper talents to superintend the settlement of their 
respective accounts with the United States, and to sup- 
port the validity and justice of the charges contained 
in those accounts. 

We submit to your Excellency and the Council the 
propriety of a similar appointment on behalf of our 
State, which may be the more necessary, should the 
State debts be assumed by the Uniied States, of which 
event there is now a prospect, and even a probability. 

We are wilh the highest respect, 
Your Excellency's most obedient, humble servants, 
J. Henry. 
Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. 1 

The Creek Indians who had so long been a source 
of trouble to Georgia, consented to form a treaty 
with the United States, at this time, and their 
leader, Alexander McGillivray, with twenty-eight 
of the principal warriors of the tribe, came to New 
York in July, and were escorted into the city by 
1 Wisconsin Historical Society. 

1 66 Charles Carroll of Carrolllon. 

the Tammany Society, wearing their Indian cos- 
tumes, the Creeks, no doubt, considering this a 
delicate compliment on the part of their entertain- 
ers. Charles Carroll was very probably with Wash- 
ington and Jefferson at the public dinner given the 
Indians on the 2d of August by the Tammany 
sachems. The treaty was communicated to the 
Senate in executive session, by the President on 
the yth of August, and the vote was taken to con- 
sent to its ratification five days later, when Charles 
Carroll was present, voting in the affirmative. 1 The 
public ratification took place on the 13th, in Federal 
Hall, in the presence of a large concourse of people, 
the Creek chiefs giving their assent, and accepting 
from the President the symbolical string of wampum, 
in token of the peace and amity so happily estab- 

Maclay had left the city some time before, the 
last entry in his journal, for this session, being dated 
on the 22d of July. He had observed of the nascent 
political organization so well known at the present 
day, that the sons of St. Tammany paraded the 
streets in Indian dresses "the old 1st of May," 
May 12th, and adds: "There seems to be some 
kind of scheme laid of erecting some kind of order 
or society under this denomination, but it does not 
seem well digested as yet." 

That Charles Carroll still maintained in 1790 as in 
1775, his reputation for riches, and, also, that money 
was not plentiful in 1790, even with men of his 

1 Executive Journal, 1790. 
' Gmwold'i " Republican Court," p. 334. 

Maryland* s Legislators at Work. 167 

broad acres, is apparent from the following para- 
graph in a letter of Washington to Charles Carter, 
of Culpeper, the husband of Washington's niece, 
Bettie Lewis. The letter is dated September 14, 
1 790, and Washington tells of an effort he had made 
to borrow some money for Mr. Carter : 

" I took an occasion to sound Mr. Carroll of Carroll- 
ton, as the most likely, being the most monied man I was 
acquainted with, but without success. He assured me 
that he could not collect the interest of the money that 
had been loaned by his father and himself, and his other 
resources were not more than adequate to his own occa- 
sions — thenceforward I made no further attempts not 
knowing, indeed, where to apply." ' 

The Maryland Senate met at Annapolis the first 
of November, and Charles Carroll on his arrival, 
November 1 2th, was made chairman of a committee 
to prepare a message to the House on the subject 
of revising the State Constitution, and he and John 
Henry were afterwards put on the joint committee 
appointed for this purpose. Charles Carroll was 
also, at this time, re-elected to the United States 
Senate. The question of giving Samuel Chase two 
hundred and fifty pounds for his services in defend- 
ing the State of Maryland in the English Chancery 
suits, was discussed by the House and Senate at 
this session, the Senate opposing the appropriation. 
They finally yielded, but Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton and two other Senators recorded their votes in 
the negative. The sessions of the United States 
Senate, as has been said, were at this time held with 

1 Ford's " Writings of Washington," vol. xi., p. 49a, note. 

1 68 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

closed doors, and a resolution was now brought for- 
ward by the House of Delegates, " instructing the 
Senators of Maryland in Congress to use their en- 
deavours to procure the admission of citizens of the 
United States to hear the debates of their house." 
At the second reading of this resolution, Carroll and 
Henry requested leave to withdraw. The proposi- 
tion was then negatived by a unanimous vote. 

On the 22d of December, the last day of the 
session, Charles Carroll brought in a bill relating to 
the bank stock in Maryland. The Governor and 
Council were to appoint one or more persons resid- 
ing in London, to whom the State agent Samuel 
Chase was to pay the amount recovered, after re- 
ceiving his commission. And the Governor and 
Council were to direct the above persons to sell and 
dispose of such bank stock, holding the monies 
received therefrom subject to the future orders of 
the Assembly. 1 

Congress met for its third session, December 6, 
1790, this time at Philadelphia which was to be its 
temporary residence for ten years. John Henry 
attended on the 10th of January, 1791, Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton not appearing until the 2 1 st.* The 
journal of William Maclay makes but one mention 
of Charles Carroll at this session, and that entry is 
in connection with the Residence Bill. The bill for 
the establishment of the United States Bank passed 
before Carroll arrived in the Senate. It was con- 
sidered by Jefferson, Maclay and others of their 

1 Journal of the Maryland Senate. 
* History of Congress, vol. i. Senate. 

Third Session of Congress. 1 69 

party, as the climax with the Excise Bill, of those 
objectionable measures inaugurated by the Funding 
and Assumption Bill. The journals of Congress 
show that at the second reading, February 3d, of 
the bill making appropriations for the support of 
the government for the year 1791, Dalton, Carroll, 
and Bassett were appointed a committee to prepare 
certain amendments. These were reported two days 
later and came up for consideration on the 7th, but 
were not agreed to, and the bill was passed without 

On the 16th Mr. Carroll gave notice that to-mor- 
row he intended to move for leave to bring in a bill, 
amending the " act for establishing the tempo- 
rary and permanent seat of the government of the 
United States, pursuant to the plan suggested in 
the President's message of the 24th of January.'" 
The purpose of this amendment was to bring Alex- 
andria, Virginia, into the ten miles square. On the 
I8th, the bill, which had been read the day before 
was postponed "to this day sevennight," when it 
had its second reading. Maclay writes, February 
1 8th, " Now Carroll's amendatory bill was called 
up. It was debated with temper, but a good deal 
of trifling discourse was had upon it. I had deter- 
mined to say nothing upon the subject. I, however 
changed my mind." The purport of Maclay's re- 
marks was, that the President had overstepped his 
province, that " he had done himself what should 
have been done by others under his direction." Our 
journalist says, February 23d : " And now came 

' History of Congress, vol. i. Senate. 

1 70 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

the Potomac amendatory act. A postponement was 
moved, but Langdon, Schuyler, Elmer, Morris, and 
Read voted against the postponement, and finally 
for the bill. This is astonishing indeed. It is plain 
the President has taught them." He thinks they 
were all bought; as to Read he had "heretofore 
known him to have been shaken by something else 
beside, the wind." Again, on the 26th there is the 
entry : " The third reading was given this day to 
the detestable bill of yesterday, and the last hand 
was put to the more detested excise law." ' 

Maclay was fully persuaded that this amendment 
to the Residence Hill was put there purely to further 
Washington's private interest, and that it would in 
some way work an injury to the Federal Government. 
In speaking of those public personages with whom 
he had become most unpopular, for opposing their 
favorite measures, he says : " I have drowned Jeffer- 
son's regards in the Potomac." Alexandrians and 
Virginians generally, found out later their mistake, 
and Washington's town was glad enough to return 
to its proud place as a part of the glorious Old Do- 
minion, from whose jurisdiction it never should have 
been severed. A bill sent from the House of Rep- 
resentatives, for making compensation to widows 
and orphans of certain officers of the Revolution, 
and for the relief of certain invalided persons, was 
committed to Wingate, Strong, and Carroll, who 
made their report March 3d, when the matter was 
referred to the following session.* 

1 Journal of William Maclay, pp. 397, 401. 
* History of Congress, vol. i. Senate. 

Letter to Thomas Jefferson. 1 7 1 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton was in Annapolis, 
March 17, 1791, and was to go from this place to 
the " Furnace," the name he gives the Baltimore 
Iron Works, the 25th, to "continue there three or 
four days."' He wrote from Annapolis to Thomas 
Jefferson, early in April, in reply to a business com- 
munication from the latter, and makes interesting 
mention in his letter, of public affairs. 

Annapolis, 10th April, 1791- 
Dear Sir : 

I received the 8th instant your favor of the 4th, and 
yesterday morning I delivered to Mr. Brown your letter, 
and paid him the bank note of 97.06 Dollars, and took 
the receipt enclosed, which I hope will be satisfactory. 

I flatter myself Congress will during the next session 
adopt decisive and adequate measures for the encourage- 
ment and support of our navigation. Great Britain as it 
strikes roe, is the only power which can rival us in the 
carrying trade, and the only one disposed to extend her 
own navigation on the depression of ours. In a matter, 
however, of so much consequence, by which the tempo- 
rary interests of some of the States and the interests of 
leading individuals in all, may be affected, we cannot 
proceed with too much caution, for we ought not to haz- 
ard any measure we are not determined to go through 

I am happy to hear that affairs in France are going on 

so well ; on the success of the Revolution in that country 

not only the happiness of France, but the rest of Europe, 

and perhaps our own depends. I wish sincerely freedom 

1 MS. Letter. 

172 Charles Carroll of Carrollion. 

to all the nations of the earth : to Prance from education 
and gratitude, 1 feel a particular attachment. With such 
feelings, it is not surprising that I should view with anx- 
ious care the proceedings of the National Assembly. I 
own my doubts of a happy issue to their new system do 
not arise so much from the opposition of the dignified 
clergy and noblesse, as from the fear of disunion, the 
side views and factions combinations and cabals amongst 
the popular party. God send my apprehensions may be 
entirely groundless. 

I am with real esteem and respect, Dear Sir, 

Your affectionate humble servant, 
Ch. Carroll of Carrollton.' 

Though Congress met in October, Charles Carroll 
did not make his appearance there until after the 
session of the Maryland Legislature, leaving John 
Henry to represent the State in the Senate of the 
United States, at this time, while he served Mary- 
land in the Senate of her Assembly. The latter met 
as usual, in November, and George Plater was elected 
Governor of the State. Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton was placed immediately on two important 
committees, one to draw up a bill for the relief of in- 
solvent debtors, the other to prepare a law respect- 
ing certain regulations for the new city of Washing- 
ton. When the bill for the relief of Samuel Sterett 
was read a second time, November 24th, both 
George Dent and Charles Carroll spoke against it, 
each one having his written protest recorded in the 
Senate journal. That of Charles Carroll entered in 
the minutes, Saturday, November 26th, is as follows : 

1 Deportment of State, Jefferson Papers, id. Series, vol. xv,, p. 54. 

Dissents to State Senate Bill, 1 73 

" Dissentient : Because if the power remains with this 
Legislature to pass an act for giving relief to the individ- 
ual in this case, it has a power to pass a general law re- 
lieving every individual within its jurisdiction similarly 
circumstanced, and it is more consistent with the spirit of 
genuine legislation, and with that impartiality likely to 
obtain in laws framed upon general principles, extending 
indiscriminate relief to all complying with the provisions 
of such laws, than in a private act made to fit the case of 
an individual, whose person is known, whose friends in 
the Legislature are apt to sympathize with his misfor- 
tunes, and in private commiseration, or private motives, 
lose sight of general utility. 

Because notice of the intended application has not 
been given according to the rule laid down by the Legis- 
lature in such cases, a rule never yet violated but in a 
single instance, and founded upon this obvious principle 
of justice, that where the interests of many may be af- 
fected, these should have an opportunity of making 
known their objections to the relief prayed for. 

Because it is conceived, that the Legislature has not, 
in the present case, the power of granting the solicited 
relief. The applicant is confessedly a trader, and as such 
the proper object of a bankrupt law. Has this Legisla- 
ture a constitutional right to pass laws with respect to 
bankrupts, since its ratification of the General Govern- 
ment ? This right is assumed by those who are for grant- 
ing relief to the petitioner. An examination of the 
reasons in support of the right, will best discover whether 
it exists or not. 

Although the Congress may make uniform laws on the 
subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States, it 
is alleged that the individual States retain the power to 
make bankrupt laws until that power shall be exercised 

174 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

by Congress ; the allegation is attempted to be supported 
by the 10th section of the Form of Government, laying 
restrictions on the respective States, and enumerating 
what powers they shall not exercise. The inference 
drawn that the several States have a right to exercise all 
the powers from the exercise of which they are not ex- 
pressly restrained by the 10th section, proves too much, 
and would subvert, if admitted in practice, the very ends 
for which the General Government was framed. Among 
many powers given to Congress, which the particular 
States are not expressly restricted from exercising, are 
these, to regulate the value of foreign coin, and fix the 
standard of weights and measures ; to establish post 
offices and post-roads ; to define and punish piracies and 
felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against 
the law of nations. If, in all these instances, the individ- 
ual States may exert similar powers, because not re- 
stricted by the 10th section, they may make similar laws 
with those of Congress, or different on the same subject. 
If similar they are unnecessary, if dissimilar and obliga- 
tory, dissonance and confusion would ensue. The 
inference then, that the several States may exercise con- 
currently with Congress, all the powers delegated to that 
body, from the exercise of which they are not expressly 
excluded by the 10th section, is inadmissible in the ex- 
tent contended for, since the practice, in conformity with 
such theory, would inevitably introduce dissentions be- 
tween the general and particular governments of the 
States, and would as certainly terminate in the most fatal 
consequences to the American nations. 

Should it be argued, that although the power is given 
to Congress to establish uniform laws on the subject of 
bankruptcies, the power may never be exercised, or exer- 
cised in a limited degree, the answer is obvious, if much 

Congress and Bankrupt Laws. 1 75 

inconvenience should be felt from the suspension of the 
power, its exorcise might be pressed upon Congress by 
petition and remonstrance, and there is no reason to sup- 
pose that either mode would fail of success. If Con- 
gress should deem it expedient to confine the operation 
of the general law to bankrupts whose debts amount to 
a sum specified in the law, leaving the States to provide 
for cases under that sum, it is precipitate (to say the least) 
to usurp a power before we know whether it will be re- 
linquished by Congress, and, if relinquished, what part of 
it will be entrusted to the respective States. 

Of some of the powers imparted to Congress, it is true, 
each State retains the exercise, but, in all cases where 
the States and Congress may exercise the same powers, 
they must be exercised on different objects, or if on the 
same, for different purposes. Thus, for instance, Con- 
gress may establish post-offices and post-roads, so may 
the States, but not in the same places ; Congress may 
fix the standard of weights and measures, this power has 
not yet been exercised, but the laws respecting this mat- 
ter, or the usage equivalent to law of the several States, re- 
main in force, wherefore it is concluded that the States 
may pass laws, if none exist at present, particular or 
general, on the subject of bankruptcies. The conclu- 
sion is not warranted by the premises ; the logical infer- 
ence is this, therefore, where the States had subsisting 
bankrupt laws previous to the ratification of the General 
Government, these remain in force, yet whether such 
laws are now in force is very questionable ; the differ- 
ence between the objects of them, not only as to their 
importance, but tendency, must be obvious. Without 
some regulation of coin, of weights and of roads, the 
whole business of society would be at a stand ; that the 
existing regulations of these matters should continue until 

1 76 CharUs Carroll of CarroUton. 

new regulations are made by Congress, seems rather to 
arise from an indispensable necessity, than from expedi- 
ency, from choice, or from right, nor can the continuance 
of such regulations endanger the tranquility of the United 
States, or involve them in contests with foreign nations. 

Are the subsisting bankrupt laws, if any do exist in 
force, equally necessary 7 Cannot the business of society 
go on (for a time at least) without such laws ? If those 
heretofore passed, or which may hereafter be passed, in 
the several States, are injurious and partial, if they en- 
courage frauds, may not the public harmony be inter- 
rupted ? May not the Confederacy be embroiled with 
foreign powers, or the credit of the country be deeply 
affected ? To prevent these mischiefs, the power of 
malting such laws (in future at least) was parted with by 
the several States, without any express reservation or ad- 
missible implication, that the powers should remain with 
each until exercised by the whole in Congress assembled. 

Admitting the power of the Legislature to give relief 
to the petitioner, to be only doubtful, the commitment 
of the bill for amendments, in order to take the chance 
of its passage through this house, is improper; for the 
expeditious relief of one person is not of sufficient im- 
portance to warrant the assumption of a questionable 
power, to arrest the process of the Federal Court, and 
precipitately exempt his case from the operation of a 
general law, which all admit Congress has the power to 
make, and which there is cause to presume will be made 
duringits present session. 

Charles Carroll or Carrollton." ' 

The contention made here that the power of mak- 
ing bankrupt laws "was parted with by the several 

1 Journal of the Maryland Semite. 

The American Nations. 177 

States, without any express reservation or admissi- 
ble implication, that the powers should remain with 
each until exercised by the whole in Congress as- 
sembled," has proved to have been an erroneous 
interpretation of the Federal compact. While Con- 
gress has power to "establish a uniform system of 
bankruptcy " and when such a law is passed it over- 
rides and puts in abeyance the State laws on that 
subject, yet Congress does not always exercise this 
power, and then State laws are made in place of the 
Federal law. A State insolvent law passed in Mary- 
land many years ago, was superseded soon after the 
late war by a bankruptcy law passed by Congress. 
This law, however, was repealed, and thereupon the 
old State law at once became operative again and is 
now in force, (.1897.) 

It will be observed that the Federalists of 1791, 
as represented by Charles Carroll of Carrollton, had 
very clear views as to the Federal nature of the 
United States government, as the " general govern- 
ments" of the States in contradistinction to the 
"particular governments" of the "American na- 
tions." Carroll calls it a " Confederacy " and speaks 
of certain regulations as not likely to "endanger the 
tranquillity of the United States, or [to] involve them 
in contests with foreign nations." The very name 
" Federalists " was a protest against consolidation 
and the theory of nationality. And but for their 
assertion of these doctrines by the Federalists of 
17S7, no "Union" could have been effected, other 
than that which held the States together under the 
Articles of Confederation. The first ten amend- 

lyS Charles Carroll of Carrolllor. 

merits to the Constitution, those important guar- 
antees of liberty, closing with the declaration of 
the reserved powers of the respective States, and of 
the ultimate sovereignty of the people of the respec- 
tive States, were proposed in 1789, and adopted in 
this year, 1791. 

Instructions were given to Charles Carroll of Car- 
rollton and John Henry, at this time, to advocate in 
Congress, public sessions of the Senate. But the 
address of the House of Delegates, on this subject, 
was rejected, and a shorter one adopted. The House 
of Delegates had entered more fully into the reasons 
for deliberating with open doors, and spoke of the 
advantages that resulted from the observance of this 
rule in the House of Representatives, when the press 
were enabled to furnish " all parts of the Confederacy 
with an ample idea of the capacity and conduct of 
their immediate representatives." The Maryland 
Senate altered the instructions, so as to read as fol- 
lows: "The Legislature of Maryland, impressed 
with the propriety of opening the doors of [the 
Senate], recommend to your attention and exertions 
the attainment of this object, which they consider 
as a matter of importance." A bill was passed at 
this session, empowering the State to purchase a lot, 
or lots, in the city of Washington, adjoining the 
square appropriated for the residence of the President 
of the United States, " sufficient for a house with suit- 
able garden and improvements" to be presented to 
General Lafayette, by Maryland, to express this 
State's sense of his services during the Revolution. 1 
1 Ibid. 

Last Term in Federal Senate, 1 79 

As soon as possible after the adjournment of the 
Assembly, December 30th, Charles Carroll repaired 
to his seat in Congress, arriving there January 
6th, 1792. A message was received from the Presi- 
dent on the 5th of March, inclosing a trans- 
lation of a letter received from the unfortunate 
Louis XVI., dated September 19, 1791, in which 
this monarch writes to his " very dear, Great 
Friends and Allies " telling of his acceptance of the 
Constitution from the National Assembly. The 
Senate sent a reply, expressing their satisfaction, 
and the hope that it " may establish on a solid basis, 
the freedom and prosperity of the French nation, 
and the happiness and glory of the Monarch pre- 
siding over it." The motion, brought forward and 
seconded by the Virginia Senators, James Monroe 
and Richard Henry Lee, that the doors of the 
Senate Chamber remain open, except in executive 
session, was defeated. Charles Carroll, faithful to 
his instructions, voted for it, while John Henry 
voted against it on his own responsibility. Carroll 
was put on two or three committees as the records 
show, but as Maclay was no longer present to take 
notes of the debates, but a meagre chronicle of the 
proceedings has come down to us. It was the first 
session of the second Congress, and the last one in 
which Charles Carroll was to serve. 1 

We find the Roman Catholics of America interest- 
ing themselves, at this time, in the subject of the 
missions to the Indians of the United States ; and 
through Charles Carroll of Carrollton and his cousin 
1 Hiitory of Congress, vol. i. Senate;. 

180 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

the Rt. Rev. John Carroll now "Archbishop of the 
Roman Catholic Church in the United States," 
seeking to further their benevolent purpose by the 
co-operation of the Executive. Washington wrote 
to the Archbishop, from Philadelphia, April 10th, 
saying he had received and considered his memorial, 
but that the war going on then with some of the 
tribes of the Western Indians prevented any efforts 
of such a peaceable nature in that quarter; while 
the Five Nations were already under the super- 
intendence of a religious instructor. The Eastern 
Indians, he believed, were considered a part of the 
inhabitants of Massachusetts, and any application 
to teach them must be made to that State.' Letters 
on this subject of Indian missions had been sub- 
mitted to General Washington by Charles Carroll, 
probably white the latter was in Congress. 

While Jefferson and Maclay considered Hamilton 
and other Federalists were striving to introduce 
centralizing measures into the new government, 
and were thus foes to true liberty, Carroll and his 
allies returned the bad opinion of their opponents, 
for reasons of a contrary nature, professing to think 
that the Antifederalists were not " the friends of 
stability." A " stable " government was the aim of 
all alike no doubt, but the tendency of Federalism 
was to put " Union " before liberty, while the 
Democrats then and always have placed the sover- 
eignty of the State and the liberty of the indivi- 
dual first, as the objects of government, and the 
" Union " second, as the means to these ends. 

' Sparki's " Writing! of Washington," vol. x., p. 228. 

Letter to Alexander Hamilton. iSx 

Charles Carroll wrote to Alexander Hamilton from 
Annapolis in October 1792, expressing freely his 
views on the political situation. Hamilton had 
written to Carroll, September 23d, but this letter 
is not in Hamilton's published works, and one can 
only guess at the name of the leading Antifederalist 
there mentioned. 

Annapolis, aid October, 1793. 
Dear Sir : 

I received on the 7th instant, your favor of the 33d, 
past. I have delayed thus long answering it with a hope 
that I might discover whether the Antifederal party in 
the State had in view the person referred to in your 
letter. I suspect a communication of sentiments is 
maintained by the leaders of this party throughout the 
United States ; however I have not heard his name even 
whispered. His character I could not well see through 
during the time we were together. I noticed a disposition 
to perplex and puzzle, which left an unavorable im- 
pression on my mind. He appeared to me not to want 
talents, but judgment and steadiness ; and I suspect he 
possesses of ambition a quantum sufficU for any man. 

I hope the friends of stability, in other words, the real 
friends of liberty and their country, will unite to counter- 
act the schemes of men, who have uniformly manifested 
a hostile temper to the present government ; the adoption 
of which has rescued these States from that debility 
and confusion and those horrors which unhappy France 
has experienced of late, and may still labor under. I 
beg my respects to Mrs. Hamilton, and remain with 
sentiments of respect and regard, Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton.' 

1 Hamilton'* " Work* of Alexander Hamilton," vol. v., p. 537. 

182 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

The Maryland Senate met November 5th, and 
the most important matters brought before it were 
the questions of relief for insolvent debtors, and the 
provisions for the regulation of the militia. On the 
latter point the House and Senate could not agree. 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton brought in an act at 
this time " for securing certain estates and property 
for the support and uses of ministers of the Roman 
Catholic religion." A law was passed at this session 
declaring members of Congress, or persons holding 
office under the United States government ineligible 
as members of the Maryland Legislature or Council. 
This action forced Charles Carroll to lose his seat 
in the United States Senate if he would remain in 
the Senate of Maryland. And accordingly he sent 
in his resignation from the former body, and Richard 
Potts was elected to fill the place for the remainder 
of Carroll's term. The State Legislature was pre- 
ferred by Charles Carroll to the United State Con- 
gress, as he had formerly left the Continental 
Congress to devote himself to the work of the Mary- 
land Senate. 

On the 15th of December the Senate replied to a 
message from the House of Delegates relating to 
their militia bill; objecting "to the provision oblig- 
ing the whole of the militia of the State to exercise 
four times in each year," to " some of the fines as 
being too heavy," and to the requirement of " im- 
mediately officering the whole militia, as thereby 
men of talent may be excluded from a seat in the 
Legislature, without a prospect of correspondent 
advantage." A conference was proposed between 

Maryland* s Militia Bill, 183 

the two Houses, and James Hollyday, Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton, and James McHenry were ap- 
pointed the Senate committee. The conferrees could 
not agree, and the bill was committed to the three 
gentlemen above-mentioned for amendments. The 
House of Delegates sent an address to the Mary, 
land Senators in Congress, expressing their regret at 
the failure of the motion " to open the doors of 
their House " [the United States Senate]. They 
considered that "Mystery is the garb of tyranny." 
The House returned to the Senate, December 
21st, the bill for the relief of insolvent debtors, ex- 
pressing the wish that the Senate would assent to 
it, as '" many of them must otherwise remain im- 
mersed in gaol." The Senate resolved to reconsider 
the bill, Charles Carroll alone voting in the nega- 
tive. When the vote was taken to pass the bill as 
amended by the House, six were in favor and four 
against it, Charles Carroll of Carrollton and John 
Eager Howard giving two of the negatives votes. 
In regard to the Dutch loan, the Treasurer of the 
Western Shore was instructed by the House of 
Delegates to " pay to Samuel Sterett, agent of 
Messrs. Van Staphorst, the sum of one hundred and 
fifty pounds, on the order of Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton, one of the Commissioners of the State, 
which is in full discharge of all claims and demands 
for interest on the aforesaid loan." ' Charles Carroll 
and John Eager Howard were appointed a commit- 
tee to answer the message from the House on the 
Militia Bill, and this reply was delivered to the 
1 Journal of the Maryland Senate. 

184 Charles Carroll of Carrollion. 

House, December 21st, by Carroll, who no doubt 
penned it. It is as follows: 

"Gentlemen : We lament that you have rejected our 
amendments to the militia bill, and that you have re- 
turned it, at this late period of the session, for considera- 
tion, without assigning any reasons for your rejection 
of them. 

We cannot recede from the amendments you have 
rejected, because the modification proposed, we think, 
is a substantial compliance with the act of Congress, and 
not liable to the many evil consequences that would re- 
sult from training, at the same time, all persons enrolled 
between eighteen and forty-five years of age. On a 
moderate calculation, the persons to be enrolled, (and 
not permanently exempted by the act of Congress, and 
our own amendments to your bill, from militia duty), 
will amount to thirty thousand, the daily labor of each 
of whom may be fairly rated, on an average, at half a 
crown ; the four days training, enjoined by the bill, 
would, on this calculation, amount to fifteen thousand 
pounds ; a serious loss to the community at large, but 
more so to the persons immediately sustaining it. 

The supposition is highly probable, that there are not 
firearms in the State more than sufficient to arm seven 
thousand men, the number which the division we pro- 
pose to train during the first three years would nearly 
amount to. 

No exigency, we apprehend, can suddenly arise, which 
would authorize the President of the United States to 
call on this State for a greater number of militia than 
four thousand ; yet, should such exigency unexpectedly 
happen, our amendments provide for it. 

The selection prescribed by those amendment! will be 

Senate Amendments Rejected. 185 

a considerable saving to the State, and great ease to the 
people. It must be admitted that four days exercise 
throughout the year will not give the mititia even a 
tincture of military discipline ; but when embodied and 
officered (should they be called into actual service) the 
habits and duties of a soldier will be best acquired and 
learnt by the practice of the field, and of real warfare. 
The principal object Congress had in view (as appears 
to us) was to have the fencibles so arranged, that if the 
peace of the society should be endangered or attacked 
by external or internal enemies, a force might be ready 
for its defence, and so organized as to be able to march 
on due notice of the danger or attack. 

If this was the intention of Congress, it will be better 
executed by our plan than by the one your bill has 
adopted. The bill, however, as amended, you may per- 
haps think is not a compliance with the law of the 
United States ; for every salutary purpose, the preceding 
reasons prove, in our opinion, that the bill, if framed in 
conformity to our amendments would be a real compli- 
ance with the principal design of the Federal Legisla- 
ture ; but there are not wanting arguments to show, that 
so amended, it would be a literal compliance. It is ob- 
servable, that a discretionary power, in some respects 
indefinite, is left by the act of Congress to the State 
Legislatures. We may fairly presume, that not only 
permanent exemptions were intended by the second sec- 
tion of that act, but temporary exemptions also, should 
the respective States deem it convenient, or conducive 
to their interests to make such. The words of the law 
are comprehensive enough to include exemptions of the 
Utter description, 'all persons who now are, or may 
hereafter be exempted by the laws of the respective 
States, shall be and are hereby exempted from military 

1 86 Charles Carroll of CarTollton. 

duty, notwithstanding their being above the age of eigh- 
teen and under the age of forty-five years.' Could words 
more comprehensive be made use of ? All persons, says 
the act, may be exempted from mititia duty by the re- 
spective Stales. In virtue of this discretion left with the 
States, they may exempt entire bodies of men from 
militia duty ; for instance if the Legislature had thought 
fit it might surely, under this power, without requiring 
an equivalent in money in lieu of personal service, have 
exempted all persons conscientiously scrupulous of bear- 
ing arms ; this inference you will not deny, but may, 
perhaps, contend that these exemptions can be construed 
to relate only to such as are permanent. This construc- 
tion is not warranted even by the letter of the law, much 
less by its spirit ; for the words permanent exemptions 
are not to be found, as placed in opposition to, or as 
contradistinguished from temporary exemptions. 

The amendments impose the obligation of enrolling 
all free, white, male inhabitants mentioned in the act of 
Congress, (except such as by that act and our amend- 
ments are excepted;) but they suspend for a term of 
years the performance of militia duty by those who may 
not be selected to compose the division subjected to that 
duty for the first term of three years. Why, it may be 
asked, should we have the power to exempt permanently 
from militia duty an entire class or classes of men 
within the prescribed age, and not have the lesser power 
to exempt them for a time only from that duty ? Can a 
reasonable solution be given to this question ? Every 
reason of policy, convenience and economy, make in 
favor of the lesser power ; the Constitution of the United 
States, paramount to all laws of Congress, justifies, in 
this case, the assumption and exercise of the lesser power. 
By that Constitution, Congress is to provide for organiz- 

Message to the House by Carroll. 187 

ing, arming and disciplining, the militia, and for the 
government of such part of them as may be employed in 
the service of the United States ; but the appointment 
of the officers, and the authority of training ihe militia, 
are reserved to the respective States ; wherefore these 
States are at liberty to train their militia often or seldom, 
a part or the whole, one part during one period of years, 
and another part during another period, these being 
only different modifications of the authority reserved to 
the States. To assert, that the States have not the power 
to exempt from militia duly for a time only (where not 
called into the service of the United States) a part of 
their militia, and to admit that they have the right ex- 
pressly recognized by the Federal Constitution, to exer- 
cise the militia under the modifications just mentioned 
is such a contradiction as not to be reconciled in any other 
manner than by the construction we have put on 
the act of Congress, a construction which reconciles that 
act with the power delegated, which abundantly provides 
(as far as numbers are concerned) for the protection of 
the United States, and of each individual State, and 
unites two important political objects, economy and safely. 
Induced by the above reasons, and others which we 
have not time to enumerate and enforce, we adhere to 
our amendments ; our adherence cannot possibly injure 
the United States, and will greatly benefit our own . We 
therefore return the bill for your further consideration, 
not doubting but that you will adopt the amendments 
we have made to it, and that you will prefer having a 
militia law upon the plan those amendments hold out, 
to breaking up without carrying into effect the act of 
Congress, and leaving the State entirely destitute of a 
militia until the next annual session." ' 
1 IHd. 

1 88 Charles Carroll of Carrotlton. 

The address of the House of Delegates to John 
Henry and Richard Potts relative to open sessions 
of the United States Senate, was not approved of by 
the Maryland Senate, and they substituted a brief 
resolution in its place. But the House was not sat- 
isfied with the guarded and lukewarm language of 
the Senate, and they were justly indignant with 
Henry for disregarding his instructions. They sent 
up to the Senate, accordingly, these decided resolu- 
tions of censure: 

" Resolved .■ That it is the opinion of this General As- 
sembly, thatwearetheimmediateconstituentsof the Sen- 
ators representing this State in the Senate of the United 
States, and thai as such, we have the undoubted right of 
instructing them whenever we shall think necessary. 

Resolved ; That we do disapprove of the conduct of one 
of our Senators aforesaid, in acting in direct opposition 
to our instructions given at November session, 1791. 

Resolved: That it is the opinion of this General As- 
sembly that the opening of the doors of the Senate of 
the United States, when sitting in their legislative capac- 
ity, will greatly promote that confidence in the measures 
of the general government so essential to the prosperity 
of the Union. 

Resolved: That it is the opinion of this General As- 
sembly, that every exertion ought to be made by our 
Senators aforesaid, at the present session, to obtain this 
desirable object. 

Resolved: That the Hon. the President of the Senate 
and Speaker of the House of Delegates be, and they are 
hereby, requested to transmit a copy of these resolves 
to the Hon. J. Henry and Rd. Potts." ' 

No Agreement Reached. 189 

Messages on the subject of the Militia Bill went 
back and forth between the House and Senate, and 
finally the latter, on the 23d of December an- 
nounced their ultimatum, that they had rejected the 
latest House amendment, " to enumerate the fenci- 
ble inhabitants of this State, as involving the ques- 
tion upon which the two branches have differed, and 
not being agreeable to the law of Congress," and 
were ready to close the session. The House re- 
sponded in terse and determined language : " May 
it please your Honors: We are ready to close the 
session, and will meet your Honors immediately for 
that purpose. The journals of the House will sat- 
isfy our constituents whether we were for carrying 
the acts of Congress into execution or not." ' 

An interesting account of this session of the 
Maryland Assembly is given by Charles Carroll, in 
letters to his friend, and recent colleague in Congress, 
John Henry. It is to be regretted that Henry's 
letters in reply, containing doubtless much about 
the proceedings in the United States Senate at this 
time, have not been preserved. 

Annapolis, 3rd December, 1791. 
Dear Sir : 

Last Friday, the law disqualifying members of Congress 
from holding seats in our Legislature, &c, passed the 
Senate, myself and Mr. Worthington only voting in the 
negative. On the same day I resigned my seat in the 
Senate of the United States. To-morrow my successor 
will be appointed — three persons are mentioned, Mr. 
Potts, James McHenry and Col. Stone. Thus I have 
* Ibid, 

190 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

got rid of a trust which I really accepted with reluctance 
and which, I assure you, hung heavy on my mind. I 
was mindful of the advice of Horace — 

Solve sfirscentrm mature sanus equina, 
A't pellet ad extreimm ndtndus, tt 
Ilia duiat. 

Our electors of the President and Vice-President are 
chosen ; Hanson, J. E. Howard, Thomas S. Lee, Potts, 
Sam Hughes, Richardson, Ja. Seney, (two names illegi- 
ble). I forget the other two. It is said they will all 
vote in favor of Mr. Jno. Adams I should be sorry to 
see that gentleman not chosen Vice-President. He was 
a patriot in the worst of times and has rendered his 
country signal services. He has not merited such a 
slight from his countrymen, as some are endeavoring, I 
fear, lo throw upon him. The H. of D. has rejected a 
militia Bill originated in the Senate, the exact counter- 
part of the act of Congress, and every bit as harmless, 
We went a great way in our exemptions, for we exempted 
J of the militia from mustering — our Bill hinted at a 
rotatory militia, in which I think it was better than that 
of Congress, if between two very bad things, one may be 
held to be better than the other. 

How goes on the enquiry into the failure of the ex- 
pedition against the Indians ? Is the Secretary of the 
Treasury as much the subject of debate and conversation 
as during the last session ? I believe our session will be 
protracted till near Xmas ; we shall spend between seven 
and eight thousand pounds, and not do a sixpence worth 
of good. Another insolvent debtors Bill — will the 
matter be taken up by Congress ? We shall have another 
Assessment Law — this is necessary from the great change 
of property since the last assessment. Its principle, I 

Letters to John Henry. 191 

am ignorant of, neither do I know whether a tax will be 
imposed. I believe I mentioned in my former letter, 
that we (Johnson, Forrest and myself) had settled the 
Van Chapports, [Van Staphorsts ?] claim. 

If anything new and interesting turns up, drop me a 
line or two. Though not a player myself, I shall find 
myself in the game that is played. 

With regard and respect, I remain Dr. Sir, 
Your most humble servant 

Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. 
To Hbl. John Henry, Esq., in Congress, Philadelphia.' 

Annapolis, 16th December, 179a. 
Dear Sir : 

I received the 14th instant last your favor of the nth. 
Since my last we have received from the H. of D. the 
militia and assessment bill; the latter does not lay any 
rate, only directs the mode of valuing property, appoints 
commissioners etc. The former, the Militia bill we shall 
not pass in its present form ; it subjects the whole of the 
fencible men between 18 and 45 years of age, amounting 
at least to 30,000 to muster four times a year in com- 
panies, battalions and regiments. We propose to enroll 
in conformity to the Act of Congress all fencibles between 
18 and 45 years of age, but then to direct the Governor 
and Council only to muster 300 four times a year, a part 
of these (about five thousand) when so enrolled. I think 
the Act of Congress may be so construed as to suffer us 
to throw in such a clause into our Militia bill. Rest as- 
sured the mustering so large a body of men as those will 
amount to between 18 and 45 years of age, throughout the 

1 " Memoir of John Henry, By one of His Grandsons " [Daniel 
Maynidier Henry], p. 16, February, 1887. 

1 92 Char Us Carroll of Carrollton. 

United States will be a very serious evil and felt at such 
when we come to experience the consequences which will 
inevitably arise from such large assemblages of men ; 
and waste of time and drunkenness will be the least 
pernicious of these consequences. 

I fear, as you do, that our State will be found greatly 
behind on a settlement of accounts ; this fear always 
inclined me to assume the State debts, as reported by the 
Secretary, and to have no settlement. I am confident 
you will be pleased with Mr. Potts on a better acquaint- 
ance, and the good opinion you now entertain of him 
will be increased in proporiion to your personal knowl- 
edge of his character. Please to inform me, as soon as you 
can, what alterations of the judicial system are in contem- 
plation, I have heard it rumored that the State judges are 
to be made judges of the United States, within the jurisdic- 
tion or boundaries of each State, and the Supreme Court 
to be sedentary at the seat of Congress. Such a system 
will never answer. Our Constitution militates against 
such an arrangement. By the 30th section of our De- 
claration of Rights it is provided, no chancellor or judge 
ought to hold any other office civil or military, or receive 
perquisites of any kind. Is not the office of judge of the 
United State another office, and distinct from that of 
judge of this State ? Again section 32 of the Declaration 
of Rights says, no person ought to hold at the same time 
more than one office of profit, nor ought any person etc. 
Supposing an ingenious or prostitute lawyer could quib- 
ble away these sections, so as to perplex and render 
doubtful what to common sense is plain and obvious, our 
late law, which is now become a part of our Constitution, 
puts the thing beyond all dispute. No person holding an 
office under the United States can now hold an office 
under the State, so that the acceptance of judge of the 

State and Federal Judges. 193 

United Stales would vacate the commission of the office 
of judge of this State. 

It gives me pleasure to hear that Mr. Adams will be 
elected Vice-President by a considerable majority. I 
beg my respects to that gentleman. We have served 
together in hard times, and I set a great value on his 
services, and I feet a sincere regard for all who stood 
firm in the most dangerous and critical situation of our 
affairs. When I think of those times the line of Virgil 
always occurs to me : 

Forsan et kaec vlim mtminisst juvabit. 
I forgot to send to the post-office last night to see 
whether there were any letters from you. I am afraid 
this will be too late for this day's boat, however I shall 
■end it to the post-office. 

With sentiments of respect and regard I am, Dear Sir, 
Your most humble servant 
Ch. Carroll of Carrollton.' 

Annapolis, 33rd December, 179a. 
Dear Sir : 

Our Assembly rose this afternoon ; by the printed list 
of laws passed this session and enclosed, you will be able 
to form some judgment how we have been employed for 
these seven or eight weeks. The two bouses could not 
agree upon a militia law, so nothing is done in that busi- 
ness. The H. of Delegates wanted all fencibles between 
18 and 45 years of age to be enrolled and officered. 
This appeared to the Senate unnecessary and mischiev- 

This morning we sent them a short bill empowering 
the assessors to take and return lists of the free, white, 

194 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

male citizens between 18 and 45 years to the commis- 
sioners of the tax, who were to send these lists to the 
Governor and Council to be laid before the Assembly at 
the next annual session. To this the other house would 
not consent, although the very thing was prescribed by 
this Militia Bill, unless we would adopt a proposed 
amendment empowering the Governor and Council to 
officer the persons so listed. A rage to be Major-Gen- 
erals, Brigadiers, Colonels etc., etc., was, I believe, the 
lone motive and at the bottom of this seeming earnest 
desire to comply most literally with the Act of Congress. 
Never in my judgment did a body of wise men pass so 
mischievous an act, as the Militia law of Congress ; 
experience and time will discover the truth of this asser- 
tion. To a man of sense and foresight it is needless to 
adduce arguments to prove it. Although we have passed 
a law for the valuation of property, we have laid no tax. 
We have passed a law giving the Chancellor, for all ser- 
vice, i.e, as Chancellor and Judge of the Land Office, a 
permanent salary of ^950. The law imposes certain 
fees on proceedings in Chancery and Land Office, as 
will produce, it is thought, a sum at least equal to the 
salary ; should there be a deficiency it is to be made up 
out of the aggregate revenue. 

The House of Delegates was very strenuous for in- 
structions to our Senators for opening the doors of your 
Senate ; these instructions or resolutions being personal 
in some degree, and containing some very questionable 
positions, were rejected by the Senate ; so that you will 
have no instructions on the point from this recent House 
of Delegates. Your letter of the 16th instant I received 
the 23rd, with the newspaper containing an account of the 
retreat of the Duke of Brunswick, and the rodomontade 

A Friend to Free Government, T95 

letter of Dumouriez to Servan. Thus the anarchy of 
France will subsist some months longer. I am as strong a 
friend to a free Government as any one ; but I am con- 
fident no real feedom can be enjoyed in France under the 
existing system ; a democratical Assembly consisting of 
seven or eight hundred members, without any control, and 
without the most vigorous executive, must produce a 
worst despotism than that of Turkey. 

I hope the Secretary's plan for the reduction of the 
debt, or something like it, will be adopted ; but I per- 
ceive there is a party opposed to the means, who wish, 
or pretend to wish, the accomplishment of the desired 
object. If you can send me the Secretary's report on 
that subject by some safe, private conveyance, you will 
oblige me. The newspapers I do not get regularly, and 
when I do, I can't keep them. Thus I have only a part 
of the report in one newspaper, and part in another ; 
the one is lost before the other gets to hand. I wish 
to have the report altogether in one publication and in 
a good print. 

What has been done, or is doing with respect to the 
proposed alterations of the Federal Judiciary? What 
alterations of the present system are in contempla- 
tion ? I requested you to answer a similar question in a 
former letter which I presume has escaped your memory- 
Do you lodge at Mrs. Houses ? If you do and the same 
lodgers compose your mess as last year, please to present 
my respects and remembrance to them. Mercer, told 
me that Giles and some of my old acquaintances agreed 
with him, that if I possessed only ,£20,000 I should be a 
Jacobite. Perhaps was I worth nothing I might affect to 
adopt their principles, and imitate their conduct, with 
the hope of getting something. 

ig6 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

I wish you health and the compliments of the season, 
and remain with regard and respect, Dear Sir, 
You i most humble servant 
Ch. Carroll of Carrollton.' 

1 MS : Letter owned by G. W, Varaum, M.D., Coronado, Califor- 



his appreciation of Charles Carroll's services, 
took the earliest opportunity after the latter's retire- 
ment from Congress to nominate him one of three 
Commissoners to treat with the Western Indians, 
writing to him on the subject from Philadelphia, 
January 23, 1793 : 

Dear Six : 

The Western Indians having proposed to us a confer- 
ence at Anglaise, not far distant from Detroit, in the 
ensuing spring, I am now about to proceed to nominate 
three Commissioners to meet and treat with them on the 
subject of peace. What may be the issue of the confer- 
ence it is difficult to foresee, but it is extremely essential, 
that, whatever it be, it should carry with it the perfect 
confidence of our citizens, that every endeavour has been 
used to obtain peace, which their interests would permit. 
For this reason it is necessary, that characters be ap- 
pointed, who are known to our citizens for their talents 

198 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

and integrity, and whose situation in life places them 
clear of every suspicion of a wish to prolong the war ; or 
say, rather, whose interest in common with that of their 
country is clearly to produce peace. Characters uniting 
these desiderata do not abound. Some of them too are 
in offices inconsistent with the appointment now in 
question, and others under impediments of health or 
other circumstances, so as to circumscribe the choice 
within a small circle. Desirous in the first instance, 
that you should be in this Commission, I have mentioned 
these difficulties to show you, in the event of your declin- 
ing, how serious they are, and to induce you to come 
forward and perform this important service to your 
country, a service with which its prosperity and tranquil- 
lity are intimately connected. 

It will be necessary to set out from this place about 
the first of May. The route will be by the North River 
and Niagara. It will be safe, and the measures for your 
comfortable transportation and subsistence will be taken 
as effectually as circumstances will admit. Will you then 
permit me, Sir, to nominate you as one of the Commis- 
sioners, with a certain reliance on your acceptance ? 
Your answer to this by the first post will oblige 
Dear Sir, etc. 
G. Washington." 

To this letter Charles Carroll replied promptly, 
expressing his regret at being obliged to decline the 
appointment : 

Annapolis, a8th January, 1793. 
Dear Sir : 

I received the 25th instant, late in the evening your 
letter of the 23rd. Early in the morning of the 26th the 
post left this place, so that I had not sufficient time to 
1 Sparka't "Writing* of Washington," vol. x., p. 313. 

Declines a Difficult Journey. 199 

make up my mind respecting the acceptance or refusal of 
the commission mentioned in your letter, nor to inform 
you by last Saturday's post of my determination. 

I have seriously weighed the reasons urged to induce 
me to accept the trust. I feel their force, and am sensi- 
ble that the number of citizens, from which characters in 
every respect proper for the intended negotiation can be 
selected, is unfortunately too circumscribed. No one 
more ardently wishes than I do, for peace with the hostile 
tribes, upon terms not dishonorable to our country. My 
time I would cheerfully give, and I would endeavour to 
exert what talents I may possess, and should be extremely 
happy in being instrumental in accomplishing an object 
of such importance to the United States. But the length 
and unavoidable difficulties of the journey deter me from 
undertaking it. The infirmities of age are coming fast 
upon me. I do not think I could endure the fatigue of 
so long a journey, part of it through the wilderness, with- 
out imminent danger to my health. I am very liable to 
take cold in changing of my lodgings, and I never get 
cold without affecting my breast, and leaving a trouble- 
some cough which I seldom shake off for a month or two 
afterwards. The anxiety too of mind I should experi- 
ence from the responsibility of the station and dread of 
not answering yours and the public expectation and 
wishes would also greatly contribute to derange my health 
and really might disqualify me for the business. I hope 
these reasons which I have candidly assigned, will justify 
me, my dear sir, in your opinion for declining the com- 
mission with which you wish to honor me. 

I am with sentiments of the highest esteem and regard, 
dear sir, Your affectionate and most humble servant 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 1 
1 MS : Letter. Collection of Dr. Emmett. 

20O Char Us Carroll of Carrollton. 

The two youngest children of Charles Carroll of 
Carrolton, Charles and Catherine, then respectively 
nineteen and sixteen years of age, returned from 
Europe in the fall of 1794. The perils of the sea, at 
this time, were increased by the dangers of capture, 
incident to the war between France and England. 
And Charles Carroll in writing of the arrival of his 
son and daughter, to Mr. Joshua Johnson in London 
from whose house they had sailed, tells of their ad- 
venture with a French privateer. 

" Doughebagen, 6th October, 1794. 
" Dear Sir : 

" My son and daughter reached this place in good health 
on the z6th past. The vessel on which they took their 
passage from London was captured at some distance 
from this coast by the French privateer Sam Pareil, who 
was proceeding to the West Indies with her prize, when 
luckily they fell in with the snow Pallas bound to Ketie- 
boenk in Massachusetts. The privateer compelled the 
captain of the Pallas to take the passengers and crew on 
board, and for 30 guineas landed them in Boston." ' 

Among the French royalist refugees in America 
in these years, was the Rev. Mr. Perigny, a doctor 
of the Sorbonne, who was invited to reside at the 
Manor by Charles Carroll, and officiate there as 
chaplain. When the first public library was organ- 
ized in Baltimore in 1795, Bishop Carroll was promi- 
nent as one of its patrons, and Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton was a member. Mons. de Perigny was 
made the first librarian, and a number of receipts for 

1 Family ptpen, Rev. Thorn** Sim Lee. 

Baltimore Library Company. 201 

the annual dues of the " Library Company " are ex. 
tant, signed " Geo. de Perigny." Many of the books 
of this early " Library Company " are now in poses- 
sion of the Maryland Historical Society. In pur- 
chasing material, about this time, for clothing his 
servants, Charles Carroll of Carrollton wrote to a 
merchant in Richmond, Virginia, ordering " fifteen 
hundred ells of country linen for shirting negroes, of 
the width and quality of the best German osnabrigs." 
He adds that he "will annually want the above 
quantity, and the ready money will always be paid " ; 
and he manifests his patriotic desire to encourage 
home industries by declaring that he "would wish 
to give the preference to American linen, if in qual- 
ity equal and in price not superior to German osna- 
brigs." ' 

Feeling ran high in the United States in 1794- 
1795, between the parties opposed to and in sympa- 
thy with the French Revolution. And from France 
came the title " Democrat," now first used to desig- 
nate the Antifederalist or " Federal Republican." 
An Englishman traveling in America in 1794, names, 
with Washington and Hamilton, among the Fed- 
eralists leaders, the two Marylanders William Vans 
Murray and William Smith." But he should have 
included Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the friend 
and correspondent of both Hamilton and Washing- 
ton. Carroll's sympathies were all with royalist 
France, after the execution of the King, and with 
England as against the Jacobin tendencies of the 

1 MS : Letter. Collection of Robert J. Hubbard. 

* " A Yojrtge to the United States," H. Wausey , p. 90. 

202 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

French Republic. And it is very likely, from his 
long early residence in France, and his acquaintance 
during the American Revolution with Frenchmen 
in the Continental service, that he was sought out 
by the refugees, both the prominent and obscure. 
He may have met the brilliant, cynical Talleyrand ; 
it is more than likely he entertained, at Annapolis 
or " Doughoregan " the gallant and unfortunate Vis- 
count de Noailles, brother-in-law of Lafayette, 
whose wife, mother and grandmother had all fallen 
under the guillotine of Robespierre, and who was in 
America in 1794, planning to settle there with a num- 
ber of his countrymen, on the batiks of the Susque- 

Jay's famous treaty with England, negotiated 
July 15, 1795, brought the contest between 
Federalists and Democrats to a climax. Carried 
through in a secret session of the Senate, it was 
made public by a Democratic Senator, Stevens 
Thomson Mason of Virginia, and meetings of the 
Democrats were immediately called all over the 
country to condemn the treaty, at which thanks 
were enthusiastically voted, and toasts pledged, to 
Mason and his Congressional colleagues. The 
Federalists held meetings also, and censured the 
Virginia Senator for his daring act. Desperate 
quarrels arose between the champions and the 
opponents of the treaty, and a duel was with diffi- 
culty averted between Hamilton and Commodore 
Nicholson. On the other side of the Atlantic, a 
fatal encounter took place between two young 
Virginians who, in consequence of a conversation 

Contest over yay's Treaty. 203 

at the "Virginia Coffee House" in London, on the 
subject of the treaty, fought a duel in Hyde Park, 
and one of them fell mortally wounded. ' 

Robert Goodloe Harper, who was soon to become 
Charles Carroll's son-in-law, in an "Address to his 
' Constituents," justified the treaty, and received a 
letter of thanks from its author, John Jay, at whose 
request the address was published. * Jay's treaty 
" was generally condemned in Virginia, and the 
South," says President Lyon G. Tyler of Williams- 
burg, " because it made no provision for free trade 
with the West Indies, formerly the life of Alexandria 
and Vorktown, nor exacted any indemnity for the 
slaves which the British had carried off during the 
war." ' 

There were questions of principle involved in its 
passage, also, independent of its special features, 
which rendered it obnoxious to the Antifederalists, 
questions which have never yet been decided. 
These were whether the President and Senate alone, 
as maintained by the Federalists, have power to 
regulate commerce and duties, and to define piracy ; 
and whether the House of Representatives is obliged 
to vote any amount of money called for by a treaty 
so negotiated. The Democrats believed, and still 
declare, that the two Houses of Congress should 
concur in the three points above named, and that 
a treaty is not, independently of the Constitution, 
" the supreme law of the land." Jefferson wrote in 

1 TktVirximeffiibritmIAfafaitHe,v6l.l.,ilo.i,,p.lj. Juljr.iSgi. 
'" Correspondence and Public Papersof John Jay," vol.iv.,p. 198. 
* William and Mary College Quarterly, vol. it., No. 4., p. 354. 

204 Charles Carroll of Carroltion. 

1795 : " Our part of the country is in considerable 
fermentation. . . . They say that white at! hands 
were below deck, mending sails, splicing ropes, and 
everyone at his own business, and the captain in 
his cabin attending to his log-book and chart, a 
rogue of a pilot has run them into an enemy's port. 
But metaphor apart, there is much dissatisfaction 
with Mr. Jay and his treaty." Charles Carroll in 
writing to Washington, on matters of business, the 
23d of April, 1796, took occasion to make some 
inquiries of him about the much-talked-of treaty. 
Washington's reply, which is marked " Private " in 
the manuscript copy preserved among his papers, 
is as follows: 

Philadelphia, 1st M»y, 1796. 
Charles Carroll Esq : 

Dear Sir : Your favor of the 33d ulto. has been duly 
received. With respect to the application of Mr. Free- 
man, I shall do as I always have done on similar occas- 
ions, and that I am sure you will approve of — namely to 
lay the recommendations of applicants by, until the hour 
comes when nominations are to be made, and then after 
reference to them and an attention to other circum- 
stances (which is often essential) prefer those who seem 
to have the greatest fitness for the office. 

Accompanying the information of the election of Mr. 
Sprigg, and the instructions with which he was charged, 
you proposed several interesting questions such as I am 
persuaded your own good sense, after a resort to the 
debates of the important points which have been dis- 
cussed, will leave you at no loss to solve. 

Few however, I believe, acquainted with the proceed- 

Letter from Washington, 205 

ings in the House of Representatives, conceive that the 
real question was Dot whether the Treaty with Great 
Britain was a good or a bad one, but whether there 
should be a Treaty at all without the concurrence of 
that House ; and taking advantage of the partialities 
in favor of one nation and the prejudices against that 
[sic] of another, with the aid of such unfavorable inter- 
pretation as they were disposed to give to some parts of 
the Treaty, it was conceived that no occasion more suit- 
able might ever occur to establish the principle and 
enlarge the powers they aimed at. On this ground, 
therefore, it was resolved to attempt at every hazard to 
render the Treaty-making power a nullity without their 
consent ; nay worse to make it an absolute absurdity, 
such as could not fail to reflect disgrace upon the under- 
standing and wisdom not only of those who framed, but 
on those also who adopted the Constitution, from the 
inconsistency of giving a power to the President and 
Senate to make Treaties (and when made and ratified, 
declaring them the supreme law of the land) and in the 
same instrument to vest a power in the House of Repre- 
sentatives to fix their vote [veto ?] upon it, unless bri- 
bery and fraud was apparent in the transaction (which 
in equity would annul any contract), or ruin was so self- 
evident as to involve war, or any evil preferable to the 

With regard to the motives which have led to these 
measures, and which have not only brought the Consti- 
tution to the brink of a precipice, but the peace, happi- 
ness and prosperity of the country into eminent danger, 
I shall say nothing. Charity tells us they ought to be 
good, but suspicions say they must be bad; at present 
my tongue shall be silent. Every true friend to this 
country must see and feel that the policy of it is not 

206 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

to embroil ourselves with any nation whatever, but to 
avoid their disputes and their politics, and if they will 
harass one another to avail ourselves of the neutral con- 
duct we have adopted. Twenty years peace with such 
an increase of population and resources as we have a 
right to expect, added to our remote situation from the 
jarring powers, will in all probability, enable us, in a just 
cause, to bid defiance to any power on earth. Why then 
should we prematurely embark (for the attainment of 
trifles comparatively speaking) in hostilities, the issue of 
which is never certain, always expensive, and beneficial 
to a few only (the least deserving perhaps,) whilst it must 
be distressing and ruinous to the great mass of our 

But enough of this ! The people must decide for 
themselves, and probably will do so, notwithstanding the 
vote has gone in favor of the appropriations by a major- 
ity of 51 to 48, as the principle and assumption of power, 
which has been contended for remains, although the 
consequences by the present decision probably will be 

With esteem and regard, I am, Dear Sir, your most 
obedient servant, 

Geo. Washington.' 

This epistle is apparently alluded to in a letter of 
Charles Carroll to his son, written in 1800, where he 
says : " Your publishing an extract of General Wash- 
ington's letter to me, has drawn an attack on me in 
Martin's paper; the performance is pitiful and un- 
worthy of notice." Again in 1816, Charles Carroll 
refers to the letter, in writing to Joseph Delaplaine. 

1 Washington, MSS : State Department. Note to Ford'* " Writ- 
iiigs of Washington," vol. liii., p. 187. 

Allusion in yeffersoris "Anas." 207 

" Though well-acquainted with Genl. Washington, 
and I flatter myself in his confidence, few letters 
passed between us ; — one, having reference to the 
opposition made to the Treaty concluded by Mr. 
Jay, has been repeatedly published in the newspapers, 
and perhaps you may have seen it ; that letter is no 
longer in my possession." 

Jefferson, in the personalities of the Anas, written 
in 1818, alludes to this Washington letter, from the 
standpoint of the ardent Democrat. He speaks of 
Washington's being so much under the influence of 
the Federalists ; and that while like the rest of man- 
kind he was disgusted with the atrocities of the 
French Revolution, he did not do justice to those of 
his countrymen who still preferred France to Eng- 
land, as a struggling sister republic. He had not 
sufficient confidence in the "steady and national 
character of the American people." In his support 
of Jay's Treaty, Jefferson declared, Washington be- 
came alienated from him, " as from the Republican 
body of his fellow-citizens," and he " wrote the letters 
to Mr. Adams and Mr. Carroll, over which in devo- 
tion to his imperishable fame, we must forever weep 
as monuments of mortal decay." ' 

The Virginians were so much opposed to Jay's 
Treaty, and the principles incidently involved in its 
passage, that they proposed amendments to the 
Federal Constitution, covering the points at issue. 
These were considered in the Maryland Assembly, 
by a joint committee of both Houses, at its Novem- 
ber session, 1796. Charles Carroll of Carrollton who 

1 Writing* of Jeffenon, Congresi Edition, vol. ix., p. 99, 

208 Charles Carroll of Carroll/on. 

was present in the Senate and an important member 
of the committee, probably wrote the report, which 
he brought in, and which undoubtedly reflects his 

The joint committee of both Houses, to whom were 
referred the amendments proposed to be made to the 
Government of the United States by the Legislature of 
Virginia in December last have had them under consid- 
eration for some time, and cannot recommend their 
adoption for the following reasons : 

Should the first amendment be ratified by the legisla- 
tures of nine States, no treaty of the least consequence 
could be made as now authorized without the sanction of 
a majority of the House of Representatives ; thus would 
that House be let into a participation of a part of the ex- 
ecutive power which has been exclusively vested in the 
President and Senate as fitter for the transacting such 
business and concluding treaties ; for the Senate being a 
smaller and more select body, it is presumable will be 
less liable to the influence of party, and therefore treaties 
will probably be investigated in that house with greater 
accuracy, and with more temper and judgment, than in 
the other ; nor was this the only reason for giving to the 
Senate a share of the treaty- making power. All the 
States being equally represented in the Senate, it was 
considered that this equality of suffrage, coupled with 
the control over treaties, would reconcile the smaller 
States to the preponderancy which the larger possess in 
the other branch. But the President and Senate may be 
corrupted, and sacrifice their country to a foreign inter- 
est. Are the President and Senate more likely to be 
corrupted than the Representatives ? Few, compared to 
these, a greater responsibility attaches to their character 

Maryland versus Virginia. 209 

and conduct ; guilt divided among many seems to lessen, 
and becomes almost imperceptible in each individual, 
sheltering and countenancing himself under the author- 
ity of numbers. Large popular assemblies, in their pub- 
lic proceedings, have been unfeelingly guilty of crimes 
from the commission of which each individual standing 
alone, or supported by few, would have shrunk with 
horror. We may reasonably conclude, that the State 
legislatures will, in general, elect into the Senate men of 
good sense, information and integrity ; if they do not, 
they will either want discernment or honesty, or be actu- 
ated by party. Admitting that in particular districts, 
nay, that in whole States, a party spirit may at times pre- 
vail, the delusion, it is to be hoped, will not continue 
long, and if it should, its spread through the greater por- 
tion of the Union is quite improbable. If the State 
legislatures want discernment or honesty, can their con- 
stituents be discerning and honest ? Corrupt, indeed, 
must that people be, and degraded in the extreme, who 
have not sense enough to discover, or virtue to pursue, 
their real interests. In an emergency of this kind, what 
will partial amendments avail? A revolution only, ca- 
lamity, and long sufferings, can operate their reform, and 
restore such a people to a just way of thinking and acting. 
Does experience call for any of the proposed amend- 
ments? To amend a constitution in its infancy, from 
the dread of imaginary, and not from the existence of 
real evils, is surely most unwise. So far as the short 
trial we have had of the Federal Government will en- 
able us to judge of its future operations, we ought to 
remain satisfied with its present form ; for a large major- 
ity of the American people, and this State in particular, 
have repeatedly expressed their approbation of its admin- 
istration, and their thankfulness for the benefits derived 

2io Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

from that government. No country can be said to enjoy 
a free constitution, nor will long retain its essence and 
purity, without proper checks and balances. The f'ram- 
ers of the Federal Government have so distributed 
powers among the parts composing it, that each may 
control the others ; no event has yet discovered that the 
distribution has been injudiciously made ; why, then, has 
it been thought necessary to alter it? Why take away 
from two branches, to impart in common to one, that 
portion of power which was exclusively lodged in the 
two ? Perhaps it may be said that the power has been 
abused. When parties run high, and are nearly poised, 
every expedient will be tried to give the mastery to the 
one or to the other. Does the Constitution present bar- 
riers to this wished for ascendancy ? These must be 
levelled ; amendments must do them away, and will be 
proposed by the defeated party on the spur of the occa- 
sion ; in the very hurry and tumult of the passions, dis- 
appointed and foiled in a favorite object, at such a time 
can amendments be discussed and weighed with that 
coolness and candor so requisite to the forming a right 
judgment ? 

Why should a tribunal, other than (he Senate, be insti- 
tuted for the trial of impeachments ? No person has 
been impeached before the Senate, and therefore no 
defect in the tribunal can be collected from facts and 
experiment ; the objections, if not altogether proceed- 
ing from a love of novelty and change, must have origi- 
nated from fancied apprehensions of unfairness and 
corruption in the Senate, as a court. If the government 
is to be new modelled upon the visionary conceits of 
speculative men, forever on the change, it never will as- 
sume a stable form, and the condition of the people liv- 
ing under it will be as miserable as of those under vague 

Virginia's Proposed Amendments. 2 1 1 

and uncertain laws, which, partaking of the nature of the 
government, if this is fluctuating and capricious, those 
will be equally so. 

The third amendment contemplates and provides for 
2 more frequent election and renewal of members in the 
Senate of the United States. In this respect it appears 
to the committee to run directly counter to the main end 
of its institution. The framers of the Federal Govern- 
ment, no doubt, wished to temper and control those sal- 
lies of passion which it was foreseen party heat would at 
times produce in the House of Representatives. No 
method so effectual for the purpose occurred, as to give 
to the Senators that permanency which might secure 
them from the frenzy of the moment ; from the conta- 
gion of faction, and the unfounded suspicions of preju- 
dice. Besides, from a body durable as the Senate, and 
appointed in the manner prescribed by the Constitution, 
more experience in business, more steadiness of conduct, 
and consistency of views, are to be expected, than from 
biennial Representatives, owing frequently their election 
as much to party zeal as to merit. The quick rotation 
of Senators proposed to be established by the amend- 
ment would deprive the Senate of those advantages, 
which, as at present constituted, it derives from that de- 
gree of stability imparted to it by a longer continuance 
in the trust of its members. 

The fourth amendment was evidently levelled at the 
appointment of Mr. Jay as envoy extraordinary to the 
Court of London, and no doubt was intended as an indi- 
rect censure of that measure. However, it does not 
strike the committee that the appointment of a judge on 
a momentous occasion, to execute a temporary and 
particular commission, has been or can be attended with 
any inconvenience or danger to the public. 

2 1 2 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

If the preceding observations and reasoning are just 
the committee submit the following resolve, as proper to 
be passed by the Legislature : 

Resolved, That the first and third amendments, pro- 
posed in last December by the Legislature of Virginia to 
be made to the Constitution or frame of government for 
the United States, ought not to be adopted, because, in 
the opinion of the Legislature, they would give too great 
a preponderancy to the House of Representatives, and 
thus derange the balance of reciprocal control, checks 
and powers, so happily devised and distributed among 
the component parts of the Federal Government, and 
thereby endanger the liberty of the people ; that the 
second and fourth amendments are particularly inexpedi- 
ent, as not being warranted by the experience of any 
evils which have resulted from the government as now 
constituted, or from its administration. 

The committee also beg leave to report, that the 
annual interchange of laws, as proposed by the General 
Assembly of Virginia, may be attended with beneficial 
effects, and therefore recommend the following resolve : 

Resolved, That the Governor of this State be re- 
quested to inform the Governor of the Commonwealth 
of Virginia, that the Legislature of this State have 
acceded to their proposition of an annual interchange 
of the laws of their respective States, and also to an 
exchange of the existing code of laws in each State, and 
that the Governor be requested to procure the said laws, 
and determine and fix upon the means for carrying this 
resolution into effect' 

In reviewing briefly Charles Carroll's career in the 

Maryland Senate from 1792 to 1797, we find him in 

1 Journal of the Maryland Senate. 

Insurrection in St. Domingo, 213 

1793, one of a committee having in charge the pro- 
ject of holding an annual lottery (or the benefit of 
the new city of Washington. " Baltimore-town " was 
to be legislated into a " city " at this time, and Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton was one of a committee ap- 
pointed for this purpose. The Militia Bill was still 
the subject of discussion and amendment, Charles 
Carroll continuing to take an active part in its pre- 
paration. The sufferers from the insurrection in St. 
Domingo had sought shelter in " the hospitable 
States of America" in the summer of 1793, and 
Baltimore had provided for many of them, the 
Assembly granting five hundred dollars a week 
from December to February, and Congress was 
asked, through the Maryland Senators and Repre- 
sentatives, " to refund the surplus advanced " 
beyond Maryland's " just proportion." Charles 
Carroll drew up the address to these gentlemen on 
this subject.' 

The eleventh amendment to the Constitution of 
the United States was proposed in Congress in 1794, 
and declared adopted in 179$. Virginia and Massa- 
chusetts had both suggested this amendment and 
worked to secure its ratification. Virginia's House of 
Delegates in 1793 had passed resolutions to this end; 
declaring " That a State cannot, under the Constitu- 
tion of the United States be made a defendant at 
the suit of any individual or individuals, and that 
the decision of the Supreme Federal Court, that a 
State may be placed in that situation, is incompat- 
ible with, and dangerous to, the sovereignty and 
■ Journal of the Senate. 

314 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

independence of the individual States, as the same 
tends to a general consolidation of these confeder- 
ated republics." The Maryland House of Delegates 
endorsed this view, and advocated amendments 
to " protect a State in Federal Courts." The 
Senate, more cautious, and of a more Federal com- 
plexion, hesitated, and asked for more time to give 
the matter consideration. " It is an important 
question," they say, "which has occasioned great 
diversity of opinion among men of the first abilities." 
And when the act to ratify the amendment was 
voted on in the Senate, December 17, 1704, and 
passed, Charles Carroll of CarroUton recorded his 
suffrage against it. 1 

A bill before the Legislature, for taking away the 
funds of Washington and St. John's College was 
opposed in the Senate, and finally negatived by the 
Assembly. Charles Carroll was chairman of the 
Senate committee having the matter in charge; and 
an interesting account of both of these institutions, 
is spread upon the journal, in the letters and papers 
used by their champion to secure the continuation 
of the fund hitherto allowed them. Maryland's 
stock in the Bank of England was yet unrecovered, 
and there was question in the Assembly in 1794, as 
to the suggestion of having Mr. Jay make it a subject 
of negotiation in the proposed English treaty. But 
this idea had been finally abandoned. Charles 
Carroll was prominent in the Senate and joint com- 
mittees on the bank-stock affair, as it came up in 
successive sessions. In the Assembly of 179s, Gcn- 

Western Limits of Maryland. 2 1 5 

eral Washington's course was approved of, in the 
matter of Jay's Treaty, and in other respects, and 
on motion of Charles Carroll of Carrollton the 
"Address"of the House of Delegates endorsing the 
Administration was to be published in all the Mary- 
land papers. At the following session Charles 
Carroll reported from a joint committee of the two 
Houses an " Answer " to the Governor's address, in 
which there are allusions to the President's message, 
as he is about to retire from public life, and regret 
expressed at his determination. Washington's " Ad- 
dress to the people of the United States," dated 
September 17, 1796, is given in the Senate journal, 
and the resolutions of the Assembly, relating to it, 
which are highly eulogistic of the Pater Patrice. 

At the session of 1795 Charles Carroll had been 
put upon the committee of three which was to con- 
fer with a House committee, on the settlement of 
the western limits of the State. And in 1796 he 
was appointed, with Jeremiah Townley Chase, a 
Commissioner, to settle with Virginia the question 
of State boundaries. Philip Barton Key was after- 
wards added to the Commission. Carroll and Chase 
took the places of William Pinkney then in England, 
and William Cooke who had resigned. Ten days be- 
fore the close of the session of 1796, Charles Carroll 
brought in from the joint committee on the Virginia 
amendments to the Constitution of the United States, 
the report which has been already given.' In 1797 he 
introduced a bill for the gradual abolition of slavery, 
which, however, did not pass. Vet in the latter 

2i6 Charles Carroll of ' Carroltion. 

part of his life he was a " pro-slavery man in all its 
features, and was most logical in his demonstrations 
of its influence in this country." ' 

In the summer of 1798, Charles Carroll of Car- 
rollton wrote the following letter to General Wash- 
ington, on the prospect of war with France, and the 
preparations in the United States for such an event. 
It will be noticed how sagacious are Carroll's 
prophecies as to the future course of political events 
in France and the monarchies surrounding her. 

DOUGHOREGAN, 9th Aug., 1798. Sir : 

I was yesterday favored with your letter of the and 
instant. Your sentiments respecting the proper qualifica- 
tions of aids to a commander-in-chief, or of a separate 
army are very just. Unquestionably persons of experi- 
ence should have the preference, for the forcible 
reasons you mention ; but I thought that they who had 
acquired experience by actual service during the last war, 
would aim at and aspire to commands in the army pro- 
posed to be raised, or at becoming colonels, majors &c, 
and that young men chiefly would solicit to be appointed 

I sincerely wish that you may not be forced to quit your 
retirement and place yourself at the head of our army. 
Nothing, I fear, will prevent the Directory from landing 
a strong force in one of the Southern States, but the 
want of the means. It is obvious they aim at splitting the 
countries surrounding France into small Democracies 
entirely dependant on the rulers of the great nation. 
They view with a jealous eye the growing strength of 
this country, and if they can, they will nip it in the bud 
1 AfifUian'i Journal, September 19, X874, p. 355. 

Letter to General Washington. 217 

by dismembering the Union. They have too many par- 
tisans among us, influenced by a variety of motives, 
who will aid their measures, when they dare to cast off 
the mask. On these traitors, I wish with you, that the 
expense of our preparations could be thrown, but the 
mischief is, the far greater part (were it even practicable 
to subject them solely to the expense) have little or 
nothing to pay, and this poverty is one of the causes 
which has enlisted them under the banners of France. 

I have observed, that through all the changes of parties 
and rulers in France, one object has been steadily 
pursued, the aggrandizement of the terrible Republic, 
and the depression of its neighbors. All the men placed 
at the head of the French councils have had ambition, 
and enterprise. France, if left in possession of its acquisi- 
tions, will, on the return of a general peace, turn its 
attention to the acquirement of a powerful marine, which 
can be acquired only by an extensive commerce, sup- 
ported by extensive and opulent colonies. I suspect 
therefore, that the Directory will wrest from Spain 
Louisiana, and from Portugal the Brazils. The single 
island of St. Domingo, when reduced to order and im- 
proved, as the French part of it was before the Revolution, 
will support a flourishing trade. What can prevent 
Russia, Prussia and Austria from combining with Eng- 
land to defeat the ambitious designs of France ? I fear 
mutual jealousies, weakness of the princes who nominally 
govern those countries, the corruption of some ministers, 
and exhausted finances. 

It is said Mr. Marshall reports the finances of France 
to be at the lowest ebb. The want of money may give a 
temporary respite to Europe, and to this country, but if 
the interval be not improved in forming a solid union 
■gainst the ambition, and disorganizing projects of the 

2 1 8 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

French oligarchy, they will be soon revived. Should 
the present system of French (government it cannot be 
called) endure any length of time, it will endeavour to 
undermine by secret intrigues, or subvert by open force, 
the monarchies of Europe, for the co-existence of those 
governments is incompatible with that of France. The 
latter, indeed, is yet to undergo great changes, and may 
terminate in a monarchy, perhaps more formidable to the 
independence of Europe, than the subsisting oligarchy, 
which from the seeds of internal decay cannot be expected 
to survive many years. 

Excuse, sir, this effusion of political conjectures ; your 
letter has partly drawn them from me. I remain with 
the greatest respect and esteem, dear sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 
Ch. Carroll of Carrollton.' 

John Henry was elected Governor of Maryland in 
1797. Charles Carroll at this session, and the follow- 
ing one, reported resolutions from the joint com- 
mittee to whom the communications relating to the 
bank stock had been referred, which were not satis- 
factory to the House of Delegates. The latter 
wanted to put the matter entirely into the hands of 
Rufus King, American Minister to England, and the 
Senate objected to this. Charles Carroll was the 
writer of a long message to the House, on the sub- 
ject, dated January 3, 1799, and a final message of 
the 19th of January. A point at issue between the 
two Houses was whether they should deduct the 
claim of James Russell from the bank stock due 

1 WuhingtoD MSS :, Department of State. 

The Bank of England Stock. 2 1 9 

Samuel Chase in letters to Charles Carroll written 
in 1797-1798, describes the case as it then stood. The 
widow of James Russell, he urged, had been com- 
pensated by the British Government, so that it would 
be necessary to deduct his claim for something over 
£10,600, out of the amount to be transferred. Chase 
writes that he had exerted himself " for fourteen 
years to obtain for the State a transfer of the whole." 
But he thought, as he wrote in a letter dated Janu- 
ary, II, 1798, to insist upon this now would be 
inexpedient. He believed that the Resolutions pro- 
posed by the joint committee, would do harm, and 
if adopted would " suspend all further negotiations 
on the subject." ' 

The House of Delegates sustained the view taken 
by Samuel Chase. The two messagesof the Senate, 
as reported by Charles Carroll are as follows : 

January, 3d, 1799. — Gentlemen: We received your 
message requesting a reconsideration of the resolution 
relating to the bank stock. 

The members of the Senate are ever willing to recon- 
sider their decisions, when new arguments or facts are 
disclosed, or where, in the hurry of public business, a 
subject may have been acted upon without that delibera- 
tion and discussion which its importance required. But 
in cases where no new facts nor arguments not hereto- 
fore used are produced, the practice is improper. These 
principles preclude the reconsideration of the resolution ; 
the arguments in your message had been fully considered 
in the repeated discussions of the subject, no new facts 
have been discovered to place it in a new or different 
1 Archivcj of Maryland Historical Society. 

220 Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 

point of view. Under these circumstances reconsidera- 
tions must produce that instability of decision which you 
must admit to be inconvenient and even discreditable, to 
public councils. 

Although we decline a reconsideration of the resolu- 
tion, you are not thence to infer we consider the undis- 
puted possession of the stock of little importance to the 
State ; on the contrary, with you, we deem it an object 
of great magnitude. 

Upon the mere intimations of the Chancellor, and the 
opinions of council as to the justice of Russell's claim, 
which we have not seen, and therefore cannot judge of, 
we can scarcely reason at all, or very imperfectly, for our 
information upon these points, to say the least, is most 
imperfect. We fear not, however, of being contradicted 
in asserting, that the recent payment of Russell's claim 
by the British Government, after the disclaimer of all 
right to (he stock in question on the part of the Crown, 
amounts to a full admission of the right of this State, 
and ought to remove every obstacle to a recovery of the 
whole. Under these circumstances, and the repeated ad- 
missions of our right to a partial transfer, we think the 
adoption of your resolution would be highly impolitic. 
The abandonment of a large portion of our claim can 
only be justified by an immediate and pressing demand 
for money, or by a well grounded opinion that the whole 
stock will be hazarded from insisting upon an uncondi- 
tional transfer. 

The state of our treasury evinces that the call for 
money is not so very pressing, nor can we admit the possi- 
bility of losing the whole by contending for what you, as 
well as we, conceive to be the right of the State. 

Although, in the present situation of the funds of the 
United States, compared with those of Great Britain, it 

Senate Messages Reported. 221 

might by some be thought prudent to direct a sale of our 
bank stock, when transferred, and to invest the proceeds 
in the public securities of the Federal Government, yet 
this measure could not be effected at the present price 
of bank stock, without such a loss to the State as noth- 
ing can warrant but extreme necessity on our part, and 
the probability that the British Government will either 
fail or violate its public faith by the seizure of the prop- 
erty in its public funds of a friendly State. A national 
bankruptcy is a very improbable event, and the seizure 
even more so ; for public credit, sound policy, and the 
modem practice of civilized nations, have rendered sacred 
properly in the public funds, even of enemies. 

In a few years after a general peace, it is presumable 
that the bank stock in England will rise very consider- 
ably, and we cannot conceive that the State would wil- 
lingly sustain the loss arising from the admission of 
Russell's claim, and the present withdrawing this money 
from England. It has indeed been urged, that although 
we might not withdraw the bank stock upon terms so 
disadvantageous, yet it would be politic to obtain a 
transfer to Mr. King at the certain loss of ten thousand 
six hundred and fifty pounds sterling, the amount of 
Russell's claim, and thus prevent farther deductions, by 
the payment of other claims. 

To this observation we reply, that the same principles 
which would now induce the British Government to 
transfer the stock, or any part of it, will continue to 
operate with equal force, unless counteracted by circum- 
stances which at this time we have no right to antici- 
pate ; from the interposition of other claims, nothing in 
our judgment is to be seriously apprehended, since the 
claim of Russell, the trustee, supposed to be better 
founded than any of the rest, was disallowed by the 

222 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

Chancery court for want of equity. You indeed have 
supposed, that if the stock should continue much longer 
in its present situation, other claims may hereafter be 
brought forward and admitted ; if this be really your 
opinion, may not the admission of Russell's claim serve 
as a precedent for the allowance of others equally un- 
founded, and which may finally swallow up the whole 
stock ? Nothing is risked by persisting on our right, but 
a certain, perhaps a total loss, may arise from a contrary 
and temporizing conduct. 

Permit us to observe, that the claims which have al- 
ready been set up against our bank stock, and deter- 
mined inadmissible, will not alter their character, and 
become just and admissible by the lapse of time ; but 
incidents may occur, which, if they will not justify, may 
at least give color to the retention, in plain English, to 
the forfeiture of this stock ; in discussions of this kind, 
we should reject the workings of the imagination, and 
the unreal suggestions of fear, it being the interest of 
both countries to be upon good terms, and to maintain 
the subsisting harmony which cannot long be maintained 
without the mutual observance of justice ; we conclude, 
and upon the strongest foundation, that both Govern- 
ments will continue to act justly towards each other. 

We have reason to believe that the Chancellor had 
not, in September last, dismissed the bill of the State's 
assignee, but deferred the dismission until the Attorney- 
General should be instructed thereon by the Crown. 
The last authentic advices from Mr. King to the Secre- 
tary of State, communicated by Mr. Chase, through the 
executive, to the General Assembly at the last session, 
informed them that the Chancellor would dismiss the 
bill, on the allegation that he has no jurisdiction of the 
case ; then neither Russell's representative, or any other 

Rufus King's Negotiation. 223 

claimant for compensation out of the bank stock, can 
recover in a court of equity ; indeed, all those whose 
property has been confiscated, and Russell's family 
among others (as already observed), have been indemni- 
fied by the British Government. Upon what principle, 
then, can it be maintained, that the King of Great Brit- 
ain may of right retain the sum awarded and paid to 
Russell's family ? A nd if that sum, why not others ? On 
no other ground, we conceive, than that [he bank stock, 
formerly the property of the people of Maryland, has de- 
volved on the Crown ; will you then be pleased to point 
out how the King of Great Britain has become beir or 
successor to the people of Maryland ? We are really at 
a loss to know how the British negotiator will make out 
the title of his master to the stock of this State in the 
Bank of England ; should he fail in the attempt, the 
stock surely cannot be considered as property to which 
no person is entitled, it must belong either to the people 
of Maryland or to his Britannic majesty ; if to the latter, 
whatever right he may formerly have had to it he has 
long ago disclaimed. 

You have laid great stress on the policy of obtaining 
a speedy transfer of the stock ; to the same purpose it 
was urged, in a discussion of this subject before the Sen- 
ate, that if Mr. King, for so many months, had endeav- 
oured in vain to procure a transfer, what chance was 
there that he would be more successful for the time to 
come ? Be it remembered, that the only claim stated by 
Mr. King, as an obstruction to the transfer, was consid- 
ered by him as unjust and impolitic ; he said he should 
resist both the impolicy and injustice of it, unless other- 
wise instructed by the legislature. 

Have we any assurances from Mr. King himself, that 
his opinion of the claim has been since altered i Have 

224 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

any reasons been adduced by him to prove that what 
was then unjust and impolitic is now become politic and 
just ? Do we not now know that the claim in question has 
been satisfied by the British Government long since the 
dates of Mr. King's letters on this subject to Mr. Pick- 
ering? If the transfer has been thus long delayed from 
the non-payment of Russell's claim, it being now paid, 
and that stumbling block thus removed, we have the 
strongest reason to expect, both from the equity of the 
case and true policy, that the stock, if not already trans- 
ferred to Mr. King, will not much longer be withheld, 
But if we pass the resolution, and it should be known in 
England before the transfer is made, it will be construed 
into a surrender of the ten thousand six hundred and 
fifty pounds sterling, awarded Russell, which though 
already paid by the British Government, may be stopped 
out of our bank stock, not to be twice paid to Russell's 
family, not to be returned into the British treasury (for 
the sum, though an object to this State, is none to that 
nation), but it will probably be deemed a douceur, given 
to obtain speedily, what really is our right, and will, if 
insisted on with perseverance, be at length obtained. 

Undoubtedly Mr King will imitate the worthy exam- 
ple of the late envoys of the United States to France, 
and set his face against all douceurs ; he will not surely 
purchase redress at the expense of the State, unless im- 
prudently authorized to act differently. Thus judging 
of that gentleman, our confidence in him is not less than 
yours, and although we might have been willing to con- 
fide to him a real discretion, had nothing transpired on 
this subject, we again submit to you, whether the pub- 
licity of ihe proposed resolution, when once passed by 
the Legislature, would not deprive him of the actual ex- 
ercise of it, by admitting the British Government to a 

Law of Nations to Govern. 225 

knowledge of our ultimatum, and whether, under these 
circumstances, it would not amount to an actual aban- 
donment of Russell's claim. 

We do not think that either present circumstances, the 
interest of our constituents, or the state of our finances, 
warrant the sacrifice proposed. Believing that the State 
has a full and perfect right to the whole stock, for its 
attainment we rely on the justice of our cause, the ability 
of our minister, and the firm support of the general 
government. 1 

[January 19, 1790.] Gentlemen : 

As the only reasons adduced in your first message 
were urged by the agent of the bank stock, when before 
the Senate, and as most of your House attended on that 
occasion, we were certainly warranted in asserting, that 
your message contained no new matter, facts or argu- 
ments, to induce us to alter our opinion. 

We admit the Chancellor has intimated that he has 
not jurisdiction of the cause, that the stock is in the 
hands of the accountant-general, and that the subject is 
now under negotiation. We contend that the principles 
of the law of nations ought solely to govern in such a 
negotiation ; that the King of Great Britain ought not to 
avail himself of the circumstance of the stock being in 
the hands of the accountant-general to indemnify any of 
his subjects out of it, if a right to the stock cannot be 
established in the Crown ; that if the King may right- 
fully thus indemnify one of his subjects, he may indem- 
nify all those whose property has been confiscated by 
this State, or make such other distribution of the stock 
as to him may seem meet. 

The right of the State to the stock we deem indisput- 
able. In your former message it is said, that eminent 
1 Journal of the Maryland Senate, 

226 CfiarUs Carroll of Carrollton. 

counsel in England think differently. We have observed, 
and repeat the observation, that opinions we have not 
seen, nor the reasons on which they are grounded, ought 
not to induce us to relinquish a property to which we 
are persuaded we have a good and perfect title. If such 
opinions have been given, and have come to the knowl- 
edge of Mr. King, and if the reasons on which they are 
founded appear in his judgment to have weight, no doubt 
he will communicate them to the General Assembly, and 
when communicated, we shall give them all the consid- 
eration which their importance may merit. 

It is true the negotiation of Mr. King has not hitherto 
met with the desired success, but it does not follow that 
he may not succeed hereafter. Matters of this nature 
between independent sovereignties are not speedily trans- 
acted, and this question in particular may have given 
way to more important discussions. A year or two hence 
may be as favorable a time for negotiating a transfer as 
the present, or the past ; perhaps more favorable, for 
then the person forming the chief obstacle to the trans- 
fer of the stock may have no control over it. 

It is asserted by Mr. Stanley, that the Crown has dis- 
claimed already all right to the stock, and we are in- 
formed that Russell's family has been recently paid by 
the British Government ; the information has been given 
to one of our members, who was requested by his in- 
formant not to divulge the person's name ; the truth of 
it, we doubt not will be confirmed in a short time. We 
cannot conceive what right or title the Crown can now 
set up to the stock, after the disclaimer in the High 
Court of Chancery. It may be urged that Russell, as 
trustee, is entitled to indemnification out of the stock, 
and that the British Government having paid the ten 
thousand six hundred and fifty pounds sterling, may 

The Crown Abandoned All Right. 227 

retain that sum out of the stock ; first it must be decreed, 
that Russell was entitled to be indemnified out of the stock, 
and as the Chancellor has declared he has no jurisdiction 
of the cause, he cannot decide judicially on the supposed 
equitable claim of Russell ; but the stock cannot be got 
out of the hands of the accountant-general, it seems, 
without the consent of the Crown, which may not be 
obtained, unless we agree to compensate Russell's family. 
In plain English, the King will avail himself of a mere 
casuality to withhold part of our stock, without an inves- 
tigation in a court of equity of the right, in order to 
indemnify one of his subjects, and thus constitute him- 
self both judge and party. If Mr. King would remon- 
strate against such a proceeding, with that decision and 
force of argument of which he is capable, we hope the 
Chancellor would not persevere in advising his Majesty 
to adopt a measure so disgraceful and unjust. 

We insist, that if a discretionary power be now given 
to Mr. King, he must consider it a departure from the 
instructions of the last session, and given for the purpose 
of procuring a transfer by the loss of ten thousand six 
hundred and fifty pounds sterling. He will conclude 
that the State is in such want of money that it is willing 
to make that sacrifice ; as that is not our situation, and 
were the transfer now made, as we think it would be 
advisable to let the stock remain an accumulating fund 
in the Bank of England, till it appreciates much beyond 
its present value, we cannot consent to leave to Mr. 
King the use of his discretion, either to accept a partial, 
or insist on a transfer of the whole stock, as he may 
judge most expedient ; we deem ourselves more compe- 
tent to judge of the true interest of the State than Mr. 
King, who certainly cannot be so well acquainted with 
its finances, wants or resources. 

2a8 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

We have expressed an opinion, or rather hope, that 
the British Government will act justly towards this coun- 
try ; it is the interest of both countries to cultivate peace, 
and be upon good terms ; that differences will occa- 
sionally interrupt this harmony, may be expected, but 
moderation and a due regard to justice and true policy, 
will probably terminate amicably such differences ; we 
believe that both Governments are disposed to act 
towards each other in this manner, and though this may 
be really the disposition of the British ministers, yet it is 
possible one may be found among them who might not 
reject a douceur to accommodate a friend. Notwithstand- 
ing the temporary suspension of payment in cash of its 
notes, the Bank of England has considerably appreciated 
within twelve months ; about this time in the year seven- 
teen hundred and ninety-seven it was as low as one 
hundred and nine per cent, by the last intelligence it had 
risen to one hundred and twenty, and was still rising. 
From the depressed condition of the commercial rivals 
of Great Britain, and the great marts and sources of 
trade, which peace will probably leave in the possession 
of that nation, we may fairly conclude, that in a short 
time after a general peace the Bank stock of England 
will attain a higher value than ever. In this view of the 
subject, we deem it unwise to sell our bank stock at 
present, were we now in possession of it. 

The objects referred to in your message unquestion- 
ably merit the attention and patronage of the Legislature, 
and if money could be borrowed or a small sum even 
advanced by the State, to remove obstruction in the 
bed of the Susquehanna, individuals might be encour- 
aged to co-operate in opening its navigation, without 
incurring so great a loss as the present sale of our bank 
stock would occasion. The State is not entirely desti- 

Last Letter to Washington. 229 

tute of the means of aiding the navigation of the Patow- 
mack and Susquehanna ; to render it as complete as 
nature will admit, will require time and more money than 
we can now command. When peace has raised the 
value of our stock in the Bank of England, a sale of 
part may be made, and the proceeds applied to those 
two great objects ; we doubt not the wisdom of our suc- 
cessors will make the application ; the very difference 
between the present and future probable value of our 
bank stock would more than complete the navigation 
of those rivers. 

If we apprehended that the State might lose the whole 
of its stock by insisting on the unconditional transfer, 
we would assent to your resolution, but believing that 
no risk is incurred, we will not submit to a certain loss 
to obtain what we flatter ourselves will be obtained from 
the justice of our case in the course of a few years. 1 

The following letter relating to the navigation 
of the Potomac was written by Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton to General Washington, in reply to the 
latter, who had expected to see Carroll and others 
in Georgetown at a proposed meeting of the Poto- 
mac Company. These were probably the last letters 
that passed between the two friends. 

DoucnoREGAN, 5th Aug. 1709. 
Dear Sir : 

I did not receive your favor of the 21st past, until 
yesterday. The pleasure of seeing you at George Town 
would have been a strong inducement to me to attend 
the meeting of the Company to be held there this day, 
even on so short a notice of your intention of giving 
your attendance, had I not learnt at the same time I got 

230 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

your letter that you have been lately much indisposed. 
Mr. Law, however, from whom this disagreeable intelli- 
gence came, concluded his letter, I am told, by saying 
you was then on the recovery. I sincerely hope and 
wish you may be speedily restored to perfect health. 

I have written to my relative Mr. Dan : Carroll of 
Duddington, and authorized him to subscribe on my 
behalf one hundred dollars for each of the shares I hold, 
provided the sum of forty thousand dollars be subscribed. 
The circular letter of the directors states that $60,000 
will certainly complete the navigation from above Fort 
Cumberland to tide-water; a less sum therefore than 
$40,000, I conceive if subscribed and paid, would be 
doing little or nothing. No person who could be de- 
pended on, would undertake by contract a work for 
twenty or thirty thousand dollars, the completion of 
which according to accurate estimates, would require 
$60,000. I entirely coincide with your opinion, that 
what remains to be done to perfect the navigation of 
the Potomack, should be done by contract, under the 
inspection of the directors, or of one or two confidential 
and intelligent persons to be by them appointed to 
superintend the contractor. 

I have, Sir, an opinion equally sanguine as yours, of 
the eventual productiveness to the stockholders, and 
utility to the public of this great undertaking, but fear 
it will not be completed for some years, from the want 
of funds, and the inability of the stockholders to furnish 
them to the extent estimated and required. This State, 
to judge from the transactions of the last session of its 
legislature, will advance no more money towards that 
object, and similar causes may produce the same effects 
in the Legislature of Virginia. 

I beg you to present my respects to Mrs. Washington, 

Death of Washington Announced. 231 

and to receive the assurance of the perfect esteem and 
very sincere regard of. 

Dear Sir, 

Your most humble servant 

Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. 1 

Charles Carroll's able management of the affair 
of the bank stock, and his statesman-like papers on 
the subject, in which the rights and dignity of the 
Government of Maryland are upheld, in a contro- 
versy with the Government of Great Britain, form 
a fitting close to the services rendered his native 
State in a long public career. As a Federalist, he 
doubtless, in the session of 1798, fully endorsed the 
action of the Assembly, in their address to President 
Adams, approving of his administration, both in its 
foreign policy and its " late regulations for internal 
quiet ; " and he may have suggested the Senate's 
amendment in reference to the " faction opposed to 
the government of ourchoice." John Adams in his 
reply complimented Maryland in these words : " Con- 
vinced, as I have been, by an attentive observation of 
more than twenty years, that there is no State in this 
Union whose public affairs, upon all great national 
occasions, have been conducted with more method, 
wisdom and decision, or whose results [sic] have been 
the effect of a more comprehensive and profound 
view of the subject, than those of the State of 
Maryland etc." 

There was reserved one more scene in the 
Assembly in which Charles Carroll of Carrollton 
was to be a conspicuous figure, the impressive 
1 Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

232 Charles Carroll of CarroUton, 

occasion of the announcement of Washington's 
death, in the session of 1799. On December 17th, 
the Senate, " to give the people a public oppor- 
tunity of regretting the irreparable loss which their 
country has sustained " proposed a day of " mourn- 
ing, humiliation, and prayer," throughout the State. 
It was then ordered, "That Mr. Carroll and Mr. 
Forrest" communicate the above Resolution to 
the House of Delegates ; and also the Resolution 
that, " The General Assembly of Maryland, feeling 
the most undissembled sorrow for the irreparable 
loss of the illustrious Washington, and anxious to 
pay every tribute of respect to the memory of the 
departed friend to his country," furnish a scarf and 
hatband to the Governor, President of the Senate, 
and all the members of the Senate and House, in 
attendance on the Assembly, all the Council, clerks, 
and every officer of the State and General Govern- 
ment in Annapolis "to be worn during the session 
as the external mark of their unfeigned grief." ' 

Roger Brooke Taney, then serving his first year 
in the Assembly, as the young member from Calvert 
County in the House of Delegates has preserved a 
touching account of Charles Carroll's appearance 
with these Resolutions, in the House of Delegates. 
It will be seen that Taney's memory was at fault 
as to Carroll's colleague, who was not John Eager 
Howard, then in Congress, but the prominent 
member of the Senate, Uriah Forrest of St. Mary's 
County. This gentleman had been a lieutenant- 
colonel in the Maryland Line, receiving a wound at 
' Journal of the Maryland Senate. 

Scene Described by Taney. 233 

Germantown from the effects of which he never 
recovered. He had also served in Congress, both 
before and after the adoption of the Federal 

" General Washington died while the Legislature was 
still in session. The news reached Annapolis in the 
evening, and the next morning, when the House met, 
almost every countenance looked sad, and nothing 
else was spoken of. Immediately after the Houses were 
organized, the Senate sent down a message to the House 
of Delegates proposing to pay appropriate honors. 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton and John Eager Howard 
[Uriah Forrest] two of the most distinguished men in 
Maryland were appointed by the Senate to bring the 
message, and I never witnessed a more impressive scene. 
The two honored Senators with their gray locks, stood 
at the bar of the House with the tears rolling down their 
cheeks. The Speaker and members rose to receive 
them, and stood while the message was delivered. It 
was no empty formal pageant. It was the outward sign 
of the grief within, and few were present who did not 
shed tears on the occasion. My eyes, I am sure, were 
not dry." ' 

1 Tyler's " Lift of Roger Brooke Taney," p. 85. 



I 8OO-I807. 

WITH the beginning of the new century Charles 
Carroll's public career came to an end, the 
session of 1800 being his last one in the Maryland 
Senate. The Federalists who were in a majority of 
two to one in the House of Delegates in 1800, were 
reduced to a minority in i8or, and the political 
character of the Senate was, of course, altered as 
materially, the victorious party of Jefferson hav- 
ing been triumphant in Annapolis as well as in 

The question of the mode of appointing electors 
for President and Vice-President agitated Mary- 
land at this time. The Virginia Legislature had 
passed a law requiring electors to be chosen by a 
general ticket; this gave the whole electoral vote 
to Jefferson. Maryland wanted to give her whole 
vote to John Adams, but though the counties were 
Federalist, Baltimore, with its large commercial 
interests, was in favor of Jefferson, and in order to 
prevent Baltimore's majority from overpowering 


Letter to Alexander Hamilton. 235 

that of the counties, it was proposed that the 
Legislature should elect the electors. Robert 
Goodloe Harper wrote a pamphlet in favor of this 
plan, but many objected to it as depriving the 
people of their rights. The contest resulted as has 
been said, in the defeat of the Federalists. The 
following correspondence between Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton and Alexander Hamilton, touches upon 
this point and it is seen how strongly Carroll dis- 
trusted and dreaded the new party which was coming 
into power with the election of Jefferson. 

Annapous, 18th April, 1800. 
Dear Sir : 

. . . We have strange reports circulated among us 
respecting the prevalence of Jacobinical principles in 
your State. It is asserted with confidence by the Anti- 
federal party here, that all your electors will vote for 
Mr. Jefferson as President. If such an event should 
really happen, it is probable he will be chosen. Of such 
a choice, the consequences to this country may be 
dreadful. Mr. Jefferson is too theoretical and fanciful 
a statesman to direct with steadiness and prudence the 
affairs of this extensive and growing confederacy. He 
might safely try his experiments, without much incon- 
venience in the little republic of St. Marino, but his 
fantastic tricks would dissolve this Union. Perhaps 
the miseries of France, and more especially the govern- 
ment of Buonaparte, may have weaned him from his 
predclictions for revolutions. I once saw a letter of 
his, in which, amongst several others, was contained 
this strange sentiment, — 'that to preserve the liberties 
of a people, a revolution once in a century was neces- 

236 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

sary.' A man of this way of thinking, may be said to 
be fond of revolutions ; yet, possibly, were he the chief 
magistrate, he might not wish for a revolution during 
his presidency. 

I beg my respects to Mrs. Hamilton, and to be kindly 
remembered to General Schuyler. 

I am, with very great regard and esteem, Dear Sir, 
Your most humble servant, 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton." 
[To Alexander Hamilton Esq.] 

Nkw York, July 1st, 1800. 
Dear Sir : 

I yesterday returned from an excursion through three 
of the four eastern States, and found your letter of the 
18th of April. It is very necessary that the true and 
independent friends of the government should communi- 
cate, and understand each other, at the present very em- 
barrassed and dangerous crisis of public affairs. I am 
glad, therefore, of the opportunity which your letter 
affords me of giving you some explanations which may 
be useful. They are given without reserve, because the 
times forbid temporising, and I hold no opinions which 
I have any motives to dissemble. As to the situation of 
this State with regard to the election of President, it is 
perfectly ascertained that on a joint ballot of the two 
houses of our legislature the opposersof the government 
will have a majority of more than twenty ; a majority 
which can by no means be overcome. Consequently all 
our electors will vote for Mr. Jefferson, and Mr. Burr. 
I think there is little cause to doubt that the electors in 
the four eastern States will all be federal. 

The only question seems to be as to Rhode Island, 
1 Hamilton's Works of Alexander Hamilton, vol. vi., p, 434. 

Hamilton to Carroll. 237 

where there is some division, and a state of things rather 
loose. Governor Fenner, as far as he may dare, will 
promote the interest of Jefferson. 

A considerable diversion in favor of the opposition 
has lately been made in New Jersey. But the best and 
best informed men there, entertain no doubt that all her 
electors will still be federal, and I believe this opinion 
may be relied upon. 

I go no further South, as I take it for granted your 
means of calculation with regard to that quarter are, at 
least, equal to mine. 

The result of a comprehensive view of the subject, 
seems to me to be, that the event is uncertain, but that 
the probability is, that a universal adherence of the fed- 
eralists to Pinckney will exclude Jefferson. 

On this point there is some danger, though the great- 
est number of strong minded men in New England are 
not only satisfied of the expediency of supporting Piiuk- 
ney, as giving the best chance against Jefferson, hut even 
prefer him to Adams ; yet in the body of that people 
there is a strong personal attachment to this gentleman, 
and most of the leaders of the second class are so anx- 
ious for his re-election that it will be difficult to con- 
vince them that there is as much danger of its failure as 
there unquestionably is, or to induce them faithfully to 
co-operate in Mr. Pinckney, notwithstanding their com- 
mon and strong dread of Jefferson. 

It may become advisable, in order to oppose their 
fears to their prejudices, for the middle States to declare 
that Mr. Adams will not be supported at all, when see- 
ing his success desperate, they would be driven to ad- 
here to Pinckney. In this plan New Jersey and even 
Connecticut, may be brought to concur. For both these 
States have generally lost confidence in Mr. Adams. 

238 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

But this will be best decided by future events and 
elucidations. In the meantime it is not advisable that 
Maryland should be too deeply pledged to the support 
of Mr. Adams. 

That this gentleman ought not to be the object of the 
Federal wish, is, with me, reduced to demonstration. 
His administration has already very materially disgraced 
and sunk the government. There are defects in his 
character which must inevitably continue to do this 
more and more. And if he is supported by the federal 
party, his party must in the issue fall with him. Every 
other calculation, will in my judgment, prove illusory. 

Doctor Franklin, a sagacious observer of human 
nature, drew this portrait of Mr. Adams : — "He is al- 
ways honest, sometimes great, but often mad." I sub- 
scribe to the justness of this picture, adding as to the 
first trait of it this qualification — "as far as a man 
excessively vain and jealous, and ignobly attached to place 
can be." 

With consideration and esteem, I am, dear Sir, &c 
[Alexander Hamilton.] 

To Charles Carroll of Carrollton.' 

Brook land wood, near Baltimore, Aug. 37th, 1S00. 
Dear Sir : 

I received this morning, at this place, the country 
residence of my son-in-law, Mr, Caton, your letter of the 
7th instant. I wish it were in my power to give you 
pleasing intelligence of the politics in this State. Our 
county (Ann Arundel), which was lately so federal is at 
present much divided in the upper part of it. I suspect 
there is a majority for anti-federal candidates to our 
l IHd., vol. vi., p, 44s. 

yeffersotis Election Dreaded, 239 

State legislature. This change of sentiment has been 
principally effected by a few characters, who, profiting 
by the report that our legislature would take from the 
people the right of choosing the electors of President 
and Vice-President, have infused such jealousies into 
the minds of the people, that I fear the federal ticket 
will not prevail in Ann Arundel, unless the candidates 
will promise not to take from the people the choice of 

Notwithstanding the arts, and lies, and indefatigable 
industry of the jacobins in this State, I am of opinion a 
great majority of its inhabitants are friendly to the fed- 
eral government and its measures. I suspect Jefferson 
and Burr will have three votes in this State, and that the 
electors will be chosen by districts, and not by the legis- 
lature. The federal electors will vote for Adams and 
Pinckney, although the former has lost the confidence of 
many of the federals from the incidents to which you 
allude, and which are pretty generally circulated through 
this State. 

It is the character of the age to be timid and suspi- 
cious ; and this infirmity, so natural to men of my time of 
life, has no doubt its influence on my mind. I much fear 
that this country is doomed to great convulsions, changes 
and calamities. The turbulent and disorganizing spirit 
of Jacobinism, under the worn-out disguise of equal 
liberty and right, and equal division of property, held out 
to the indolent and needy, but not really intended to be 
executed, will introduce anarchy, which will terminate 
here, as in France, in a military despotism. 

I understand Jefferson and Burr have all the votes in 
Virginia. How the votes will be to the southward of 
that State I can form no opinion, having no sure data to 
form one. If the Virginia electors should suspect that 

240 Charles Carroll of CarrdUon. 

Burr might out-vote their favorite, Jefferson, they would 
leave out Burr, or only leave him a few votes, 

I hope the eastern electors, in a case of so much im- 
portance, and when they come to consider the baneful 
effects which may result from their giving a chance to the 
election of Jefferson or Burr for President, will vole 
unanimously for Adams and Pinckney : if they do not 
act in this manner, it is highly probable that Jefferson 
will be elected President. 

Although I dislike laws and changes suited to the spur 
of the occasion, yet as I see many evils are likely to re- 
sult from the choice of a Jacobinical President, the 
insidious policy of Virginia should, in my opinion, be 
counteracted ; and if we should have a federal House of 
Delegates (of which I really have doubts from the present 
ferment in public minds,) I hope the legislature will 
choose "pro hac vice," the electors of President and 
Vice-President. I say I hope, for I am not certain, even 
if the new House of Delegates should be federal, that 
they would pass such a law, as many of the members will 
probably be instructed not to vote for it. 

I have given you my sentiments upon the subject of 
your letter and all the information I possess, which, to 
speak the truth, is chiefly derived from others, and those 
well disposed to our present government. 

Burr will probably act with more decision than Jeffer- 
son, if elected President, and will go on better with his 
party, but will not Jefferson be afraid to disoblige his 
party, and may he not be driven to measures which his 
own judgment would reject, 

A wise and federal Senate may, for a considerable time, 
restrain the wild projects of the Jacobin faction, and in 
politics as in war, who gains time, I will not say with the 
great Frederick, gains everything, but gains a. great deal. 

Marriage of Cliarles Carroll, Jr. 241 

If the war in Europe should be protracted to another 
year, I fear the anti-federal party will endeavor to pre- 
cipitate this country into a war with England, and the 
depredations committed by her cruisers on our trade will 
aid their designs. I hope, however, the coming winter 
will produce a general peace. In that event we shall 
have one evil the less to dread from the machinations of 
the enemies of order and good government. 

It is much to be wished that our envoys to France 
may be able to accommodate our differences with that 
nation, before peace is concluded between it and England, 
otherwise Buonaparte will, I fear, make us purchase the 
forbearance of the great nation at a very dear rate. 

I am with sentiments of high esteem and respect, dear 
Sir, Your most humble servant, 

Charles Carroll ok Carrollton. 
[To Alexander Hamilton, Esq.] ' 

Two marriages in the family of Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton about this time, must have been matters 
of deep interest to him as a parent, making, as they 
did, a complete change in his domestic circle. 
Charles Carroll, Jr. married on the 17th of July, 1800, 
Harriet, daughter of the Hon. Benjamin Chew, Chief 
Justice of Pennsylvania, of the same family as the 
Chews of Maryland and Virginia. Judge Chew had 
been twice married, and was the father of six daugh- 
ters. Several of these ladies were celebrated as 
belles in the social annals of Philadelphia. Of the 
two elder ones, Joseph Shippen, one of Philadel- 
phia's local poets, wrote in flattering phrases in 
some lines on the city beauties; while "Peggy" 
1 IiiJ.,io\. ri., p. 467. 

242 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

Chew, the eldest of the younger group of sisters, 
was one of the heroines of the " Meschianza," in 
which entertainment she was associated with the 
unfortunate Major Andrf by whom she was greatly 
admired. Though the Chews were Tories, the beau- 
tiful " Peggy " married a gallant Continental officer, 
Col. John Eager Howard. This wedding took place 
in 1787, at the time of the session of the Federal 
Convention, and General Washington was present 
at the ceremony. 

The three other sisters were Harriet, Mrs. Carroll ; 
Sophia, Mrs. Henry Philips; and Maria, Mrs. Mick- 
lin. Portraits of Mrs. Howard, Mrs. Carroll, and 
Mrs. Philips are extant painted, the former by Pine, 
and the other two by Trumbull. A daughter of 
Benjamin Chew, Jr., only brother of these ladies, 
married the Hon. James Murray Mason of Virginia. 
The beautiful home of the Chews at Germantown 
— " Cliveden " — erected in 1761, still stands, and re- 
mains in possession of the family. It attained 
celebrity during the Revolution as the Chew House, 
around which the battle of Germantown was fought. 
Sophia and Harriet Chew were great favorites with 
Washington, and he saw much of them while Con- 
gress was in session at Philadelphia. When Wash- 
ington sat for his portrait to Gilbert Stuart at the 
artist's house in April, 1796, it is related that he 
was several times accompanied by Harriet Chew, 
"whose conversation, he said, should give his face 
its most agreeable expression." ' Col. Howard 
had entered Congress, from Maryland, in 1796. 

1 Gf iswold's "Republican Court," p. 411, 

" Homewood" and " The Homestead? 243 

Charles Carroll, Jr., was twenty-five at the date of 
his marriage, and tradition says he had been in love 
earlier with Nellie Custis, the charming granddaugh- 
ter of Mrs. Washington. A letter from Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton to his son, dated the 3d of 
July, has this quaint allusion to the marriage settle- 
ment, and the fee to the lawyer, Charles Carroll's 
relative and old friend, William Cooke. " Mr. Cooke 
asks a quarter cask of Madeira for drawing the 
marriage settlement. I have written him that I shall 
present you this summer or autumn with a but of 
Madeira out of which you will let him have thirty 
gallons." ' In the same letter the father writes : 
" I cannot be present at the ceremony. A journey 
to Philadelphia at this hot season would be too 
fatiguing for me." It will be remembered that at 
this time a journey to Philadelphia from Baltimore 
was no light undertaking, and could not be accom- 
plished in less than five days. The young couple 
established themselves at " Homewood," an estate 
in Baltimore County, on which Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton had built for his son a handsome brick 
residence, which is still standing, attracting the ad- 
miration of modern architects. * 

One mile south of " Homewood " was the Patter- 
son place " The Homestead " where Jerome Bona- 
parte and his brilliant American bride lived for the 
one short year of their ill-starred alliance. The hills 
around the growing young city of Baltimore were 

1 Family papers, Hon. John Lee Carroll. 

1 " Examples of Domestic Architecture in Maryland and Virginia." 

By James M. Corner and E. E. Soderbolti. Boston, 1803. 

244 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

adorned with the country homes of many of its 
prominent citizens, most of them included since 
within its corporation limits. The neighboring resi- 
dence to "The Homestead" was "Green Mount," 
now a cemetery, but then the handsome estate of 
Robert Oliver. At " Druid. Hill," Baltimore's 
beautiful park, lived Col. Nicholas Rogers, a Rev- 
olutionary officer who devoted his last years to the 
delights of landscape gardening. Col. John Eager 
Howard had brought " Peggy Chew " from stately 
" Cliveden " to a newer but even more imposing 
home in Maryland, lovely " Belvedere," now a most 
valuable city property. Among Col. Howard's 
liberal gifts of land to Baltimore was the ground on 
which stands the Washington Monument. He was 
wise enough, however, in his bequests to provide 
that " Belvedere " should not be swallowed up in 
the city's progress. When in 1784, he subscribed a 
certain amount of money for opening Calvert Street, 
he gave it with the condition that the street should 
not be made to run through his grounds. " Beech- 
wood," the home of Robert Gilmor, lay on an ele- 
vated site west of Baltimore, overlooking the wide 
river. And nine miles from the city rose the walls 
of palatial " Hampton," built by Capt. Charles 
Ridgely of the Continental Navy, in 1783. This 
place remains to-day in the Ridgely family, and 
like " Doughoregan Manor," it is kept up in all the 
pride and beauty of these years of which we write, 
Mary Caton lived with her husband at "Brookland- 
wood " another handsome estate not far distant, at 
the entrance of what is known as Green Spring 

Maryland Country- Seats. 245 

Valley. And here the lovely Caton sisters were to 
grow up, three of them marrying abroad, later, into 
titled English houses. 

Other country-seats nearer Washington, where 
lived Charles Carroll's relatives or friends, were 
" The Woodyard," " Poplar Hill," " Mclwood," 
"Bel Air" and "Oxon Hill," the homes of the 
Darnalls, Sewalls, Diggescs, Ogles, and Addisons. 
The easy social life of the Southern planter and 
country gentleman, Charles Carroll of Carrollton 
would now have leisure to enjoy, unimpeded by calls 
of public duty. But in this the last year of the 
Federalist administrations, he had many misgivings 
for the future of his country which was to exchange 
the policies of Washington and Adams for the un- 
tried system of Jcffersonian Democracy. In a letter 
written to his son, a few months after the latter's 
marriage, he expresses the same views confided to 
Hamilton, and- he seems to fear anarchy, and to con- 
template seriously the possibility of being driven 
into exile. He writes from the home of Mrs. Caton, 
(from which place he had dated his letter to Hamil- 
ton of August 27th) and he had just been on a 
visit to Col. Howard. 

Brooki.andwooo, 23rd Oct., 1800. 
Dear Charles : 

I got here last night more than two hours after sunset. 
Mr. Caton accompanied me from Belvedere. We were 
overtaken with a thunderstorm about three miles from 
this place, and heavy rain. We took shelter and re- 
mained upwards of an hour in a poor cottage where we 
sat during the height of the storm by a comfortable fire. 

246 Charles Carroll of Carr&llton. 

The good inhabitant, a mother, was giving supper to her 
three children ; it consisted of boiled Irish potatoes and 
milk. They ate their supper with a good appetite, and 
were immediately put to bed. What do you think were 
my thoughts during this scene ? It occurred to me that 
in the course of a few years I might be driven into exile 
by the prevalence of an execrable faction, and forced to 
shelter in as poor a hovel the remnant of a life, a con- 
siderable part of which had been faithfully devoted to 
my country's service. 1 reflected, however, that if this 
turn of fortune should fall to my lot, that very little 
would support nature. This train of thought brought 
forcibly to my mind the wise lesson of Ulysses to one of 
the suitors. You will find it in the 4th volume of the 
Odyssey. It is well worth your perusal and observance ; 
the poetry is fine, the advice worthy the wisdom of the 
much enduring and experienced man, and the morality 
truly sublime. Such reflections are necessary and should 
be frequently entertained in times like these, by men 
whose present prospects are bright and promising. They 
serve to prepare the mind for adversities, and enable us 
to bear the frowns and snubs of Fortune with resignation 
and fortitude. A mind thus lectured and tutored, will 
derive self-satisfaction from the consciousness that it will 
remain firm and unbroken in the midst of adverse 
storms. Can the pitiful pleasure resulting from a fine 
equipage and the gratifications of wealth, which the 
greatest villains may enjoy, be compared with this firm 
and steady temper of the mind, and its advantages ? . . 
Give my love to Harriet, and kind remembrances to 
her sister Maria and the rest of the family. I called 
Tuesday on Mrs. Howard. She and the children and 
Miss Nancy were well. They will remove next Friday 
from the country to Belvedere. Enclosed is a letter for 

Letters to his Son. 247 

Maria which I forgot to leave with Nancy Lloyd to be 
put into the post-office. I hope Maria will excuse this 
forget fulness. I send you also a letter from your ac- 
quaintance Geraw which I opened through mistake, 
thinking it addressed to myself. Mr and Mrs Caton desire 
to be kindly remembered to you and Harriet and the 
dear family. 

Be frugal, be thoughtful, be methodical. You will 
have great occasion for the full exercise of all these 
qualities. Your affectionate father 

Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. 1 

Extracts from other letters of Charles Carroll to 
his son, written in 1S01, are interesting as revealing 
his fine character, his piety, and his prudence and 
exactness in the conduct of his affairs. And his 
political speculations, curiously incorrect as they 
proved to be, exhibit the old apprehensions of a too 
feeble " confederacy," with the resulting effect of its 
early dismemberment, which he shared with most 
of his party. 

Annapolis 30th January, 1S01. 

. . . I am glad to hear that you and your wife 
both look very well, tho* you complain of not being well, 
for want of occupation and exercise. Homewood should 
occupy you and the weather, excepting a few days past, 
has been well suited to exercise. 

You must exercise not only your body, but mind, both 
will become torpid and diseased, if exercise and study 
be neglected and disused. Accustom yourself to think, 
and when you read, read with attention, and for im- 

' MS : Letter, owned by Hon. John Lee Carrol], published in part 
in Appletorit Journal, Sept. 19th, 1874. 

248 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

provement, not to kill time, which always hangs heavily 
on idlers. Pursue this method ; after you have been 
reading till your attention begins to flag, reflect on what 
you have read, examine the justness of the author's 
thoughts, and compare them with your own on the same 
subject ; if it be scientific and argumentative, examine 
whether the inferences are logically drawn from the 
premises ; if merely literary, endeavour to treat the same 
topic, and try whether you can express your sentiments 
as justly, as neatly and concisely as the author. The 
most beautiful thoughts are always expressed in the 
plainest language which ought to resemble the dress of 
an elegant woman, and be simplex mundities. The most 
sublime and affecting passages in Virgil, and even in 
Shakespeare, who is too often turgid, are clothed in such 
language. It is this charm which endears the poetry of 
Pope to every classic reader of taste. 

In improving your mind, remember your God. The 
fear of the Lord, says the wise man, is the beginning of 
wisdom ; without virtue there can be no happiness ; and 
without religion, no virtue ; consider yourself as always 
in the presence of the Almighty, if this sentiment be 
strong and vivid, you will never sin or commit any 
action you would be ashamed to commit before man, 
Vita bene antea/d, says Tully, jucundessema est recorda- 
tion; and Pope sings: 'and peace, oh virtue, peace is 
all thy own '. God bless you." 

"8th February. . . I wish you to learn the value 
and real use of money ; perhaps experience may teach 
you this useful and necessary lesson ; but reflection is 
necessary to acquire it, and energy of mind and personal 
activity and firmness are not less so to conduct your 
affairs to advantage. 

The story you have related of Adams is conformable 

Marriage of Catharine Carroll. 249 

to his character. I have given him up since the receipt 
of Mr. Henry's letters; neither Jefferson or Burr can 
make so bad a president as Adams, had he been re- 
elected ; it is fortunate indeed for this country that he 
was not. I hope Burr will be chosen by the House of 
Representatives. I had some hopes, before I read Jef- 
erson's letter published in the Federal Gazette of last 
Friday, that he would, if elected, administer the govern- 
ment wisely, and thus if not extinguishing party at least 
moderate its excesses ; but it is impossible, if the senti- 
ments disclosed in that letter are his real sentiments, 
that he can act with wisdom. The man who entertains 
such ideas is totally unfit to govern this or any other 
country. If he does not think as he writes, he is a 
hypocrite, and his pitiful cant is the step ladder to his 
ambition. Burr, I suspect, is .not less a hypocrite than 
Jefferson ; but he is a firm, steady man, and possessed, 
it is said, of great energy and decision ; the other poor 
creature, will be afraid of using his constitutional powers 
in defence of the people, lest he may offend these ignor- 
ant and suspicious sovereigns. Thus will the powers of 
the general government, at least the executive part of 
it, be benumbed and gradually usurped by the larger 
States and so will terminate the Union, if Jefferson 
should continue President for eight years. . . . 

" Annapolis, 12th February : My affairs at present are 
in good order, my accounts clear and regular, and in the 
condition I hope to leave them when I depart hence." ' 

On the first of May, 1801, Catharine Carroll was 

married at Annapolis to Robert Goodloe Harper of 

South Carolina. This gentleman, eminent as a 

lawyer and as a statesman, was born in Virginia 

1 Family papers, Hon. John Lee Carroll. 

250 Charles Carroll of CarroUton, 

in t;6;. As a boy of fifteen he had fought under 
Greene in the Southern campaign. Sent to Con- 
gress from South Carolina in 1794, he developed 
later into a leader of the Federalists, and was con- 
sidered one of their ablest debaters. He made his 
home in Maryland after his marriage, entering the 
U. S. Senate in 1815. Many of Charles Carroll's 
letters to this son-in-law are extant, and with those 
to his son, supply a record of the patriot's life for 
a long period, as far as that could be manifested in 
an intimate and affectionate correspondence. 

Charles Carroll of CarroUton wrote to Charles 
Carroll, Jr., from " Doughoregan," July 10th, 1801 : 
"Do not neglect to attend to this matter [some 
business concern]. He who postpones till to-morrow 
what can and ought to be done to-day, will never 
thrive in this world. It was not by procrastination 
this estate was acquired, but by activity, thought, 
perseverance, and economy, and by the same means 
it must be preserved and prevented from melting 
away." Charles Carroll speaks in this letter of 
going " to CarroUton the latter part of September," 
his usual time for visiting this plantation. The 
birth of a grandson and namesake on the 25th 
of July, 1801, is thus alluded to in a note of con- 
gratulation dated the following day : " I sincerely 
rejoice with you on the recent happy event, the 
birth of your son. May this child when grown to 
manhood be a comfort to his parents in the decline 
of life, and support the reputation of his family." ' 

The letters to Robert Goodloe Harper are full 

1 Family papers, Han. John Lee Carroll. 

Letters to Robert G. Harper. 25 1 

of allusions to public affairs. Writing from Annap- 
olis, March 10th, 1802, Charles Carroll says: "I 
have read Giles' speech. It is the most specious 
which I have seen on that side of the question, and 
I suspect that Jefferson, Madison, and Giles have 
clubbed heads to produce that artful piece of 
sophistry, for in reality it is destitute of sound 
argument, and is convincing proof to my mind that 
these men are acting against their own conceptions 
of the true meaning and spirit of the Federal Con- 
stitution." ' 

Other letters of 1802 to Harper are as follows: 
" Annapolis, March 14/A : I have just heard two pieces 
of intelligence which if true are both important. That 
the Spanish government has purchased from the French, 
Louisiana, for twenty millions of dollars and that our 
bank stock claim has ceased to be an object of diplomatic 
negotiation, and is remanded back to the Court of 
Chancery for a legal decision, and that the same com- 
missioners are to proceed in the liquidation of debts due 
from American citizens to British subjects. If this last 
intelligence be true it looks as if the British ministry 
were bent on quarrelling with this country, or that it is 
no object with them to have a good understanding, and 
be on a friendly footing with us. Dr. Murray who has 
just left me, says that Mr. Whtttington brings from the 
seat of government these articles of news. The first I 
hope is true ; the second I am not sorry for, as in my 
judgment so plain a case as the right of this State to its 
stock in the Bank of England ought never to have been 
taken out of the Court of Chancery and submitted to 

1 Family papers, Mrs. William C. Pennington. 

252 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

I can scarcely credit all the news ; if the British cabi- 
net insist on the same commissioners going on and ascer- 
taining what debts the general government must pay, 
Congress must give up the idea of repealing the internal 
taxes, for McDonald and his associates will award to 
British subjects at least $20, 000,000 if they act upon the 
same principles which guided their former conduct." 

" Doughoregan, July 41k : I had formerly stipulated 
with my slaves claiming freedom as descendants from 
Joyce, that I would abide by the issue of the trial of 
Charles Mahoney. The council for the petitioners 
informed me that if I would renew that stipulation and 
extend it to the event of the trial to be had next October 
term, they would not file petitions for freedom against 
me. . . , The question on which the Court of Ap- 
peals differed from the General Court was that if Joyce 
being a slave was carried to England and from thence 
brought to this country her issue did not by such event 
become free. When the former trials were had in the 
General Court, the council for Ashton urged the jury to 
find in their special verdict that, Joyce was a slave in 
Barbadoes, and was thence carried to England by her 
master and sold to Lord Baltimore, but the jury refused 
to find this fact ; they found only that Joyce came from 
England with Lord Baltimore. And if on the trial to 
be had in October the jury should be of the same opin- 
ion, the petitioners for freedom will succeed, the Court 
of Appeals having on the last point affirmed the judgment 
of the General Court. The only material fact is, where 
did Joyce come from to this country ? If from England, 
Ashton must prove she was carried there as a slave. I 
think the weight of testimony on the former trials was 
contrary to that fact, and so the juries found." 

" December 10th .- It is reported here, but I suspect 

Account of St. John's College, 253 

without foundation that Thomas the great man, begins 
to be tired of his friend Paine." 

"December 14th: Jefferson and his chief partisans at 
the seat of government may pretend to be disgusted with 
Paine, but that they are really so I do not believe. They 
find his late publications injure their cause with some of 
their own party, and therefore they may wish to discard 
the author, but his political principles are approved by 
all of them, and his abuse of Washington by several, and 
I fear very many of them approve of his blasphemous 
writings against the Christian religion." ' 

Charles Carroll of Carroll ton was one of three 
gentlemen who were deputed by the Governors and 
Visitors of St. John's College in March 1803, "to 
publish an account of the state of the college, and 
of the advantages it possesses and may afford." ' In 
continuing the excerpts from the correspondence 
with his son-in-law, we find Charles Carroll writing 
much of European politics, and the great Napoleonic 
wars then absorbing the attention of the civilized 
world, and indirectly affecting the interests of the 
United States. 

"1803, 25th April: Notwithstanding the dispatch to 
Vrou [D' Yrujo] I am still of the opinion that Bonaparte 
directed his master to instruct the Intendant at New 
Orleans to shut that port against us, to feel the pulse of 
the western people and thus to appreciate the public 
sentiment of the United States, and to act accordingly 
as the temper of this country and the existing state of 
things in Europe might suggest the properest mode of 
proceeding with us. Seeing the probability of war be- 
1 Ibid. ' Riley's History of Annapolis, p. zio. 

254 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

tween France and England, Bonaparte, I suspect, has 
ordered the King to countermand his former instructions 
and to send those forwarded to Yruo [D' YrujoJ by the 
late arrival. If war should take place between England 
and France, I hope the first expedition of the English 
will be against Louisiana and the two Floridas, and if 
conquered that they will sell to the United States both 
those provinces." 

" Doughoregan 8th June : By some late English news- 
papers and a letter from Mr. William Cook, Senr., I 
perceive that Malta is not the principal cause of differ- 
ence between England and France. Bonaparte is using 
every art and all his influence to exclude the British 
manufacturers from the continent of Europe, and I sus- 
pect has prevailed over the countries over which he lias 
supreme control, to pass laws against the introduction 
of British wares and merchandise. This surely is war 
in reality though not in name, and the ministry of Great 
Britain seemed determined not to suffer France to trade 
as long as Bonaparte pursues such hostile measures 
against the commerce of England. Yet why have they 
permitted several vessels with troops for St. Domingo to 
sail from Dunkirk and other ports of France ? If Bona- 
parte lives and rules, war between France and England 
is inevitable in my opinion. As soon as the English can 
get a sufficient force at sea, I expect they will block up 
all the ports of France." 

" Doughoregan, 23rd June ; By the last intelligence 
from Belfast the probability of war is greatly increased, 
but that event was not decided when Capt. Barber 
sailed. It appeared that Lord Whit worth was expected 
in London in a few days, and that Andreossi had applied 
for his passports, yet I cannot help thinking that Bona- 
parte will concede some points, and try to renew the 

A Foreign Fblicy SketcJied. 255 

negotiation to spin it out and to gain time. He cannot 
be prepared for a naval war with England, and the 
invasion of that island in the face of so great a superiority 
of her power at sea would be a most rash attempt, which 
would probably terminate in a signal defeat, and the 
loss or capture of many ships and 50,000 men ; such an 
event might shake the consul's throne and restore the 
monarchy to the ancient line of the Bourbons. Depend 
upon it the present administration will not join Great 
Britain in a war against France. Bonaparte will feed 
Monroe with fair and fine promises, and those will be 
accepted and depended on ; great advantages will be 
promised to the United States, perhaps a free trade to 
the French colonies on the same terms with the trade of 
France to those colonies for a limited period after the 
termination of the war with Great Britain ; a perpetual 
grant of deposit to New Orleans, the free navigation of 
the Mississippi. 

I am of opinion it would be good policy to unite with 
Great Britain against France and her allies, seize upon 
all the country to the east of the Mississippi, and under 
cover of the British fleet land 30,000 men in the province 
of Yucatan, march to Mexico, then to Peru, and to de- 
clare the Spanish colonies independent, and their in- 
dependence to be guaranteed by Great Britain and the 
United States. If we enter into the war I am not for doing 
things by halves. If Monroe is instructed to negotiate 
only for the right of navigation through the Mississippi, 
to be acknowledged by France as a perpetual right, 
secured to us by the treaty with Spain, and binding on 
France, I make no doubt those terms will be readily 
acquiesced in by Bonaparte, and it is not probable that 
our pusilanimous administration, so averse to war, stand- 
ing armies and expense, would dare to ask for more ; 

256 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

if so could our government, if now inclined, recede from 
these terms ? Have our rulers had the foresight to 
instruct Monroe not to be too precipitate in unfolding 
his terras, but to act according to appearances of peace 
or war between France and England ? If they have 
neglected to instruct him so to act, in this as in most of 
their measures, they are extremely reprehensible. When 
Monroe left this country negotiations between England 
and France were going on, and it was known here that 
no good understanding subsisted between these powers. 
Surely our Cabinet have enjoined Monroe to avail him- 
self of the event of the differences between those two 
nations not being amicably settled." 

" Doughoregan, 10th ^uly: The acquisition of Lou- 
isiana is a fortunate event for the United States, if 
obtained without a clause or article which may involve 
us in a war with Great Britain. I do not like that part 
of Mr. Livingston's memorial relating to the right of 
search claimed by the British. The right in the mem- 
orial is considered as an usurpation, which ought to be 
resisted by neutral powers when in condition to oppose 
to it an effectual opposition. Do you know the bounds 
of Louisiana as claimed by France previously to its 
surrender to the Spaniards in 1763? When does our 
treaty with Great Britain expire? If the French after 
the cession to the United States of Louisiana, should be 
permitted to trade to New Orleans on the same footing 
with Americans, paying no greater duties, would not the 
English in consequence of Jay's Treaty be entitled to 
the same privilege ? " 

" Doughoregan, November 10th. : What think you of 
the Louisiana business ? Will the Spaniards resist if we 
should endeavour to take forcible possession ? If there 
should not be an understanding between France and 

The Acquisition of Louisiana, 257 

Spain in this transaction (but I suspect they act in con- 
cert) the opposition of Spain to our taking possession of 
theceded country may draw Spain into a war with France ; 
in that event England and Spain will become allies, and 
how are we in that case to possess ourselves of Lou- 
isiana? If force be used it probably will not succeed 
and should we succeed Spain will declare war against 
us ; England cannot as the ally of Spain, assist us, and 
the superiority of the Spanish naval force will annihilate 
our commerce. I fear the acquisition of Louisiana from 
France by purchase will involve this country in serious 

" March 12th : I cannot agree in opinion with General 
Hamilton that should Colonel Burr be elected Governor 
of New York, his election would cement the union [of] 
and increase the Democratic party. Where seeds of such 
deadly hate have been sown no true reconciliation can 
grow. The Jeffersonians and Burrites are at open hos- 
tility ; those parties can never again coalesce, their breach 
is too public and wide. If the election of Burr should 
destroy the influence of the Jeffersonian and Clintonian 
factions in the State of New York, it is probable that 
from Pennsylvania eastward, the Jeffersonian party will 
decline and be extinguished in the course of two or three 
years. I have hopes such an event would have a happy 
effect on this State ; on the contrary should Judge Lewis 
be elected Governor, the Clintonian or Jeffersonian fac- 
tion (I consider these two parties acting at present with 
the same views) will acquire strength and consolidation." 

" April igth : By the National Intelligencer of the 15th 
instant, I perceive the votes between Oilman and Lang- 
don so far as known were even, and that it was certain 
that Langdon would have a handsome majority when all 
the votes were collected, and that the Democrats, falsely 

258 Charles Carroll of Carrolllon. 

styled in that paper Republicans, would have a majority 
in both branches of the New Hampshire legislature. I 
hope this account will not be confirmed." ' 

In 1805 took place the famous impeachment trial 
of Samuel Chase. He was then nearly sixty-four, 
and ts described by Sullivan as " a man of herculean 
frame and vigorous mind ; a learned and honest man 
no doubt, but not of courteous manners on the 
bench."* Like Luther Martin, Chase had been 
metamorphosed from an A nti federalist into a " bull- 
dog of Federalism," and as an associate judge of the 
Supreme Court he had made himself odious to the 
Democrats in the government prosecutions during 
the Adams administration under the famous Sedition 
law. His conduct of these cases subjected him to 
the charges of partisanship and unfairness, and there 
were other counts against him of a similar character. 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, however, looking upon 
the trial with the bias of the Federalist, gave Chase 
his sympathy, and regarded the impeachment with 
the greater interest as his son-in-law was selected as 
one of the counsel for the defence. Several of the 
following letters to Robert Goodloe Harper refer to 
this subject. 

" Annapolis 12th January 1805 : I see the Senate have 
given Mr. Chase only to the 4th of next month to put in 
his answer ; can he possibly be prepared to make his de- 
fence so soon, or can his counsel be prepared in that 
time to do justice to his cause. It is reported here that 

1 Family papers, Mrs. William C. Pennington. 

' Sullivan's " Familiar Letters," p. 200. 

Impeackment of Judge Chase. 259 

Colonel Burr is very intimate at the President's. Can 
this be true after the abuse he has met with from the 
President's partisans in the public prints ? " 

" February 34th : I thank you for the answer of Mr. 
Chase to the articles of impeachment which you sent by 
Mr. J. T. Chase with the Athenian Letters which are re- 
ceived. The answer of judge Chase in my opinion is 
a very able, perspicuous, firm and temperate defence of 
his conduct, and a most satisfactory refutation of the 
sundry charges contained in the articles. I sincerely 
hope the same judgment will be formed by his judges. 
From your letters to Kitty of the 21st and 22d> which 
she received by Saturday's mail, we entertain great hopes 
that Mr. Chase will be honorably acquitted ; this event 
should it take place, may affix a stigma on the party 
which originated the prosecution upon such slender 
grounds. But upon the decision of a party (two thirds 
of his judges being of it) I can place no dependence ; 
instances of the most flagrant injustice in trials on im- 
peachment occur in the history of England. Nothing 
can exceed the iniquity of the judges who condemned the 
Earl of Stafford, implicated in the ridiculous, contempti- 
ble plot fabricated by Titus Oates." 

" February 28th : This day has determined whether a 
sense of justice has overcome the blindness and bitter- 
ness of party zeal in one third of the judges of Mr. Chase. 
It is reported here that, he will be acquitted by a major- 
ity. I cannot bring myself to be of this opinion, however 
desirous I am of its being realized. When I reflect on 
the baseness of the measures which have given the as- 
cendency to the ruling faction, their abuse of power ob- 
tained, and violations of the Constitution to perpetuate 
it, I despair of Mr. Chase's having even a third of the 
Senators in his favor. P. S. March 3rd ; I rejoice at the 

260 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

acquittal of Mr. Chase. I consider it a triumph over 
party spirit ; but do not the votes against him on some 
of the charges justify in a great degree the severity of my 
censure and judgment passed in this letter, on the fac- 
tion ? The charges of which eighteen votes found him 
guilty, appear to me as little liable to censure, and to 
warrant his condemnation, as the one of which thirty* 
four acquitted him." 

" Doughoregan, June 28th : Great events may be ex- 
pected from the large armaments in the West Indies. If 
the English Government be not too much distracted with 
party squabbles, it has now an opportunity by sending 
ten or twelve more ships of the line to join Bickerton's 
[here the seal has torn the paper] block up the French 
and Spanish fleet in Martinique, when the crews will 
probably in the course of a few months, from the want of 
provisions and the diseases of the climate, lose two-thirds 
of their number ; and in the same proportion and from 
the same causes their land forces will decrease in the 
same time." 

"July 2d: I am much pleased at the reversal of the 
absurd opinion or decision of the General Court in the 
case of the Roman Catholic clergy. The bishop [Bishop 
Carroll was then on a visit to the Manor] informs me 
you have also succeeded in the case of the mandamus. 
Do send by my son's servant, Tom, the latest newspapers. 
Do you not think the British naval affairs are not con- 
ducted with the same spirit, energy, and promptitude 
which distinguished its operations in the last war?" 

" Jvly 4th : Before the British ministry can equip a 
fleet sufficiently strong to cope with the combined squad- 
rons in the West Indies and detach a body of land 
forces to oppose those of the enemy, it is probable sev- 
eral of the English islands will be taken or ravaged ; 

Proposed Purchase of Florida. 261 

except Barbadoes and Jamaica, none of the others I 
apprehend, can make much resistance ; disunion and 
sickness of the crews and troops of France and Spain 
may perhaps save the islands." 

" Annapolis, 24th February, 1806 : A report is in cir- 
culation here that our government is in treaty with Spain 
for the purchase of the Floridas for which seven millions 
of dollars are to be given, and all Louisiana on the west 
of the Mississippi to be ceded to that monarchy. I can- 
not credit this report, the bargain would be too disadvan- 
tageous to this country, and the Senate, I presume, will 
not sanction such a treaty, though the Executive should 
be willing to make the sacrifice to obtain peace. An 
exchange of that part of Louisiana lying on the west of 
the Mississippi for the Floridas might be a desirable 
exchange if Spain were to pay us fifteen millions to effect 
it. I suppose West Louisiana is at least five times as 
large as the two Floridas, and in point of fertility of soil 
and healthfulness of climate there can be no comparison 
between the two countries. Is not the disproportion 
between them in these respects richly worth fifteen mil- 
lions of dollars ? I would wish you to bring with you 
Mr. Madison's pamphlet in support of the direct inter- 
course in time of war of our city merchants between the 
colonies of France and Spain and the mother countries. 
Does he admit the legality of our carrying from those 
colonies their produce to France and Spain, remaining 
the property of the colonists, or of the merchants of 
those countries ? If he does not, what satisfactory evi- 
dence can be given that the produce of those colonies 
has become bona fide American property ? Clearances 
from those ports certifying the cargoes to be purchased 
by and to belong to citizens of the United States, and 
the oaths of the masters of the vessels and supercargoes 

262 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

to the same effect will not be admitted, I presume, in 
British tribunals, as sufficient evidence of a bona fide 
transfer of the property shipped on board of such 

" If the account in the Courier of the igth December, 
of the battles of the and, 3rd, 4th, and s*h, of that month 
should be true, and that the Archduke Charles had given 
Massena the slip and joined the Archduke John, and the 
Hungarian levy, and if the King of Prussia should act 
with vigor and decision against the French, the Emperor 
Napoleon may find it much more difficult to regain the 
frontiers of France than to have penetrated with little 
loss into the heart of the Austrian dominions. Time 
alone will clear up these uncertainties. Napoleon must 
have been confident of a final success in the war when 
he rejected the proffered mediation of Prussia for peace, 
but the bloody battles between him and Alexander had 
not then taken place ; adversity may teach him modera- 
tion, and he may be induced by a reverse of fortune to 
accept of terms less favourable than those which were 
offered him by Prussia. The insurrections Napoleon is 
said to have endeavoured to excite in Poland to enable 
the Poles to regain their independence must rouse the 
jealousy of Russia, Prussia, and Austria, and those mon- 
archs will no doubt strive to restrain all future attempts 
of the kind by curtailing the power of the French 

" March 4th : I have seen the account of the decisive 
victory gained on the and December over the combined 
A u st ro- Russian army by Napoleon, and that the two 
Emperors have been compelled to make peace, or at 
least to submit to an armistice which must be followed 
by a peace which will leave to Bonaparte a great and 
preponderating influence on the Continent of Europe. 

Napoleons Great Victories, 263 

Will England have the spirit to continue the war? Will 
not the faction opposed to Mr. Pitt force the British 
government to make peace ? A peace, should it be made 
under present circumstances, that will probably terminate 
in the subversion of her constitution and power. I hope 
England will continue a naval war ; we, in my poor judg- 
ment should make an alliance offensive and defensive 
with her, and raise an army of twenty-five thousand men, 
and under the British flag transport them to Mexico, 
and with the co-operation of an English army and navy 
render Mexico and Peru independent. This measure 
would cut off the resources of France in a great degree, 
and open an extensive and lucrative trade to England 
and this country. Although our government has com- 
mitted itself by the Miranda business, I suspect it will 
court the friendship of France by declaring war against 
England in order to do away [with] any unfavorable 
impression its knowledge of that expedition and its con- 
nivance at it may make on the mind of Napoleon. From 
the paper I have read, I have no doubt of the truth of 
the account from Bordeaux, at least in substance ; mat- 
ters may be exaggerated, but that Russia will be obliged 
to withdraw from the coalition, abandon Great Britain, 
and perhaps form another armed neutrality, there is 
every reason to fear. Austria must implicitly submit to 
the dictates of Napoleon. Nothing is said of Prussia. 
Has not the King of Prussia done enough to draw on 
himself the resentment oF Napoleon ? The papers of 
this evening will probably contain further details. 

"P. S. I have read Thursday's gazette. If Napoleon 
should offer moderate terms of peace to Great Britain I 
fear the opposition will force the ministry to accept them, 
and in ten years if the Emperor of the French should 
live so long, he may have a navy able to cope with that 

264 Charles Carroll of Carrolllon. 

of England. It is true Europe must feel its degraded 
state, and its sovereigns if possessed of energy and wis- 
dom, and a sense of honor, will endeavour to emancipate 
themselves from the thraldom of France. If England 
continues the war opportunities may be presented of 
reducing the power of France, and these will assuredly 
be embraced by the powers of the continent. If the 
French present a true state of facts the Russians have 
acted with great stupidity." 

"April ptA; Do you believe the letter from Germany 
giving an account of the disgrace and punishment of sev- 
eral Austrian officers of high rank to be authentic ? If 
true no wonder the Austrians were so shamefully de- 
feated. Russia and England are the only powers now 
able to cope with Napoleon, and I fear if Fox's politics 
prevail in the cabinet of London, that, England in a few 
years will share the same fate as Germany, Italy, Spain, 
Switzerland, and Holland." ' 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton sat for his portrait 
to Field, the artist, in the summer of 1803, and it is 
interesting to know from his letters to his son what 
he and his family thought of the likeness. He 
wrote to Charles Carroll, Jr., from the Manor, August 
9th: "Mr. Field has begun this day my picture. 
It is thought the resemblance wilt be strong. I 
shall offer him $40, which if I am not mistaken you 
told me was his price for such a portrait of the size 
of the one he drew for McDowell." And again on 
the 29th, Charles Carroll writes : " Your sister Caton 
thinks, as you do, that Mr. Field has not given suf- 
ficient animation to my portrait. I think, however, 

1 Family papers, Mrs. William C. Pennington. 

Field's Portrait of Carroll. 265 

it is well executed, and all who have seen it say the 
resemblance is striking, but in my opinion it con- 
veys the idea of a much larger man than I am." ' 
This portrait, engraved by Longacre, is found pre- 
fixed to the Carroll memoir in Sanderson's " Biog- 
raphy of the Signers." 

Trouble had visited the " Homewood " family in 
1805 and in 1806, in the latter year through the 
death of an infant, and words of wise Christain 
philosophy, and parental sympathy are written to 
Charles Carroll, Jr., by his father on these occasions : 

" Doughoregan, jist October, 180$ ; We should not set 
our hearts too much on anything in this world, since 
everything in it is so precarious, as health, riches, power 
and talents &c, of which disease, revolution and death can 
deprive us in a short time. Virtue alone is subject to 
no vicissitudes. In the hour of death, when the empti- 
ness of all wordly attachments is felt, it alone will con- 
sole us, and while we live soften the calamities of life, 
and teach us to bear them with resignation and forti- 

" August 12th, 1806 : Immediately on the receipt of 
your letter I gave orders to Harry to take up some of 
the pavement of the Chapel to have the grave dug for 
the earthly remains of your poor little infant To soften 
the loss of this dear and engaging child, the certainty of 
his now enjoying a glorious immortality will greatly 

The homely things of home, its quiet pleasures, 

as well as its sacred sorrows, have their place in 

1 Family papers, Hon. John Lee Carroll. ' Ibid. 

266 Charles Carroll of CarrolUon. 

Charles Carroll's correspondence with his children, 
interspersed with his opinions on foreign wars and 
domestic politics. He writes to Mr. Harper in 
1S04, about a servant, James, that he thinks of buy- 
ing from Mr. Ogle for " Kitty," but he is careful to 
tell the man's owner that he will neither hire him 
nor buy him unless he is willing to come. He is to 
be bought for a term of five or seven years, and 
"$500 is a great price for a seven years' servant." 

The modes of travelling in the early years of the 
century, attract our notice. The Catons propose to 
go from Annapolis to Baltimore in January, 1805, 
in a " sled," the weather and the roads permitting, 
and Mrs. Harper is to send her little boy with them, 
wrapped up in blankets, as " he will be less exposed 
to the cold in this way than if he went in the stage." 
In the following July, Mr. Harper, who took the 
stage in winter, is driven by " Luke and Bill " in his 
"coachee" from Baltimore to Washington. The 
Harpers have also their country home, " Oakland," 
which they occupy when not in Annapolis or Balti- 

There are visitors to " Doughoregan," coming 
and going: " I send my servant with a led mare to 
bring Miss Nancy Robinson to the Manor," writes 
Charles Carroll to his son in July, 1806. "Mrs. 
Rogers," he writes in the following month, "who 
returns to town after breakfast, has been so polite 
as to take charge of the pears and grapes which I 
informed you in my letter I should send." The 
Catons and Mrs. Harper were at the famous Baltston 
Springs at this time, where " Kittie " had recovered 

Ball Given at " Hampton" 267 

her health, her father says, " is in good spirits and 
danced a country dance." In July, 1807, Charles 
Carroll who had just been staying at " Brookland- 
wood," and was then visiting his son, wrote to 
" Kittie's " husband of the great ball that was to 
come off that evening, the 2d, at " Hampton," and 
he adds : " Mrs. Patterson, Betsy and Louisa are 
invited [these were Mrs. Caton's daughters] and will 
make a part of the three hundred persons who have 
received invitations." 

In the following extracts from Charles Carroll's 
letters to his son, who was part of this time visiting 
in Philadelphia, the retired statesman is seen to 
make many shrewd guesses, and keen observations, 
as to the great game of war and politics going on 
in Europe. And it is amusing to read of his intol- 
erance of " Democratic principles." The aristo- 
cratic spirit of the Southern planter allied itself with 
Federalism in Carroll's case as in Washington's — 
" Republicans " as they were. 

"1S06, September 3rd : Fox, I find has made peace 
with France ; the conditions are not yet known, but I 
have do doubt of their being dishonorable, unsafe and 
highly disadvantageous to England. I had begun to 
entertain a more favorable opinion of this man, when 
the papers announced his determination to prosecute the 
war till an honorable and safe peace could be obtained. 
It is however, I find, impossible for a man tainted with 
democratic principles, to possess an elevated soul and 
dignified character ; in all their actions and in all their 
schemes and thoughts, there is nothing but what is mean 
and selfish. God bless you." 

268 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

" Dougheregan, jth Ottober : If Russia has concluded a 
separate peace with France without the knowledge of the 
British Cabinet the inference that the New Prussian min- 
istry is favorable to the views of Napoleon may be fairly 
drawn, and I think it very probable that France and 
Russia will divide between them the Turkish dominions 
in Europe, and I think it also very probable that Napo- 
leon on the death of the present King of Spain will fix 
one of his brothers on that throne, and annex immedi- 
ately Portugal to the Spanish crown. In that case no 
doubt the royal family of Portugal will fix the seat of 
their government in the Brazils, and will be followed by 
most of the grandees and men of property. These 
measures will force Great Britain to continue the war, 
and to attempt to render the Spanish colonies on the 
continent independent of Spain, and to take possession 
for herself of all the French and Spanish West India 
Islands — the Philipine Islands will fall of course. 

If our country is directed by wise and vigorous coun- 
cils we should make a common cause with Great Britain 
in this attempt. It is our interest to, and in my opinion 
our existence as an independent nation depends on les- 
sening the power of France, which nothing will do so 
effectually as by cutting her off from those commercial 
resources which she will draw from the Spanish colonies, 
if not rendered independent. 

England must rule the Ocean, and to secure to her- 
self its permanent dominion she must cut up root and 
branch the trade of France. During the war the superi- 
ority of her marine will effectively do this ; but she 
must also deprive France of having an extensive com- 
merce in peace. Excluding her from all intercourse 
with the East and West Indies for a limited time after 
peace is made, will tend greatly to circumscribe hei 

Civilities to French Officers, 269 

commerce ; but how is this to be effected ? by stipulat- 
ing with the Spanish provinces of Mexico." 

" Annapolis, 20th October ; The two French men-of- 
war, the Patriot and the Edle are still here, and will 
probably remain the whole winter ; without considerable 
repairs they cannot return to France, even in peace, and 
how they will be repaired without money or credit they 
are at a loss to tell. Perhaps their minister Turreau may 
apply to our government for money ; in case of peace 
between England and France a request even to borrow 
money may amount to a demand on our Executive. 

The Etat Major of the Edle gave a very handsome 
entertainment on board the ship to a large company of 
citizens (ladies and gentlemen). I had an invitation, 
but did not accept it, having been busily engaged the 
whole of last week. I have not yet seen any of the offi- 
cers, not having leisure to entertain them before my re- 
turn from the Manor. I shall not probably return to 
Annapolis before the middle of next month. I then 
mean to visit the two captains of the Patriot and I'ESte 
and have them and some of their officers to dine with me. 
God bless you and grant you happiness here and here- 

"Annapolis, zzst November: The French officers be- 
longing to the Patriot and the Edit off this city have 
rendered themselves very agreeable to the citizens, and 
to do the sailors justice they are quiet, orderly, and civil. 
I waited yesterday on Krom, the captain of the Patriot, 
and on Picot de la Croix, the captain of the Eolus ; the 
former was out of town, the latter I saw. I intend to 
have them dine with me on Thursday next, with some 
of their officers. 

If the English ministry have wisdom and firmness, 
they have it in their power to render Spanish America 

27° Charles Carroll of Carrollion. 

independent. During the war they must keep posses- 
sion of the seaports of Mexico and Peru, and in the 
other provinces ; probably it will be their interest to 
keep the province of la Plata as a colony, and stipulate 
for its cession by the treaty of peace, as also for the in- 
dependence of all the Spanish colonies on the continent. 
They ought to raise an array in those colonies, and with 
a part of it in conjunction with their own troops, con- 
quer the Island and retain it as a colony by the peace. 
If all this be done England will form a counterpoise to 
the power of Napoleon. As to a renewal of the war on 
the continent I have great doubts ; but very little, should 
it take place, that the coalesced powers will be defeated 
by the French." 

" December ij/A .- The poor Prussians, I find, have 
been dreadfully mauled by Napoleon. I fear Prussia 
will be compelled to make an ignominious peace. The 
combined powers manage their affairs badly. However, 
the decided superiority of the British at sea will bear 
them out triumphantly, and the conquest of Spanish 
America (continent and islands) will enable them to con- 
tinue the war during the life of Napoleon." 

" Annapolis, 41k February, 180? ; I have requested Mr. 
Caton to write to some trusty person at Tioga to act as 
my agent for making the compromise with the Connecti- 
cut intruders on my lands pursuant to the terms adopted 
by the other Pennsylvania proprietors of land similarly 

Prussia is completely vanquished. I wish Alexander 
may be firm, and have able and good generals and faith- 
ful ministers. The plan of Napoleon to restore the 
Kingdom of Poland, and to place on its throne his 
brother-in-law Murat, must unite Prussia and Austria in 
resisting with all their power this attempt. If they have 

Carroll's Sympathy with Germany. 271 

good generals, if Alexander will lead his armies to battle 
under experienced officers, and if the Archduke Charles 
has the command of the Austrian forces, and the sole 
direction of the war, the contest will be long and bloody 
between those two powers and France. The victory will 
ultimately, I hope, rest on the standards of Prussia and 
Austria, and the French be driven out of Poland and 
Germany. Should such be the final issue of the war, it 
would be for the interest of Europe to have all Germany 
consolidated into one Empire under the house of 
Austria." ' 

1 Family papers, Hon. John Lee Canal). 


1807-18 19. 

THE absorbing theme of public interest in the 
early part of 1807, was the conspiracy of Aaron 
Burr, and it forms the principal topic in the cor- 
respondence of Charles Carroll of Carrollton with 
his son at this time. In a letter written from 
" Brooklandwood," November II, 1806, he thinks 
the reports concerning Burr greatly exaggerated : 
" if true he must be in the pay of some foreign 
power." And he adds: " If the war between Eng- 
land and France should continue, I should not be 
surprised if Burr should collect 1500 adventurers, 
seize on Pensacola, from which a few British ships 
might transport him and his band to join Miranda ; 
in that event it is probable the British would gar- 
rison and hold Pensacola, and thus put an end to 
our intended purchase of the two Floridas, and de- 
prive Bonaparte of seven millions of dollars, unless 
the bargain be made, which I fear it is, if the nego- 
tiations for peace are at an end." Francisco Miranda 
was a Venezuelan patriot who had undertaken to 

The Miranda Expedition. 273 

bring about a Revolution in Spanish South America, 
fitting out an expedition in the United States (or 
this purpose in 1806. 

" Annapolis, 4th January, 1807 ; 

The proceedings of Burr seem to engross the attention 
of the public ; various schemes are imputed to him, 
resting at present entirely on conjecture. I am inclined 
to suspect that he contemplates a separation of the 
western country, and to possess himself of New Orleans, 
and if the government of the United States should act 
with vigor and collect a force adequate to the suppression 
of the revolt, or should a considerable portion of the 
western people be disinclined to a separation, that he 
will call in the assistance of some foreign power. Span- 
ish forces are nearest at hand, and Spain will be backed 
by France, but neither Spain nor France can co-operate 
by sea during the war with Great Britain, and to me a 
naval force seems necessary to insure his success by in- 
ducing the whole of the population westward of the 
mountains to establish an independent government. 
Will Great Britain connive at this interference of Spain 
and France ? That in my opinion will depend on the 
conduct of our government, which by causing the non- 
importation act to be suspended only, and not absolutely 
repealed, instead of conciliation holds out a menace. 
Great Britain is not to be menaced into a compliance 
with such even of our claims upon her as are reasonable 
and just. She may not be displeased with the aid af- 
forded by Spain and France to the views of Burr, as 
such an interference of those powers may lead to an 
alliance offensive and defensive between the Atlantic 
United States and Great Britain, which in my judgment, 
it is the interest of both to form, to set bounds to the 

274 Charles Carroll of Carrolltoti. 

ambition and power of Napoleon. Such is my view 
of this subject. 

If the Spaniards have retaken Buenos Ayres, the 
reinforcements sent from England in October, will not I 
suspect be able to make a second conquest of the coun- 
try. The Spanish captain de Liniers appears to combine 
judgment, courage and activity. He will raise consider- 
able forces, especially of horse, and will have time to 
discipline them tolerably well by the arrival of the 
English reinforcements, who not expecting such an event 
will come unprepared to carry on such military opera- 
tions for the conquest of the country which the nature 
and situation of it seem to require. A large body of 
horse will be necessary to protect the infantry in an 
open and flat country, they will want also many gun 
boats, and armed vessels drawing but little water to 
ascend the Plata. The campaign will probably be opened 
by the seige of Monte vido, which, if taken, will not give 
them possession of the country unless they can possess 
themselves of the capitol. How are they to ascend the 
river from Montevido to Buenos Ayres without an armed 
flotilla to oppose the Spanish flotilla which carried the 
troops from Montevido? Perhaps it will be necessary 
to transport from England the frames of gunboats and 
of other vessels calculated to pass over shallows, and to 
put them together on their arrival at Montevido. All 
this will require many months to complete, and when all 
the necessary apparatus of offensive war is ready 10,000 
good troops will be necessary to insure success." 

" January 16th : I have seen a New York paper of 
the nth inst. which seems to confirm my conjectures 
respecting Col. Burr mentioned in my former letter. I 
am of opinion he acts in concert with the Spaniards, and 
that the expedition to Mexico is held out to entice ad- 
venturers to his standard with the hopes of plunder ; to 

Conspiracy of Aaron Burr. 275 

invade Mexico New Orleans must be taken ; the attack 
and capture of that city will render his adherents guilty 
of high treason against the United States ; having in- 
curred this guilt they must adhere to their leader or 
leaders, and to secure themselves against the penalty of 
the law, they must erect and establish a separate and in- 
dependent government, in doing which I have no doubt 
the Spaniards covertly or openly will assist them. The 
former maneuvres of Spain and the money lately fur- 
nished to Col. Burr justify this opinion. 

" Burr conceives that Great Britain will not interfere 
with his schemes or lend its aid to counteract them unless 
a treaty of alliance offensive and defensive should be 
formed between that Power and these United States, 
which he is probably persuaded the prejudices of the 
ruling faction in this country will prohibit. In this 
opinion should he entertain it, he will probably be mis- 
taken ; the Democrats are a servile and timid crew, and 
to keep themselves in place they would make a treaty 
with the devil himself, and would break it as soon as 
their interests might seem to render its breach subservient 
to their other schemes — the principal difficulty will arise 
on the part of Great Britain ; that government will not 
trust ours, if it be as well known on the other side of the 
water as on this." 

" Annapolis, 33rd January : The day before yesterday 
two persons arrested in Charleston as accomplices in 
Col. Burr's treason were brought to the city in the custody 
of two continental officers, and yesterday they went off 
from hence to Washington. The name of one of those 
persons is Swatout, and I think that of the other is Boll- 
man. It is reported that Edward Livingston has been 
arrested at New Orleans, by General Wilkinson, and 
sent by water as a prisoner to Washington. 

It is given out to be Bun's plan to take possession of 

276 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

New Orleans, and by holding it to compel the western 
people to come into his views, and to establish a separate 
State westward of the mountains. If such should be 
Burr's plan, it is probable he acts in concert with the 
Spaniards, and expects to be assisted by them ; if they 
really abet his schemes, they must be authorized by 
orders from Madrid, or, in other words, from St. Cloud. 
Thus what I have long predicted is perhaps going to take 
place, and that Napoleon will in reality be the master of 
Louisiana ; for a government independent of the United 
States cannot be maintained by Col. Burr in that country 
but under the auspices and protection of a great foreign 
and naval power. The United States might by fitting 
out a few frigates, sloops of war and gunboats effectually 
block up the river Mississippi, unless prevented by Spain 
and France. Perhaps the Spaniards may permit the prod- 
uce of the western country to pass from that river into 
the Bay of Mobile and so on to Pensacola. This we 
cannot hinder without coming to an open rupture with 
Spain, which this government seems much averse to, as 
such a measure would lead to a war with France as the 
ally of Spain, and eventually force the United States into 
a treaty offensive and defensive with Great Britain. With 
great reluctance would such a treaty be entered into by 
our present Administration. Nothing but dire necessity 
will compel them to adopt such a measure, the whole 
faction from top to bottom detest the English and their 
constitution." ' 

To his son-in-law, Robert Goodloe Harper, Charles 
Carroll wrote, July 4, 1807, on the subject of the 
conspiracy, in which, it seems, some persons wished 

1 Family pipers, Hon. John Lee Carroll, 

Resources of Great Britain. 277 

to implicate Harper : " Have you received any letters 
lately from Mr. Bollman ? He has written, I am 
told, two in consequence of a threatened prosecution 
against you as an accomplice in Burr's conspiracy. 
Of the inclination of the Administration to prose- 
cute you I have little doubt, but none of your inno- 
cence. You have too much sense and principle to 
have implicated yourself in any of Burr's plans, 
whatever they were. His situation as to fortune 
was desperate ; distrusted by all parties and hated 
by his own, he may have meditated some desperate 
and wicked enterprise, but situated as you are, it 
would have been the extreme of folly in you to have 
participated in it." ' Still closely observing the pro- 
gress of events in Europe as well as in the United 
States, Charles Carroll writes to his two correspond- 
ents his thoughts fully and unreservedly, upon the 
passing pageant as the years go by. 

" Doughorcgan, jfA Sept., 1S07 : The armistice between 
Napoleon and Alexander will probably end in an humiliat- 
ing peace of Russia, Prussia and Sweden ; those powers 
will be forced to abandon England, exclude her ships 
from the Baltic, and perhaps to renew the armed neu- 

" The British nation has resources to carry on a naval 
war against France and her allies for 20 years and the 
means to revolutionise all the Spanish Colonies ; but the 
advanced age of the king, the profligate character of 
the heir apparent, the dissensions among the great, and 
the weight of taxes, the discontents of the people, and the 
precarious situation of Ireland, will, I fear induce the 
1 Family papers, Mn. William C. Pennington. 

278 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

present ministry, in order to maintain their places, to 
make a disgraceful peace, which, if Napoleon lives ten 
years longer, will put the independence of the British 
Islands in jeopardy. I am firmly persuaded he is bent 
on the conquest of Great Britain, not to be achieved how- 
ever, without a navy capable of contending for the do- 
minion of the seas. Peace and peace only, will enable 
him in the course of ten years to build a fleet and man 
it capable to cope with that of England. If this position 
be true, it must be manifestly the interest of England to 
continue the war." 

" Doughoregan, 15th September: Either Alexander 
must want understanding and firmness, or Russia has 
not the power and resources attributed to her by com- 
mon opinion. It does not appear that Napoleon has 
stripped Russia of any territory, but the peace he has 
granted to Russia and Prussia has made him the arbiter 
of the continent of Europe. I suspect there are some 
secret articles in the treaty to be fulfilled in case Great 
Britain should not make peace ; time will discover whether 
Napoleon will make peace with Great Britain on such 
terms as she can with honor and safety accept. 

" I propose going to Carrollton the 25th of this month, 
and shall be glad to have your company. I have but 
two complaints, old age and the cholic." 

li February ist, 1808 : Nothing has transpired about 
the negotiations with Mr. Rose. I hope they will ter- 
minate favorably, but my fears are stronger than my 
hopes. I suspect the Administration is decidedly under • 
French influence, and that faction being numerous and 
desperate, they will if they can plunge this country into 
a war with England." 

" February 12th : It is the true interest of this country 
to form an alliance, offensive and defensive, with Eng- 

True Interest of America, 2 79 

land ; such an alliance would emancipate the Spanish 
Colonies on the Continent from the dominion of Bona- 
parte, subject all the West India islands to Great Britain, 
except Cuba, the sovereignty of which should be guaran- 
teed to the United States by that power. You fear that 
England would make peace and leave us in the lurch. 
She cannot make peace during the life of Bonaparte ; in 
this contest she must either perish or conquer ; our alli- 
ance and powerful co-operation would insure her victory. 
If we do not join England and she should be subdued, 
can you suppose the ambitious Tyrant of France would 
not impose on us his iron yoke ? " 

"Annapolis, igtk February: An idea prevails here 
that the fate of Mr. Rose's negociation will be decided in 
two or three days and strong apprehensions are enter- 
tained about the result. From the following paragraph 
in Mr. Harper's letter, I draw the inference that Mr. 
Rose's negociation has terminated unfavorably to the 
views of those who wish to be on good terms and at 
peace with England. Mr. Harper in his preceding let- 
ters spoke of the general expectation that the negociation 
would be successful. I own my opinion was different, 
founded on the publications in the National Intelligencer, 
a paper supposed to be under the influence of the Exec- 
utive and to utter his sentiments, and therefore if the 
negociation should disappoint the general expectation, it 
will not mine, tho' it will my wishes ; for I am persuaded 
it is the true interest of this country not only to be at 
peace with England, but to make an alliance offensive 
and defensive with her ; this opinion I believe to be con- 
fined to a few comparatively speaking, and as there is 
little prospect of such alliance being formed, England 
had better be at open war with the United States than 
suffer them under a disguised neutrality, to carry on the 

280 Charles Carroll of CarroUion. 

trade of its enemies. I hope to hear from you by this 
day's mail, and am Dear Charles, Yr. aff. Father, etc." 

[To Charles Carroll, Jr. 1 ] 

" Annapolis, nth April, 1808 ; Messrs. Livermore and 
Alexander Hanson did roe the favor to call on me Friday 
evening ; by them I was informed you had returned 
from Washington on Thursday. What impression has 
Champagny's letter made on Congress and the Adminis- 
tration ? Will the embargo be taken off soon ? Can any 
tolerable guess he formed who will be the next President ? 
If Mr. Rose was not tied up by his instructions, he ought 
in my opinion, to have closed with Madison's last pro- 
posal of declaring what atonement the British government 
would offer for the attack on the Chesapeake, and making 
that document and the revocation of the proclamation 
bear contemporaneous dates, as Madison consented to 
separate the search of merchant vessels for British sea- 
men from the reparation of the insult on our flag by the 
attack on the Chesapeake. Surely the British ministry, if 
really desirous of being on good terms with this country, 
were over-punctilious in persisting on the previous revo- 
cation of the proclamation, before their envoy should 
disclose the nature and extent of the atonement to be 
offered for the outrage committed on our frigate. That 
ministry insisted that the right of search of private ves- 
sels should not be blended with the question of repara- 
tion for that outrage ; this point was yielded by our 
government. Why then did not Rose with candor de- 
clare what reparation he was authorized by his govern- 
ment to make ? His conduct, or that of his government, 
savors too much, in the whole of his negotiation, of the 
tricks and shifts of a pettifogging attorney. Are we to 
have war ? And with whom, France or England ? Or 
1 Family papers, Hon. John Lee Carroll. 

Austria and Archduke Charles. 281 

are we to remain in statu quo, suffering almost all the 
privations of a state of war, with a degradation of char- 
acter which war waged against our real enemy France, 
with spirit and conduct would in some measure wipe 

" Annapolis 10th April, iSop : I have seen the English 
account of the battle on the high grounds of Corunna 
given by General Hope to General Baird, which may be 
considered as official and to be depended on ; the Eng- 
lish claim the victory." 

" May 14th : To me it seems evident that Bonaparte 
is determined to quarrel with Austria, and to strip that 
power of the greater part of its dominions, perhaps to 
place another dynasty on the throne of that ancient house. 
If Austria delays to strike the first blow, waiting for the 
decision of Alexander, and permits her deadly enemy to 
assemble his forces and to bear upon her from all sides 
with all his resources and power, not all the abilities of 
the Archduke Charles, the valor and patriotism of the 
subjects of Austria can save her from destruction. 

I perceive Messrs. Livermore and Hanson mean to 
discontinue their paper after the 4th of July, from want 
of encouragement. This determination, and particularly 
the cause of it, is much to be regretted ; their paper in- 
culcated by several masterly productions, correct princi- 
ples of government, and has contributed to the decrease 
of Democracy. By the late intelligence from Lisbon of 
the 27th March, it appears that the Portuguese mean to 
defend their country. If a large proportion of the French 
enemy has returned to France to attack Austria, and the 
unsubdued part of Spain should collect and have time 
to discipline an army of, and the Portuguese 
another of the same strength, it is to be hoped their joint 
efforts may be crowned with success, particularly if the 

282 Cliarles Carroll of Carroltion. 

war with Austria should employ Bonaparte two or three 
years. The inactivity of the French armies in Spain 
must be owing either to the diminution of their numbers 
by large detachments being sent to Germany, or to the 
want of subsistence in Spain and Portugal, and to the 
vast expense and delays of obtaining it from France." 
[To Robert Goodloe Harper. 1 ] 

" Doughoregan, 28th July, 1809 : It is to be hoped the 
Archduke Charles will turn to good account, and make 
the most of the victories obtained over Napoleon on the 
zist and 22nd May ; from his past conduct it is to be ex- 
pected that the saying or reproach made to Hannibal by 
one of his officers after the victory of Cann vincere 
quidem suis, uti victoria nesces, will not be applicable to the 

" Annapolis, igth March, 1810 : If Napoleon should 
repeal his Berlin and Milan decrees, as intimated by a 
letter of the 1st of January from Paris, detailing a con- 
versation which passed between his ministers and a depu- 
tation of merchants, the orders of Council will fall of 
course, and our trade such as neutrals ought to carry on, 
will suffer no interruption from the belligerents. If Na- 
poleon acknowledges the right of search to be authorized 
by the law of nations, as has been suggested at the con- 
versation above mentioned, our differences with England 
must be amicably settled, for that right coupled with that 
also claimed by the British Government of taking their 
own subjects out of our merchant vessels will no longer 
form a pretext of quarrel with the British to keep alive 
the animosity of party in this country against that nation, 
the only means left to the ruling faction, of perpetuating 
their own power. 

1 Family papers, Mrs. William C. Pennington. 

Meeting of Merchants at Paris. 283 

I suspect the meeting of the merchants at Paris with 
the ministers, and the alleged conversation above referred 
to, is destitute of truth and a mere stock jobbing fabrica- 
tion formed in London. The late confiscation of Ameri- 
can property in the ports of Spain in the hands of the 
French, and the imprisonment of their crews, declared 
prisoners of war, discredit in a great measure the declara- 
tions of the French ministers to the merchants ; the two 
accounts cannot be reconciled on any other ground than 
the determination of Bonaparte to consider the Ameri- 
cans trading to Spain as violating the rights of belliger- 
ents by their commerce, interdicted by the law of nations, 
with revolted subjects. A little time will discover whether 
this construction upon the news from Spain is well 

[To Charles Carroll, Jr.'] 

In a letter from Charles Carroll of Carrollton to 
his son-in-law, Mr. Harper, of February 17th, he has 
news to tell of the Austrian army, " information I 
had from Colonel Mercer's son John, which was con- 
firmed by Mr. Caton." And then the staunch Fed- 
eralist continues; "How does the Executive relish 
the report of the joint committee of the Massachu- 
setts Legislature? In my opinion it is a masterly 
performance, and I hope will, with other publications, 
open the eyes of this nation that they may see the 
deformity of conduct of this Frenchified administra- 
tion, plotting the subversion of our independence to 
perpetuate their power and misrule under the power 
of France." 

Captain and Mrs. Decatur visited Charles Carroll 
1 Family papers. Hod. John Lee Carroll, 

284 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

at Annapolis in April, " landed here yesterday," as 
he writes to Mr. Harper on the 13th. They expected 
to go from Annapolis to Baltimore, their host pro- 
posing to send them in his " Jersey wagon." And 
he adds: "Captain Decatur will go to Washington 
from Baltimore, and will remain some days in the 
former city. I hope you will invite them to take up 
their quarters with you. Mrs. Decatur intends go- 
ing to Brooklandwood if Mr. Caton's family are 
there." Charles Carroll was much interested in the 
renewal of the charter of the United States Bank, 
and wrote to his son-in-law for information about it 
from the "influential" members of Congress. In 
this letter, dated February 6, l8it, there is men- 
tion of the communications from Europe contained 
in the President's message of January 31st, and the 
report that later dispatches had been received. And 
Charles Carroll adds: 

" If such have been received and their contents have 
transpired, I should be glad to know if they hold out any 
well grounded assurance that the Berlin and Milan de- 
crees are in reality repealed, as to the United States, and 
whether the two great products of our soil, cotton and 
tobacco, are suffered to be imported into France and the 
north of Germany, paying such duties only as will leave 
a profit on the sales to the importers. 

I suspect there is a secret understanding between our 
government and that of France; the President's Proclama- 
tion cannot be reconciled to common sense on any other 
supposition or principle. If I am not mistaken, Bona- 
parte contends that no port ought to be considered as 
blockaded which is not invested by land as well as by 

Trade with Europe Intercepted. 285 

sea ; does our Executive admit and contend for this 
novel doctrine ? If the Orders of Council should be re- 
revoked, it is probable that the British besides keeping 
strong squadrons before the Scheldt, Brest, L'Orient 
Rochefort and Toulon, will station one or more frigates 
and sloops of war at the entrance of the Texel and the 
principal mercantile ports of France, to intercept all trade 
with France and the countries enforcing her decrees 
against British trade and manufactures. This Great 
Britain has a right to do by the law of nations, and if 
exerted our commerce with France and the continent of 
Europe under the control of Bonaparte will be too haz- 
ardous to be pursued with advantage." 

On the loth of March, Charles Carroll writes : " I 
hear wheat and flour have risen considerably in con- 
sequence of a supposed contract made by the French 
Government for the supply of their armies in Spain 
and Portugal. If the English government should be 
timely apprised of this measure it is probable it will 
station ships to capture our vessels thus loaded to 
supply their enemies, and considering the manifest 
partiality of our administration for France, we shall 
have no just cause to complain." ' 

The Caton sisters sailed for Europe in April, 
181 r. Charles Carroll went to the Manor about the 
end of May, where Mr. Harper was to join him with 
"little Dick and Elizabeth." Charles and Mary Har- 
per were at school. " In the meantime," writes their 
grandfather, " they may visit the Manor every Satur- 
day and return to town the Mondays following." 
During the summer of 181 1 and the early months of 

1 Family papers, Mis. William C. Pennington. 

286 Charles Carroll of Carrdtion. 

1812, the correspondence with Charles Carroll, Jr., 
and Mr. Harper was carried on with unflagging in- 

" Doughortgan, 4th June, 1S11 : I wish (lie rencoun- 
ter between the Little Beit and the President may not be 
attended with serious consequences. As the Adminis- 
tration of this country wish to involve it in a war with 
Great Britain I do not believe they will make any apology 
for Rogers* conduct, which I believe will be expected by 
the British ministry and nation. My opinion is founded 
on the principle that the public ships of a neutral nation 
have no right to chase a public ship of war of a belliger- 
ent. Rogers admits that he knew the ship which he 
chased to be a ship of war, and he must have known that 
it was not one of ours. It must then have been either a 
British or a French vessel of war: with both of which 
nations we are at peace. Captain Bingham, I really 
believe, took the President for a French frigate, and fired 
with the view of crippling her sails and rigging to effect 
his escape, for he must have been convinced from the 
great superiority of his enemy that he had no other means 
of escaping. Again, what right had Rogers to hail the 
Little Belt} In doing so, and in chasing her I consider 
him as the aggressor, and on his head, and that of the 
Executive, under whose orders he acted the blood spilt 
must fall. I wish the British government may not reason 
in this case as I have done." 

[To Charles Carroll, Jr.'] 

" Doughortgan, 8th June ; " Kitty, little Dick and 
Betsy were at Perry Hall on Wednesday. ... In a 
letter from Cadiz of the 23rd April it is mentioned that 
1 Family papers, Hon. John Lee Carroll. 

Mi ^^■^^TB 

The "Little Belt" and " President." 287 

Lord Wellington was following Massena into Andalusia, 
and that he was at Zapa. I cannot find any place of that 
name in my map of Spain ; I find the town of Zafra in 
Andalusia. If the latest intelligence from Cadiz and Lis- 
bon can be relied on, we may expect to hear of a battle 
fought in Andalusia about the last of April or beginning 
of May. I conjecture Massena has formed a junction 
with the French forces in Andalusia commanded by Vic- 
tor, and that Wellington, Beresford, Ballastros and Blake 
with a great part of the garrison of Cadiz have also united. 
A dispatch vessel, it is said, had arrived at the Havanna 
in twenty-four days from Cadiz, that is on the 17th May ; 
she must therefore have left Cadiz on the 27th April, on 
which day an express may have reached Cadiz with an 
account of the victory over the combined French armies. 

Had Commodore Rogers a right to chase the Little 
Belt, and had he a right to hail her ? It appears to me 
that he had no right to do either. I should be glad to 
know your opinion on these points. I believe Bingham 
supposing the President to be a French frigate had a 
right without answering the hail, to fire on her. I am 
anxious to learn how Admiral Sawyer will act on the oc- 

"yune 28th. : I presume Lord Wellington returned to 
his army to watch the motions of Massena, whose army 
may not be so much crippled as represented. He has 
probably sent strong detachments to Beresford who will 
not, I suspect, to judge from Lord Wellington's dis- 
patches of the 25th April, attempt anything against Soult 
and Victor till Badajos is taken. 

" I have read Smith's ' Address to the people of the 
United States' He has painted Madison in his true 
colors. But had Smith resigned his office before he was 
turned out of it, ' and had not waited for an occasion of do- 

288 Oiarles Carroll of CarroHton. 

ing so without endangering conflicting agitations among their 
respective friends j his motives for defending his own con- 
duct and exposing Madison's would not then have been 
imputed to disappointment and resentment. I hope the 
partisans of Madison, or he himself under a borrowed 
name will attack Smith's Address and gore him for his 
patriotism; if the attack should reflect on his want of 
talents, duplicity, or any other vices his political adversar- 
ies may liberally heap upon him, ihis may draw forth a 
replication which may unfold more of the machinations 
of the Washington Cabinet, if Smith has been entrusted 
with all their secrets, which I doubt. But I have no 
doubt that Cabinet is determined on a war with England 
and an alliance with France." 

" July 3rd : I congratulate you on the good news 
from Portugal and Spain. I have looked most anxiously 
over the marine list for the arrival of the brig Robert ; 
she ought to have reached Lisbon by the 20th. May." 

" July 4th ; If the victories obtained by Wellington 
and Beresford over the French have terminated accord- 
ing to the accounts given in the newspapers, the French 
must evacuate the Peninsula, unless promptly reinforced, 

" What do the Democrats of Annapolis say of Smith's 
Address? If the state paper published in the Boston 
Patriot, has been communicated by John Q. Adams to 
his father, we cannot doubt its authenticity and it must 
make a most serious impression on all those of the Demo- 
cratic party who are not determined to go all lengths in 
support of the measures adopted, and to be adopted by 
our Executive. Is the Boston Centinel a Democratic 
paper? In it a paper has been published entitled 
' Additional Instructions for the French Minister Ser- 
rurier,' which are evidently fabricated in this country. 
The Federal prints ought not to publish falsehood. 

Hanson and William Carroll. 289 

There are true and damning proofs enough against this 
Administration ; fictions weaken the force of realities." 

"Annapolis, 2\st January, 1812.- The Administra- 
tion of this country has got into a miserable hobble, 
from which nothing can extricate it but England's declar- 
ing war against us. Notwithstanding the manifold 
provocations given by our government, and its manifest 
partiality for France, the English Cabinet is too wise to 
help our rulers out of the scrape by declaring war against 
the United States. Is it supposed the Legislature of 
Pennsylvania will reincorporate the late Bank of the 
United States ? " 

" May igth ; Early in next month 70 pr. ct. on my 
shares in the late Bank of the United States will be sub- 
ject to my order ; that money and all other sums I can 
spare from my own expenses and engagements, I mean 
to subscribe to a new Bank of the United States should 
such an establishment take place." 

[To Robert Goodloe Harper. 1 ] 

" Annapolis, 28th May : I am informed the contest 
will be warm between Mr. Hanson and Mr. William 
Carroll, and that it is doubtful which will be the success- 
ful candidate ; my fear is that in consequence of a divi- 
sion among the Federals a Democratic Representative 
may be chosen. Certainly Mr. Hanson has more knowl- 
edge of the affairs of the U. S., and is better acquainted 
with the proceedings of Congress, our foreign relations, 
and all the documents relating to them, and the manoeu- 
vres of our Administration, than Mr. Carroll ; he also is 
accustomed to public speaking, and from this acquired 
habit can declare with force his sentiments on the floor 
of Congress, an advantage which I believe Mr. Carroll 
does not possess, at least in so great a degree as Mr. 
1 Family papers, Mrs. William C. Pennington. 

290 Charles CarrM of Carrdlton. 

Hanson. For these reasons I wish Mi. Carroll would 
decline the contest. It is too delicate a subject for me 
to speak or write to him about ; should he give me an 
opportunity of declaring my opinion, I shall embrace it. 
A petition intended to be signed by the freeholders and 
inhabitants of this county to Congress against war has 
been drawn up by Col. Mercer, which I have read and 
approve ; it is temperate, the style good, and the reason- 
ing clear and forcible. I believe it is now in the press 
and I am told if industriously circulated, will be signed 
by a large majority of the people of this county, Feder- 
als and Democrats. 

The dread of war, a militia draft and heavy taxes, and 
a total stagnation of trade, are beginning, I expect, to 
effect a salutary change in the sentiments of the Ameri- 
can people, which will no doubt be strengthened by the 
pointed contempt the Emperor discovers for us. John 
Mercer told me that Mr. Monroe assured him that Bar- 
low was not authorized to make any treaty with France, 
but only to insist on reimbursement of the value of 
American vessels seized and sold under the Ramboulet 
Decree. Indeed, I do not see what treaty Barlow could 
be authorized to make, except an alliance offensive and 
defensive with France in case of our going to war with 
Great Britain, which probably he was instructed to as- 
»ure the Emperor this government would declare, if I he 
property above mentioned, or rather its value should not 
be restored, or security given for its restoration. But 
what security could be given by Perfidy personified ? " 

[To Charles Carroll, Jr.]' 

There was now no question indeed whether the 
United States would go to war, and with whom. 
1 Family papers, Hon. John Lee Carroll. 

Disturbances in Baltimore* 291 

Hostilities were declared on the 19th of June, 1812. 
The objections of Charles Carroll of Carrollton to 
the war with England seemed to him to have their 
justification in the part Great Britain was playing 
as the champion of oppressed nationalities against 
the tyrant of Europe, the French Emperor, " Per- 
fidy personified." Charles Carroll had too long 
looked with all the prejudices of an Englishman 
upon Napoleon and his wars, to be willing to see 
his country fight Napoleon's great enemy. And 
was there not danger, he argued, for the independ- 
ence of the United States, in this grasping French 
imperialism which had replaced the pseudo-repub- 
licanism of the Directory and the Consulate ? He 
had apparently outlived the feeling against England 
that would have been natural in the patriot of 'j6, 
and he was ready to deal leniently with her sins 
against America in 1812, because of the position 
she held in Europe as the one barrier across the 
pathway of the destroyer — Bonaparte. 

But Carroll's countrymen generally were not of 
his opinion. In Baltimore the war sentiment was 
very strong, and an attack was made upon the office 
of the Federal Republican, Alexander Hanson's 
paper, which resulted in a most deplorable riot. 
Charles Carroll thus alludes to it in a letter to his 
son of August 5th, written from " Doughoregan " : 

" The late occurrences in Baltimore, and the temper 
of this government render a residence insecure in this 
State, and I may want all the sums I can command to 
enable me to move out of it, if the state of politics does 
not soon grow better, and men be suffered to speak their 

ags Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

sentiments on tbe measures of the present rulers of out 
country and to take what newspapers they please." ' 

The war began with some unsuccessful attempts 
at the invasion of Canada and disasters in the north- 
west, but was followed by four naval victories, the 
last of which took place off the coast of Brazil the 
day before the following letter was written : 

" Annapolis, 30th December, 1812 ; There is a report 
that Mr. Pinkney is to succeed Mr. Monroe as Secre- 
tary of State, and that Mr. Monroe is to be commander- 
in-chief of the array ; but without better troops he will 
not be more successful than his predecessors in the inva- 
sion of Canada. Many are of opinion that Madison will 
continue the war against Great Britain. I am inclined 
to this opinion also, knowing his hostility to that coun- 
try and suspecting his connection with Bonaparte. If 
Bonaparte should prevail against Russia, the war will go 
on for another year, till the next House of Representa- 
tives will force the Administration to make peace. In 
that House the Administration party will either be in the 
minority, or have so small a majority, and their war meas- 
ures will be so opposed, that this government must ac- 
cept the terms which the British ministry may offer, and 
of their being honorable and advantageous to both coun- 
tries I have no doubt." * 

To his son-in-law Richard Caton, who managed 
much of his business for him, Charles Carroll of 
CarroUton wrote from Annapolis, February 13, 
1813, giving him instructions as to his investments, 
and other matters. He fears that his "rent-wheats 
1 IUd. • IHd. 

French Disasters in Russia. 


will not produce 1500 barrels of flour," and he 
authorizes Mr. Caton to take $10 a barrel (or it 
which, he adds, " I much doubt your obtaining, as 
long as our Bay continues strictly blockaded." The 
Baltimore Company is referred to, in connection 
with Charles Carroll's will, which he intends to exe- 
cute the next day. " What is the price of fustians," 
he asks, " fit for summer liveries for my servants P 
Coe is quite out of employment and wishes to make 
the liveries at present." And Charles Carroll con- 
cludes his letter with a discussion of the latest foreign 

" The report of Bonaparte's arrival at Paris at mid- 
night on the 18th December, appears to me questionable. 
Supposing him not to be dead or taken by the Russians, 
and that he arrived in safety at Wilna on the 9th or 10th 
December, he could not leave that place or Warsaw be- 
fore the end of that month, as providing winter quarters 
for the shattered remains of his army, collecting provisions 
and reinforcements would require his presence in Poland 
for at least twenty days. If the report of his arrival at 
Paris be false, it strengthens the probability of his cap- 
ture or death — neither event was known in the Russian 
army at the date of Kutusoff's last dispatches of the 17th 
November." ' 

Charles Carroll's correspondence for the following 
twelve months carries his readers back and forth 
between Europe and America, his interests vibrating 
between the two continents. In February, he is 
telling of gaieties in Annapolis, where the Misses 
Pinkney " fine girls and well educated " are visiting 
■ MS : Letter, Miss M. A Cohen, Baltimore. 

294 diaries Carroll of Carrollton. 

Louisa Caton at her grandfather's house, and where, 
though it be war times, a ball is to be given in com- 
pliment to these young ladies by their hostess: 
" Several beaux and some young ladies are invited 
to it from Baltimore." He is writing to Robert 
Goodloe Harper in Washington, and adds : 

" Shall we have peace with England ? Will not the 
sad disasters of Napoleon accelerate that event ? The 
fate of that man is not yet certainly known ; perhaps the 
French minister may have certain information about 
him, and Harlow may have communicated what he knows. 
I cannot bring myself to believe that he is dead or cap- 
tured by the Russians ; neither of those events could be 
concealed for more than a few days. If living and 
returned to Paris, his entry into that capital forms a 
mournful contrast to his former triumphant entries, and 
the shades of night were well suited to the gloominess 
of his mind and desperate situation." 

And so the letter continues, with speculations on 
the probable course of Russia, Prussia, and Austria, 
and the final queries : " Has anything transpired 
from the cabinet P Have any secret messages been 
sent to Congress by the Executive?" Four letters 
written in March to the same correspondent all con- 
tain some mention of Napoleon and evidence the 
close connection his fate was supposed to have on 
the issue and termination of the war in the United 
States. A new coalition was forming against Bona- 
parte in Europe. Charles Carroll writes as the news 
just received, March 1st by a vessel arrived in the 
Delaware : " The papers from Philadelphia and New 

Madison's Measures Condemned. 295 

York will no doubt reach Washington by this day's 
mail, and give the details of these important events. 
God send they may be true." Three days later he 
says: "As Bonaparte's power seems to be on the 
decline, and Austria and Prussia with the aid of 
Russia will throw off his yoke, and by a powerful 
combination of forces drive the French out of Ger- 
many and Italy, circumscribe France to her limits 
under the last of the Bourbons, and restore the 
ancient order of things in Europe, I flatter myself 
our war against Great Britain will soon be brought 
to a close." And further on there is this frank ad- 
mission : " Many persons continue of the opinion 
that Bonaparte is dead, from their strong wishes, I 
suppose, of his death. Although no one desires his 
death more than I do, I cannot suffer my wishes to 
betray my judgment." Carroll receives in a letter 
from Baltimore, the substance of a handbill circulated 
in New York,and congratulates his son-in-law, " and 
every friend of humanity, on the extermination of 
the tyrant's army," as the result of the Russian 

Of the home Administration and its policies, 
Charles Carroll continues to express the poorest 
opinion : " Is the war to go on ? Can it be prose- 
cuted without the means, and against the general 
bent of the nation? In consequence of the Presi- 
dent's recommendation, an entire stop, I suppose, 
will be put to exports from this country. Will the 
people long submit to such privations? Their folly 
or corruption in the re-election of Mr. Madison must 
now be manifest," And again he writes: 

296 Charles Carroll of CarrolUon. 

"Will the people of this country submit to the measures 
to which you apprehend this wicked Administration will 
resort, to carry on the war ? I have long been of the 
opinion that the present men in power would not make 
peace with England as long as they retained their offices. 
It is said some of Napoleon's papers of a secret and im- 
portant nature were taken with his baggage by the Rus- 
sians. I hope the confidential despatches from our 
Administration may be among them ; if found, no doubt 
they will be communicated to the British ministry and 
published. It is reported that the British are sending to 
this country nineteen ships of the line and several stout 
frigates and some bomb vessels. They must expect a 
French fleet on this coast, for so large a force does not 
appear necessary to blockade strictly our ports. I sus- 
pect they will take possession of Rhode Island and fortify 
Newport, from thence they would get fresh provisions, 
vegetables and water for their blockading squadrons." ' 

In letters of March, April, and May, Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton wrote to his son of the war rumors 
floating about Annapolis and of preparations he was 
making to secure his personal property, should the 
enemy appear. 

" Annapolis, 12th March, 1813 : I have had to dine with 
me Mr. Moore the British agent and Captain Ben of the 
Francis Frceling, the British packet now lying in this 
harbour. I am much pleased with Mr. Moore. This 
port is appointed for the reception of flags of truce, and 
Mr. Moore is to have the management of them, to receive 
despatches and forward them to and from our govern- 
ment. Mr. Caton seems apprehensive that the British will 
bombard our town, and even poor Annapolis may not 
1 Family papers, Mrs, William C. Pennington, 

Preparing for the Enemy. 297 

escape ; the insignificancy of the place, and its being the 
station for flags of truce, will exempt it from that 
calamity. Indeed I do not believe the enemy will bom- 
bard any of our towns ; they will probably enter the port 
of New York, destroy the forts and our frigates there, 
and at Boston and Norfolk. I should not be surprised 
at their landing near Washington on the Potomac from 
1500 to 2000 light troops and making a rapid march to 
Washington and destroy the Dock Yard there. The 
government does not appear to apprehend such a coup tie 
main, and I suspect is not prepared to defeat it. I be- 
lieve the British will take Rhode Island and fortify New- 
port, the port which a French fleet would certainly steer 
for, and which I am confident the British expect, or they 
would not send to this country 19 sail of the line. 

" 27th April : Mrs. Tayloe writes from Washington to 
her mother dissuading her from leaving Annapolis, as in 
the opinion of persons well informed, Annapolis is the 
safest place of residence in this State. It is made one of 
the ports in the United States for the reception of cartels 
and the exchange of prisoners." 

" 8th May : I have sent my valuable papers, books of 
account and plate to the Manor, and baggage of different 
kinds will be sent to-morrow. When I go to the Manor, 
the exact time I cannot now fix on, your sister Caton 
and her daughters Betsy and Emily will accompany me. 
I shall remove my pipes of wine to my farm near this 
city, and some household furniture, for I seriously appre- 
hend the enemy will destroy this town. It is reported a 
strong force is going up the Potomac and that they are 
greatly alarmed at Washington. There are so many re- 
ports in circulation it is difficult to determine what to 
believe." ' 

1 Family papers, Hon. John Lee Carroll. 

298 Charles Carroll of Carrotllon. 

But this time the alarm proved groundless, and 
Charies Carroll going from Annapolis to " Doughor- 
egan," lingered at the Manor until the second week 
in December. From the latter place he writes, Oct- 
tober 31st, to Charles Carroll, Jr., rejoicing over Na- 
poleon's disasters : " Your servant Sam delivered 
your letter while we were at dinner ; the foreign in- 
telligence it imparted was more acceptable than the 
most luxurious desert could have been." And on 
the 4th of November he refers to the details that 
had appeared in the Baltimore Federal Gazette : 
" It appears to me that Napoleon is in a very criti- 
cal situation. God send that the disturber of the 
world may meet with his deserved fate and punish- 
ment." Of Madison's "wicked Administration," 
and its threats, the Maryland Federalist writes as 
follows : 

" Doughoregatt, $th December : If the government of 
this country should put to death the British officers, 
soldiers or any of them confined to retaliate the execu- 
tion of British subjects taken in arms fighting against 
their native country, I have no doubt the British fleet 
will destroy in the course of next summer, any town and 
habitation on the coast of this Bay and sea accessible to 
their ships. That the British government will cause to 
be hanged some of the prisoners sent to England to be 
tried as British subjects, proved to be so, I am fully pur- 
suaded ; in doing so that government will be justified 
by the law of nations. But the execution of British pris- 
oners of war by way of restitution cannot be justified by 
that law, and though our present wicked Administration 
from their deadly hatred to England would willingly ex- 


Rights of Naturalized Aliens. 299 

ecute their menace, their fears will restrain them, and the 
American nation will not suffer the atrocious deed to 
take place. From the Regent's declaration, lately made 
known to the American government, it is obvious the 
British Admiral was instructed not to lay waste our 
coasts or destroy our towns, but to confine his operations 
to the intercepting our commerce. I presume the same 
line of conduct will be pursued by the British if our 
rulers dare not retaliate on British prisoners of war the 
just punishment that may be inflicted on British traitors. 
In this view of the subject, which I think correct, there 
is no immediate necessity to remove my library from my 
house in Annapolis, or my wine from my farm near it." ' 

On this same subject of British prisoners, and 
naturalized citizens and their rights, or "wrongs," 
Charles Carroll has more to say in a letter written 
two days later to Robert Goodloe Harper : 

" Dr. Thomas has brought me the President's message. 
It breathes a hostile spirit against England and menaces 
retaliation if the British government should direct the 
prisoners sent to England for trial — if found to be British 
subjects — to be executed. Although the standing law of 
Great Britain naturalizes all aliens, and such naturalized 
subjects are employed in her fleets and armies, have not 
the original sovereigns of such naturalized aliens a right 
to reclaim them, and if at war with Great Britain, and 
they should be taken prisoners, a right to punish them 
with death ? Does our Constitution or laws admit of its 
citizens changing their allegiance and becoming subjects 
of another State ? If they do not, should an American 
citizen be taken fighting against this country, could he 
not be tried as a traitor ? 

1 Ibid. 

300 Charles Carrott of CarroUton. 

If this country, or those whose subjects are naturalized 
by Great Britain, admit the doctrine that allegiance is 
not indefeasible and may be changed, the case put by the 
President to justify retaliation does not apply as to Great 
Britain and will not justify it. The President asserts that 
many of the individuals, prisoners of war and sent to 
England for trial, emigrated from the British dominions 
long prior to the war between the two countries ; the 
President ought to have good proof for this assertion. 
Although the British government may have the right to 
punish as traitors British subjects taken in arms against 
their native country, even being naturalized citizens of 
this, the policy of the measure appears to me very ques- 

Writing again, December 16th, Charles Carroll 
tells of his satisfaction at the election of Governor 
Winder and a "Federal Council." He speaks of 
the general opinion that an embargo will be laid 
by Congress ; " perhaps this measure adding still 
more to the distresses of the people, may at last 
work a change in the political sentiments of the 
Democratic party and induce them to get rid of 
their present rulers." Charles Carroll of CarroUton 
was at this time in Baltimore, and Mr. Harper was 
in Annapolis attending the session of the Court 
of Appeals he and his family occupying the Carroll 

Complaints had been made against the overseer 
at Charles Carroll's farm near Annapolis and several 
of the latter's letters during this winter, which he 
spends in Baltimore, discuss this matter. He 
expects a detailed account of the complaints, from 
his son-in-law, when he will be " better able to form 

An Unsatisfactory Overseer, 301 

proper judgment and apply some remedy." And 
he adds " Sears may have faults, and the negroes 
may complain without much reason, nay they may 
be instigated by a certain person to complain who 
bears an ill-will against Sears." Mr. Harper is to 
examine how Sears conducts his business, and he 
will be able to discover from the looks of the 
negroes " if they are well-treated and fed." The 
letter continues : " I really believe Sears is honest 
and sober, two very essential qualities in overseers. 
He is industrious, though he has not so much judg- 
ment in farming as I could wish ; non ego paucis 
offender macules ; iUe optimus est, qui minimis 
urgetur — this sentiment of Horace may be applied 
to overseers as well as poets." A little later Charles 
Carroll writes again of Sears, telling Mr. Harper 
to be on his guard as to the accusations against him, 
as " several are seeking his place who are not trust- 
worthy." He wants the case minutely investigated, 
however, in case any of the charges are true. But 
he does not wish to trust his wines and other valu- 
able property to a new overseer, as it would be dif- 
ficult, at this season, to find a good one. 

He finally decides from his son-in-law's report 
that " things are not as they should be." But he 
does not want the negroes to be confronted with 
Sears, " such an examination will be productive 
only of ill-treatment of my negroes." The man 
had not managed the place as well as he should 
have done : " If I should live to see peace," is 
Charles Carroll's conclusion, " and then reside with 
security at Annapolis, I will endeavor to correct 
the abuses of Sears and make him a better 

302 CJtarles Carroll of Carrollton. 

manager." Should he not succeed he will look out 
for an overseer who understands farming, and the 
management of stock, in which he thinks Sears 
deficient. Of the prospects for peace, Charles Car- 
roll writes in this letter of January 16, 1814: 
"Till Bonaparte is defeated so as to be forced to 
relinquish all his conquests and to make peace, or 
what would be more desirable, till death rids the 
world of the tyrant, I am persuaded no peace will 
take place between this country and England." 

The following letter to Robert Goodloe Harper, 
then in Washington, treats of the same all absorb- 
ing theme : 

" Baltimore, 26th February, 1814 1 I have read with 
much pleasure your speech at Annapolis ; you have 
perspicuously traced the causes of our war with Great 
Britain to their real origin and have exposed the dis- 
graceful intrigues and falsehoods of the Administration 
by which they have gradually led Congress to declare it. 
If the war party could divest themselves of their hatred 
to England and consider dispassionately the contents of 
your address, I should hope the perusal of it would be 
followed by happy consequences. But men blinded by 
party spirit are not to be cured by reason but by suffer- 
ings, and the great mass of the people have not yet suf- 
fered enough to make them sick of the war. The avarice 
of money lenders will fill the loan, and the large boun- 
ties the army, with which when raised, the Administra- 
tion may be tempted to carry on the war by forced loans 
and conscriptions. The Constitution will present no 
obstacle to an Administration which has already violated 
it in so many instances. Will a sense of honor, and the 
sanctity of oaths restrain men from such a wicked 

The Federal Capital Burned. 303 

attempt, who have long sacrificed every honest principle 
to the love of power ? 

Our friend Oliver confidently expects peace between 
this country and England. I am not so confident ; in- 
deed I am inclined to believe the war will be continued, 
if continued between the Allies and Bonaparte. The 
haughty spirit of that man, I suspect, is not yet suffi- 
ciently humbled to submit to a peace dictated by his 
enemies, even though that peace should leave to France 
a large accession of territory and restore to him his sail- 
ors and 300,000 veteran troops. If the offer of peace 
and its terms should be rejected by Bonaparte, he must 
act on the defensive, and endeavour to tire out the 
Allies, gain time, generally favorable to the party acting 
on the defensive, and wait for events, which may dis- 
unite his enemies. Is the genius of Bonaparte and the 
French nation suited to a defensive war? If the war 
goes on, the Allies will probably limit their operations to 
expelling the French from all their remaining conquests 
and confining them to the limits of the monarchy as held 
by the last of the Bourbons. A little time will confirm 
the truth of these speculations, or expose their emptiness. 
I have hazarded them as the only topic I have to write 
about, and rather than not to write at all, I have, perhaps, 
exposed myself to the imputation of being a short-sighted 
politician." * 

In the spring of 1814, preparations were made by 
the British fleet under Admiral Cockburn, for the 
attack on Washington and Baltimore. The British 
land forces under General Ross routed the Ameri- 
cans at Bladensburg, August 24th, and occupied the 
Federal City, which was then but a very small town. 
Its public buildings were burned by the ruthless 
' Family papers, Mrs. William C. Pennington. 

304 CkarUs Carroll of Carrottton. 

enemy, though its archives had been removed to a 
place of safety, and a number of private houses were 
also destroyed. The brilliant defense of Baltimore 
followed in September, Ross being killed at the bat- 
tle of North Point on the 12th, and the British fleet 
forced to turn back. Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
wrote to Mr. Harper, who was then in Baltimore, 
from " Doughoregan," August 25th : 

" No doubt you have seen Mr. Smith, but I much 
question whether in the present critical situation of this 
State he has been able to dispose of my bank shares. I 
have heard nothing more of the enemy since your letter 
to Kitty. Drummond, I conjecture, attacked our army 
in Fort Erie with the expectation in case of success, of 
getting possession of our magazines at Buffalo, for while 
we have the command of Lake Ontario the English army 
beseiging Erie must be in want of provisions, and this 
want I imagine forced Drummond to hazard the storm- 
ing the position of Gaines' army." 

To his son, Charles Carroll wrote the same day: 
" The enemy are in possession of Washington ; it is 
reported they have destroyed the public buildings 
and Navy Yard, I hope the latter only. It is thought 
they will next attack Baltimore. The fire at Wash- 
ington was plainly seen by several of my people 
about ten o'clock last night." And he writes also 
on the 26th: 

" It is said the enemy are on their march from Wash- 
ington to Baltimore, through the country, which they 
will probably reach in a day or two. It is probable that 
a deputation from the city wilt meet them before they 
enter the town, and capitulate on the best terms they 

Conquest of Canada Hopeless. 305 

can ; resistance will be fruitless, and if made, will only 
cost the lives of some valuable citizens. It is probable 
the shipping will be destroyed — time, perhaps a few days, 
will discover the ulterior operations of Lord Hill. Un- 
less arrested by peace, he may march to Philadelphia ; 
no effectual force will assemble in time to oppose his 
march. It is said Lord Hill's army observes the strictest 

Charles Carroll had come to the conclusion a few 
days later that Baltimore would not " capitulate " so 
promptly. And he writes to Robert Goodloe Har- 
per, August 30th : 

" Mr. Gallager is much in want of Dr. Wharton's an- 
swer to the Catholic question. He is, I believe, writing 
some strictures on Wharton's performance, and has 
written to the bookseller for it. I send my servant to 
bring the pamphlet to Mr. Gallager, and partly to know 
what is doing in Baltimore, and if a defense is beginning 
to be organized, such as may, when completed, oppose a 
successful resistance to the expected attack. Have you 
any tidings of Lord Hill, or any estimate to be relied on 
of the forces come, or coming with him ? Is young Mr. 
William Cooke in town ? How is Mr. Pinkney and Mr. 
Sterrett ? I hope they all will soon recover from their 
wounds. Mr. Gallager tells me a large force is now in 
Baltimore, and daily increasing. He met great numbers 
on the road going there. If Mr. William Cooke, Sr., is 
still at the Widow Sterrett's I will call and see him. 

As the conquest of Canada is now become hopeless, 
will not Madison recall our regulars from the frontiers of 
that province, at least the greater part of them ? When 
the British get the command of Lake Ontario, Sacket's 
Harbour with our Aeet must fall into theit hands, and the 

306 diaries Carroll of Carrollton. 

garrison also, left to defend it. Is it not time to hear 
something from Ghent ? The British Cabinet, I fear, is 
playing on Madison his own game, and not very solicit- 
ous about peace with this country. That cabinet, how- 
ever, will be taught by the event, if the war continues, 
as Madison has experienced to his cost, at least of this 
country, that honesty is the best policy, and reconcilia- 
tion better." ' 

The crisis was over in Maryland, and Baltimore 
was saved from the fate of Washington, when the 
next letters that arc preserved in this series were 
written, October 29th, and December 4th; too late 
to contain any mention of the stirring episode that 
has made of September 12th a State holiday. In 
the letter to Robert Goodloc Harper of the 4th of 
December, Charles Carroll of Carrollton contemplates 
with equanimity, in the event of British success at 
New Orleans, the secession of the " Western States," 
meaning, doubtless, the states bordering on the Mis- 
sissippi, and the formation of "a separate Confed- 
eracy," and thinks it will be to the advantage of 
the " Union " that remains. 

" Dougkoregan, 4th December, 1814 : I am of your 
opinion that the British government is disposed to make 
peace on terms which our Administration ought to ac- 
cept ; but our rulers and the heads of their faction do 
not want peace. They look to a large standing army to 
continue themselves and party in power, and to enforce 
the collection of taxes by military coercion, and without 
which they will not or cannot be paid. What event 

1 Family papers, Hon. John Lee Carroll and Mrs. Wi, C. 

The Battle of Nov Orleans. 307 

could be more calamitous to this country ? This baneful 
faction aims at a military despotism ; with no other view 
has it acted all along in perfect concert with Bonaparte. 
Our commissioners comprehend perfectly the designs of 
the Executive, and act in conformity to secret instruc- 
tions given to such of them as are most in the confidence 
of the President. I have no doubt the Congress at Vi- 
enna has by its measures consolidated the pacification of 
Europe, and that a long peace in that part of the world 
will be the result. About the 12th or 13th instant I ex- 
pect to take up my winter quarters at Mr. Caton's in 
Baltimore ; no danger, 1 think, of an attack on Baltimore 
this winter, or before the end of March. I suspect the 
expedition which sailed from Plymouth the t8th Septem- 
ber, must be gone against New Orleans. Should the 
enemy succeed, perhaps the Western States, partly by 
force and partly by advantages which the British may 
hold out to them, may be induced to form a separate 
Confederacy. Their separation will secure the union 
of the Atlantic States, and form the best security for 

Harper had been commissioned a brigadier-gen- 
eral of Maryland militia, and his father-in-law wrote 
to him from Baltimore, December 17th: "I hope 
the Council will speedily appoint a Brigadier General 
resident in this city that you may not be summoned 
here on every groundless alarm." He adds : " It is 
much to be desired to have a body of regular troops 
raised by the State for its defence, but I fear the 
means will be wanting to raise and pay a complete 

The war closed nominally by the treaty of Ghent, 
signed two weeks before the actual conclusion of 

308 Charles Carrott of CarroUttm. 

hostilities in General Jackson's victory at New Or- 
leans, January 8, 1815. There was great rejoicing 
doubtless among both Democrats and Federalists, 
at the return of peace. The latter party in Mary- 
land included such prominent names as the Gilmors, 
Howards, Olivers, Sterretts, Smiths, Bryces, Grahams, 
and Cookes, ' most of them Charles Carroll's intimate 
friends or connections, as will be seen. In Decem- 
ber of this year, Charles Carroll writes to Robert 
Goodloe Harper, from Mr. Caton's in Baltimore, 
giving a pleasant account of the social festivities 
attendant upon the visit to that city of one of the 
heroes of the war, Carroll's old friend " Capt. Deca- 
tur," now risen to a high rank : 

" Commodore Decatur and Mrs. Decatur dined with 
us yesterday. We had a pretty large party, Genl. Rob- 
ert Smith, Mr. Cobb, Captain Spence, Col. Mercer, John 
Howard and several others. Mrs. Decatur dines with 
us to-day [December 19th.] Your letter was read to 
her. The Commodore is in good health and spirits. He 
dines with a large party to-morrow at Mrs. Robert Smith's. 
The Governor did intend to go to Annapolis on Monday, 
but has been much indisposed. I understand he is now 
much better." 

In a letter of a little later date, Charles Carroll 
says : Commodore Decatur and Mrs. Decatur will 
leave Baltimore for Washington on Thursday ; every 
attention has been paid to them during their stay."* 
The following letters were written by Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton to General Harper while the latter was 
attending Congress, in 1816: 

1 Carey's " Olive Branch," Preface to First Edition. 

* Family papers, Mrs. William C. Pennington. 

Is Opposed to State Banks. 309 

" Baltimore, 2jrd February 1816 : Should the bill 
limiting the direct tax to one year pass the Senate, it is 
to be apprehended that the House of Representatives 
will refuse at the next session to originate another bill 
for laying that tax. What then will become of public 
credit if permanent taxes equally productive cannot or 
will not be substituted? If such could be imposed, 
operating equally, as far as is practicable, they would, 
perhaps, be preferable to the land tax, the collection of 
which will be expensive and difficult. If I am correctly 
informed a considerable proportion of the direct tax 
laid in Adams' Administration remains unpaid in several 
of the Southern States. If a national bank on some 
sound principles should not pass, how is the present 
confusion in our monied concerns to be remedied, and 
the taxes collected ? The States will go on incorporating 
banks, and this country will be deluged with a paper 
medium of no more value than the old Continental cur- 
rency in ils lowest stage of depreciation. Strange and 
most fraudulent expenditures of the revenue, it is re- 
ported have taken place in some of the public departments. 
If this report be true, will not an investigation of these 
abuses be set on foot by Congress ? Has Mr. Gallatin 
declined his mission to France?" 

" April 17th ; I have read with pleasure your speech 
on the late resolutions moved by you in the Senate. It 
seems Mr, King spoke with asperity against the practice 
of impressing American seamen ; no doubt it was and 
ever will be abused, but how can it be prevented but by 
a law excluding foreign seamen from our public and pri- 
vate vessels ? Even a law will not be effectual without 
proper provisions to be executed under the inspection of 
consuls of foreign powers in our principal seaports. Un- 
less a prohibition sanctioned by an act of Parliament and 
of Congress, perfectly reciprocal takes place, and is exe- 

310 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

cutcd on both sides with good faith, to exclude from 
British vessels of war and merchantmen American sea- 
men, and vice versa British seamen from our vessels, 
public and private, the practice of impressment so injuri- 
ous and justly complained of, will most certainly lead to 
war in the course of years, between the two countries. 
War I consider as a great calamity, and having a stronger 
influence in corrupting the morals of a nation even than 
a long peace, and therefore most weighty and just should 
be the cause to justify engaging in it ; I think with Cicero, 
nullum bcllum Juslum, nisi necessartum. . . . Again, afew 
thoughts on war and its causes ; they are frequently con- 
cealed from the public, springing more from low in- 
trigues, antipathies, ambition of individuals, and plausible 
pretences of violated national honor, than from the os- 
tensible and alleged reasons and topics set forth in 
declarations. Collisions of interest and real grounds of 
quarrel, will, no doubt, sometimes arise, especially be- 
tween maritime and commercial nations envious and 
jealous of each other. But if rulers were wise they 
would, at least ought, to resort before the sword is drawn, 
to pacific negotiations, carried on with good faith, free 
from irritation and in the spirit of peace, avoiding hatred 
and mutual reproaches. Such are my sentiments : si quid 
novislri recthis is/is Candidas impesti, si tion, Ms ulere me- 
tune." ' 

In July, General and Mrs. Harper were at the Ball- 
ston Springs in New York, and in writing to the 
former Charles Carroll sends messages to his friends 
in that State. He is " glad to hear that Mrs. Morris 
is well and happy " and wishes to be remembered 
to Mr. Morris, Mr. Gracie and Mr. King; "for all 

1 Ibid. 

Portrait Painted by King. 311 

those gentlemen I feel a very sincere regard," he 
adds. Charles Carroll alludes to the recent death of 
Gouverneur Morris in a letter of November 21st: 
" Is it known what disorder carried off Mr. Gouver- 
neur Morris? His death is a public loss; in htm 
the United States have lost a citizen of great abili- 
ties. Being an old acquaintance which commenced 
in difficult times, I regret sincerely his death." 
Though the war was over the Federalist statesman 
still had causes of complaint against the Democratic 
Administration, and he writes in the fall of 1816: 
" I say nothing of politics, indeed I hate to think of 
them, for in viewing the general complexion and 
temper of these United States, I see nothing to con- 
sole but much to alarm me for the present and future 
welfare of my country; this despondency is not the 
effect of this gloomy weather but of serious reflec- 
tion." ' 

Charles Carroll of Carroll ton had written to 
King the artist in August ; telling him that he 
would be in Baltimore about the 20th of December, 
to remain there during the winter, and would sit for 
his picture, which had been requested by Joseph 
Delaplaine for "The Repository" a collection of 
biographical sketches Delaplaine was editing. This 
gentleman had asked Charles Carroll for some facts 
of his life, and the latter responded in an interesting 
letter, giving briefly an account of his education 
abroad, and his public services in America, He 
states : 

" On the breaking out of our Revolution I took a de- 
1 Ibid, 

312 Charles Carroll of CarrolUon. 

cided part in support of the rights of this country ; was 
elected a member of the Committee of Safety established 
by the Legislature, was a member of the Convention 
which formed the Constitution of this State. The jour- 
nals of Congress will show how long I was a member of 
that body during the Revolution. With Dr. Franklin 
and Mr. Samuel Chase, I was appointed a commissioner 
to Canada. I was elected a member of the Senate at the 
first session of Congress under the present Confederation : 
though well acquainted with General Washington, and I 
flatter myself in his confidence, — few letters passed be- 
tween us ; one, having reference to the opposition made 
to the treaty concluded by Mr. Jay, has been repeatedly 
published in the newspapers, and perhaps you may have 
seen it ; that letter is no longer in my possession." ' 

Mr. Delaplaine had asked Charles Carroll about 
his correspondence with General Washington, " The 
Repository, Lives and Portraits of Distinguished 
Americans," published in Philadelphia in 1816 and 
1818, was never completed as originally designed, 
and the Carroll sketch never saw the light. 

Inquiries were also made of Charles Carroll, in 
1817, as to his part in "the Convention which 
formed the Constitution " of Maryland and his 
reply is as follows : 

Baltimore, 29th December, 1S17. 

Dear Sir : I was one of the committee that framed 
the constitution of this, State and the mode of chusing 
the Senate was suggested by me ; no objection was made 
to it in the committee, as I remember, except by Mr. 
Johnson, who disliked the Senate's filling up the vacan- 

1 Maryland Historical Society's " Centennial Memorial," 1876, p. 

Letter to Virgil Maxcy. 313 

cies in their own body. I replied that if the mode of 
ch u sing Senators by Electors were deemed eligible the 
filling up vacancies in that body was inevitable as the 
electors could not be convened to make choice of a 
Senator on every vacancy and that the Senate acting 
under the sanction of an oath, and L' esprit du corps, 
would insure the election of the fittest men for that sta- 
tion, nor do I recollect while I was in the Senate, that the 
power intrusted to it in this instance was ever abused or 
perverted to party views. 

I do not remember at this distance of time whether 
this part of the committee's report was objected to in the 
convention, nor any report of its debates and proceed- 
ings other than what is to he found in Hanson's edition 
of the laws, nor what was the understanding of that body 
respecting the right of the Governor of nomination to 
the council. I have answered your several questions to 
the best of my recollection, my answers I fear will throw 
no new light on the subject ; that the manner of electing 
Senators was approved by the experience of many years 
and that no inconvenience resulted from the Senate's 
filling up vacancies cannot I think be denied. When 
parties run high the best institutions afford but a feeble 
defence against the passions of interested or deluded 
men, party spirit seems to be abated, and to have lost 
much of its virulence, whether it will be prudent in this 
state of things to alter the mode of electing the Senate 
I leave to your better Judgment. I am, with sincere 
regard, Dear Sir, 

Yr. most hum. Servt. 
Ch. Carroll of Carrolltok. 

To Virgil Maxcy. [West River, Md.] ' 

' MS : Letter, Mr. Worthington C. Ford. 

3 1 4 Charles Carroll of Carroltion. 

The Caton sisters, Mary, Mrs. Robert Patterson, 
whose husband was a brother of Madame Jerome 
Bonaparte, Elizabeth and Louisa Caton were in 
Europe at this time. And on March ist, 1817, 
Louisa was married to Col. Sir Felton Bathurst 
Hervey, who had fought under Wellington in Spain, 
and was his aide-de-camp at Waterloo. And an 
interesting letter has been published within recent 
years, written to Charles Carroll of Carrollton by 
Col. Hervey, at the request of his wife's grand- 
father, describing the battle of Waterloo. 1 Allu- 
sion is made to this letter in the correspondence 
with General Harper. Charles Carroll was sending 
his grandsons abroad in these years, to be educated. 
And he makes careful inquiries in advance. Mary 
Harper was sent over to France, under the care 
of Mr. Gallatin, in 1816, to a school in Poitiers, 
where she will be "more piously educated than in 
the very best boarding-school in Philadelphia." 
And the affectionate grandfather writes tenderly: 
" A kind Providence, I hope, will guard my dear 
granddaughter and restore her to you both in good 
health, pious and improved in all those qualities 
which render women amiable and estimable. It is 
probable I shall not see the dear girl before her 
departure, and may not live to see her return. Kiss 
her for me. I send her my love and blessing." This 
young girl, it appears, died while abroad. 

Charles Carroll wanted the two boys, young 
Carroll and young Harper to be educated together, 
1 Litlelts Living Age, April aoth, 1893, from The Nineteenth 
Century ; MS : at Hornby Castle, England. 

The Harpers in Europe. 3 1 5 

and he thought first of Cambridge, but there were 
objections to the English University, " too many 
and too long vacations." On the 2lst of February, 
1817, he wrote from Annapolis to General Harper 
who was then in Washington : 

" The enclosed letter I beg you to deliver to the 
French minister with my respects, and request to him 
to forward it to Paris by the first opportunity. The 
purport of the letter is to request Mr. Periguy to give 
me his opinion as to the education of youth in France, 
and where morals are most attended to, and the best 
education can be obtained, in Paris or in the provinces, 
and in which of them. Should he prefer a Parisian 
education would he advise me to fix my grandson Charles 
Carroll, the expenses of board and tuition, and of being 
taught dancing, fencing, music and drawing. Uncertain 
of Mr. Perigny's residence, I have addressed the letter 
to Julius de Menon." 

Mrs. Harper's health failing in 1818, she sailed 
with her husband to England, for the benefit of 
the sea voyage and a change of climate ; and the 
following letters from Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 
to his son-in-law, tell something about himself, as 
well as about the travellers across the sea. 

" Doughoregan, 26th July, 1818 : I received yester- 
day your letter of the 10th of June from Liverpool. I 
hope you will find Mrs. Hervey and Betsy and the boys 
at Paris in good health, and the latter much improved. 
I send them my love and blessing. Betsy undoubtedly 
will not miss so good an opportunity of returning home 
with you and her aunt. Mr. and Mrs. Bagot favored me 
with a short visit. We have had some excessive hot days 

3 1 6 Ckarles Carroll of CarroUton. 

unfortunately while my amiable and distinguished visit- 
ors were here. The more I see of them the more I like 
them ; they grow upon acquaintance. 

" When you see Julius assure him I have a sincere re- 
gard for him. Remember me also to his mother and her 
sister Madame Le Peltier. You will certainly take Cam- 
bray in your way. The boys are to spend their vacation 
with Mrs. Hervey. No doubt you will see the Duke of 
Wellington and Col. Hervey. From Mrs. Patterson's 
account of the Duke there cannot be a more friendly and 
amiable man ; and all who know Hervey love him. I 
suppose you will pay Mr. Cooke a visit. His character 
and great tenderness to Mrs. Harper's nieces entitle him 
to every attention from every part of our family." 

"August 28th: [Thanks him for the letter of 21st of 
June.] . . . very interesting and satisfactory from the 
description of the country and gentlemen's seats which 
you visited. Lord Grovenor must have a revenue ex- 
ceeding ,£55,000 sterling, or must have incurred a con- 
siderable debt by expending £400,000 in building at the 
rate of £40,000 a year in ten years. I should suppose 
his style of living could not fall short of £15,000 pr. 
year. Betsy, I confidently hope, will return home with 
you. Present my kind respects to Col. Hervey. I have 
answered his obliging letter giving an account of the 
battle of Waterloo." 

"November 3rd : Kind respects to Count de Menon 
and Mr. and Mrs. Dunlevy. Assure [Kitty] of my ten- 
derest affection and ardent desire for her return. Your 
dear little Robert enjoys excellent health and an abun- 
dant flow of spirits. He really is a charming child and 
most endearing. The dislinguished reception you have 
received from the Duke of Wellington and Woronsoff 
could not fail of giving you much pleasure. The re- 

Story of the Morancy Brothers. 3 1 7 

views of troops must have been most amusing, and trav- 
elling must have contributed to your health. That you 
may long enjoy it is the sincere wish," etc' 

The French friends mentioned by Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton in these letters had probably all been 
among the refugees who had come to the United 
States during the Reign of Terror in France ; such 
at least was the case with Madame Le Peltier, whose 
maiden name was Perigny and who was doubtless a 
sister of the Rev. Mr. Perigny, then living in Paris, 
the former chaplain at the Manor, and she was asso- 
ciated with Charles Carroll in an act of benevolence 
in connection with some of the St. Domingo exiles 
which may here be related. 

Among the French families of means and social 
position living on that island at the time of the 
Revolution in St. Domingo was that of Jean Fran- 
cois Morancy, consisting of himself, his wife, and 
three children. They lived near the town of Aux 
Cayes, to which place they fled from their planta* 
tion home to avoid the insurgent negroes. Here 
Madame Morancy died of yellow fever. Soon after 
came the fearful massacre of the whites by the 
slaves; Mr. Morancy, his brother, and the brother 
of his wife were all among the slain. The three 
helpless children, Victoire, Honore Pierre, and 
Emile, aged thirteen, ten, and five, were saved by 
their nurse, who carried them to the United States, 
where they landed at Charleston, South Carolina. 
Pierre recalled in after years the terror and agony 
of the flight, the hurried drive in a close carriage 

1 Family pipers, Mn. William C. Pennington. 

318 Charles Carroll of Carroltiott. 

through the blood-stained streets to the ship which 
took them away, three lonely, destitute orphans. 
There were others escaping at the same time who 
knew this family, and acquainted the French consul 
in Baltimore with their situation. 

Victoire and the little Emile were adopted by 
Madame Le Peltier, who was then supporting her- 
self by teaching, but the young girl finally went 
to live with relatives in the West Indies. Honore 
Pierre and Emile remained in America, and the edu- 
cation of Emile was provided for on the return of 
his benefactress to France, by Charles Carroll of Car- 
rollton. In gratitude to Madame Le Peltier, Hon- 
ore Pierre's name was changed to Honore Perigny. 
He became a teacher of languages, after his educa- 
tion was finished, until his marriage in 1818, to a 
lady of some fortune in Louisiana. Pierre lived 
with Mrs. Harper for some time, and was intimate 
with Charles Carroll's grandsons, corresponding with 
them while they were at school in Parts, and at col- 
lege on their return to America. He became a phy- 
sician, living also in Louisiana, and his son and 
grandson bore the name of Charles Carroll Morancy, 
in grateful remembrance of the benefactor of the 
family, Charles Carroll of Carrollton. Many letters 
from Charles Carroll to the Morancy brothers were 
among their cherished possessions and descended 
to their children, but were lost in the havoc of the 
war between the States. 1 

1 Data furnished by a descendant of Pierre Morancy. 



THE year 1820 is memorable as the year when 
Missouri was admitted into the Union, when 
"the South reluctantly submitted to the so-called 
' compromise ' proposed by Henry Clay ; the first of 
a long series of compromises in all of which the 
South purchased over again what was already hers, 
while all in the North took credit for generosity or 
complained of wrong, because she, [the North], 
yielded to her partner some small fraction of equal 
privilege and common property, arrogating the rest 
to herself." ' The " compromises" came to an end 
in 1861, and descendants of Charles Carroll of Car- 
rollton, among other gallant Marylanders, took up 
arms for the rights of the South in the war that en- 
sued, for the principles expounded in the immortal 
Declaration of Independence which their ancestor 
had signed. Charles Carroll, however, saw not the 
signs of the times, it would appear, from his political 
1 " History of the United States," by Percy Greg, American Edi- 
tion, vol. i., p. 314. 

320 Charles Carroll of CarroUion. 

allusions in the letters to Robert Goodloe Harper 
written at this period : 

" Annapolis, ifth February zSso ; Mr. Bullet who 
heard Mr. King's speech Friday last was disappointed. He 
thought it defective in argument, declamatory and in- 
flammatory. Economy is said to be the order of the day 
at Washington ; such a waste of time on the Missouri 
question is certainly incompatible with that order. The 
ardor and perseverance with which the debate is pursued 
give room to suspect that something else than the exclu- 
sion of slaves from the Missouri State is at the bottom. 
Will a bankrupt law be passed this session ? Is there 
any chance of getting an act to compel the purchasers of 
lands in the western country to pay ready money for 
them ? Will any measures be adopted by Congress to 
prevent abuses, such as have been committed by the 
president, cashier, and other officers in the office of Dis- 
count and Deposit in Baltimore ? These matters are 
certainly of more importance to the Union than the 
Missouri question. The opinion of all acquainted with 
banking is that a good direction cannot be insured with- 
out giving every share a vote. I hope Mrs. Decatur's 
party was fully attended, and I doubt not great elegance 
and taste were displayed by the mistress of the mansion, 
to whom and to the Commodore I desire to be kindly 
remembered. Mr. and Mrs. McTavish intend to pay 
them a visit as soon as the road gets settled." 

"April iglh : The brig on board of which Mr. and 
Mrs. Patterson have taken their passage has passed 
Annapolis and is nearly out of sight. I write this half 
hour past four o'clock. 

" April 2jrd: Mr. Walsh has sent me four of the Na- 
tional Gazettes, no doubt with the expectation that I 

The Missouri Compromise. 321 

should become a subscriber. That the Gazette will be 
ably conducted, and contain many interesting disserta- 
tions and essays, the talents of Mr. Walsh are a sufficient 
guarantee ; but why keep alive the question of slavery ? 
It is admitted by all to be a great evil ; let an effectual 
mode of getting rid of it be pointed out, or let the ques- 
tion sleep forever ; the compromise will prevent the ex- 
tension of slavery beyond 36 degrees north and west of 
the Missouri. It appears from the latest accounts from 
Madrid that Ferdinand has proclaimed his adherence to 
the Constitution made by the Cortes, 1812. Is that the 
last Constitution? If it be many alterations must be 
made to render it durable." ' 

Emily Cat on had married John McTavish a Scotch 
gentleman, who had removed to Canada and was 
sent as consul to the port of Baltimore. After his 
marriage Mr. McTavish made his home in Maryland. 

In one of Charles Carroll's letters written in April, 
1S20, he refers to several tracts of land he owned 
" on Sugar and Pine Creeks in Pennsylvania," which 
he has devised to his two daughters, and the four 
daughters of his son, Charles Carroll, Jr. It seems 
that Charles Carroll of Carrollton owned, " in various 
parts of Pennsylvania, 27,691 acres of land, part of 
which lay in Bradford County."' 

The death of Decatur, in a duel with Commodore 
Barron took place March 22d, 1820, and the grief- 
stricken widow was staying with her friends in 
Annapolis in May. Charles Carroll writes on the 
10th: "Mrs. Decatur continues much in the same 

1 Family papers, Mrs. William C. Pennington. 
'Charles Carroll of Carrollton, p. 15, Rev. Horace E. Hayden. 
See also Appendix, Will of Charles Carroll. 

322 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

state as when you left us. She cannot be prevailed 
on to go out in the carriage, or even to walk in the 
garden ; she eats little and sleeps little." He was at 
" Doughoregan " soon after, where Mrs. Caton and 
Mrs. Decatur join him June 3d ; " the exercise and 
change of air," he says, " has greatly benefited Mrs. 
Decatur, her spirits are more composed, she dines 
with us and converses more." Of his business affairs 
and the stringency of the times, Charles Carroll 
writes, in connection with banks and banking: 

"The Congress has passed an act in relation to the 
banks in the district of Columbia. I am considerably 
interested in the Bank of Columbia, holding 336 shares. 
It is very uncertain whether the Bank of the United 
States will make a dividend next month. I receive no 
money but from bank dividends, and these must be ap- 
plied to the annuities of my children. Upwards of 
$3,000 are due to me in Baltimore for rents which cannot 
be collected, or are not ; large sums are due for interest, 
which the debtors give themselves no concern about." 

The latest foreign news receives attention in a 
letter dated July 25th : 

" I got by the stage this morning Monday's Gazette. I 
find the Queen has arrived in England ; I suspect her 
coming was encouraged by the Opposition to perplex the 
ministry. These men want to be ministers ; a station in 
the present situation of England, in my opinion, no ways 
desirable. Subjects of discomfort enough exist without 
adding to them the embarrassment which the Queen's 
arrival will occasion, and the riots it has already excited, 
and probably will excite still greater." ' 

> Family papers, Mrs. William C. Pennington. 

Mr. Bagol and M. de Neuville. 323 

With his family about him, children and grand- 
children, and interesting company staying in the 
house, the summers at " Doughoregan Manor " in 
these years, were seasons to Charles Carroll of social 
and domestic pleasure, agreeable to contemplate. 
Among his visitors, in 1818, as we have seen, were 
the British Minister, Mr. Bagot and his wife. The 
former is described at this time as " about 35, tall, 
elegant, and rather graceful in person, countenance 
open and ingenuous, English complexion, and eyes 
mild though dark. He has thrown aside English re- 
serve and hauteur, and attends to all with equal 
courtesy," ' says this writer. 

And Watterston gives a pen-portrait of another 
distinguished foreigner, who had lived many years in 
the United States, having left France to escape Na- 
poleon's tyranny, and who was also a friend of Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton's and a visitor at the Manor. 
This was the French Minister, Mons. Hyde de Neu- 
ville, a " fat, portly gentleman, with a broad chest, big 
head, and short neck. He is full of Bourbon import- 
ance and ^.French vivacity, has petit soupers every 
Saturday evening during the winter, and spends his 
summer at the springs, or his country residence, in 
extolling the virtues of his beloved Louis le desire"." * 
He and his wife Madame de Neuville gave an ele- 
gant entertainment on the birthnight of the Duch- 
esse d' Angou1£me, in December, 1817. 

Adam Hodgson, an Englishman travelling in 

'"Letters from Washington, bj a Foreigner " [George Wattenton, 
Librarian of Congress], 161S. 


324 Charles Carroll 0/ CarroUlon. 

America in 1820, has left on record a detailed ac- 
count of a visit to " Doughoregan Manor" in July 
of this year which brings vividly to view the house- 
hold and its guests, and the genial, courteous host. 
Writing from Baltimore, July 13th, he says : 

" I have lately been paying some very agreeable visits 
at the country-seats of some of my acquaintances in the 
neighborhood. . . . The other morning I set out, at four 
o'clock, with General H [arper ?] on a visit to a most 
agreeable family, who reside on a large Manor, about 
seventeen miles distant. We arrived about seven o'clock 
and the family soon afterwards assembled to breakfast. 
It consisted of several friends from France, Canada, and 
Washington and of the children and grandchildren of my 
host, a venerable patriarch, nearly eighty-five [eighty- 
three] years of age, and one of the four survivors of those 
who signed the Declaration of Independence. The house, 
situated in an extensive manor, is a large, unpretending 
mansion, and the whole domestic economy is substantially 
English. After breakfast Mr. C. retired to his study, and 
General H [arper ?] conducted me to my room, where I 
read the Edinburgh Review till nearly dinner time, the 
weather being too hot for exercise, and each person be- 
ing left to his own pursuits. The family portraits in the 
dining-room, comprised two or three generations, in their 
appropriate costume ; and among others, was one of Mr. 
C. himself, painted, as he told me, by Sir Joshua Reyn- 
olds, more than sixty years since. 

" In the cool of the evening three ponies were brought 
out for the children, who had been anticipating their 
evening ride all day with great glee. As the General 
rode with them, leading the ponies of the little girls with 
long reins, I was reminded with feelings of a melancholy 

Life at "Doughoregan Manor." 325 

pleasure, of ' days that must return no more.' It was a 
beautiful night, and we sat, talking in the porch, till a 
late hour, admiring the brilliant stars. General H's travels 

on the Continent, Mr, *s residence in Canada, the 

Count's budget of news from France, and my Indian tour, 
furnished the subject of conversation. After breakfast 
the following morning, the ladies played for us on the 
harp ; and in the evening, I set out on horseback, to re- 
turn hither, not without a feeling of regret, that I had 
probably taken a final leave of my hospitable friend, who 
although still an expert horseman, seldom goes beyond 
the limits of his manor. I had, however, seen him riding 
in a long procession, through the streets of Baltimore, 
holding in his hand, the Declaration of Independence, 
which he delivered to the orator of the day, at the monu- 
ment of General Washington. Among the distinguished 
personages at his house, I forgot to mention a little lap* 
dog, which Lord Wellington gave to Madame Jerome 
Bonaparte, who, you will recollect, is a very near connec- 
tion of the family," ' 

A New England tourist had passed by " Dougho- 
regan Manor " in the summer of 1819, which he ig- 
norantly calls " Carrollton," but he did not stop to 
pay his respects to the retired statesman living there. 
He notes that there was no town of " Carrollton " 
[sic] only Charles Carroll's plantation, on which there 
were nearly a thousand slaves, and which produced, 
twenty thousand bushels of wheat. " Attached to the 
house," he observes, " was a small Roman Catholic 
chapel." " He is now very old," writes Jared Sparks, 

1 Hodgson'* " Letters from North America," London, 1824. Let- 
ter xx., vol. L, p. 336. 

326 Charles Carroll of CarroUtm. 

" but still active." ' Charles Carroll of Carrollton is 
thus described in a newspaper of this year : 

" Of activity of body, and energy of mind, evidencing 
a constitution preserved by the strictest discipline, which 
promises him long to this country and the community of 
which he has long been considered the most venerable 
and distinguished ornament. His mansion has given 
celebrity to the hospitality of Maryland, by being opened 
to distinguished visitors from every quarter of the Union 
and every civilized country of the globe. The utility of 
his public life is gilded by the peaceful beams of his de- 
clining years. A worthy associate of those men whose 
names are engraven upon a bolder monument than the 
pyramids of Egypt." ' 

A re-survey of " Doughoregan Manor," with the 
additions to the original tract, was made December 
4th, 1820. And as so enlarged it contained 13,361}. 
acres: " Beginning at a stone heretofore planted near 
the east side of the public road leading from Balti- 
more to Rockville in Montgomery County, marked 
with the following inscription, to wit : 
Here Stand the Beginning Trees of Doughoregan, 
Push Pin and 
the Girl's Portion."' 
Charles Carroll was in Annapolis the following 
winter and spring, where children and grandchildren 
were staying with him in April, when he writes to 
Robert Goodloe Harper on the i6th, that "Mr. and 
Mrs. Patterson and my son, and Mr. and Mrs. 
1 Adams's " Ijfe and Writings or Jaied Sparks," vol. i., p. 151, 
' Riley's " History of Annapolis," p. 350. 
1 Land Office, Deeds, Annapolis. 

A Pious Parental Letter. 327 

McTavish intend to visit Mrs. Lloyd. During*heir 
absence Mrs. Caton will accompany me to ' Mel- 
wood ; ' our stay there will not exceed two days. I 
shall return to Annapolis on the 1st or 2nd May. 
Mrs. Caton may possibly pay Mrs. Decatur a visit." 
He returned to Annapolis from " Melwood," May 
1st, stopping on the way to dine with the Ogles at 
" Bel Air," and pay " a flying visit to the priests at 
White Marsh."' The following pious letter was writ- 
ten by Charles Carroll of Carrollton to his son, while 
the latter was at " Doughoregan " attending to his 
father's affairs there. 

April iath, iBar, 

In writing to you I deem it my duty to call your 
attention to the shortness of this life, and the certainty 
of death, and the dreadful judgment we must all un- 
dergo, and on the decision of which a happy or a 
miserable eternity depends. The impious has said in 
his heart, " There is no God." He would willingly 
believe there is no God ; the passions, the corruptions 
of his heart would fain persuade him there is none. The 
stings of conscience betray the emptiness of the delusion ; 
the heavens proclaim the existence of God, and unper- 
verted reason teaches that He must love virtue and hate 
vice, and reward the one and punish the other. 

The wisest and the best of the ancients believed in the 
immortality of the soul, and the Gospel has established 
the great truth of a future state of rewards and punish- 
ments. My desire to induce you to reflect on futurity, 
and by a virtuous life to merit heaven, have suggested 
the above reflections and warnings. The approaching 
festival of Easter, and the merits and mercies of our 

1 Family papers, Hit. William C, Pennington. 

328 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

Redeemer copiosa assudevm redemplio have lead me 
into this chain of meditation and reasoning, and have 
inspired me with the hope of finding mercy before my 
Judge, and of being happy in the life to come, a happi- 
ness I wish you to participate with me by infusing into 
your heart a similar hope. Should this letter produce 
such a change, it will comfort me, and impart to you 
that peace of mind which the world cannot give, and 
which I am sure you have long ceased to enjoy. 

As we shall now probably have pleasant weather, a 
jaunt to CarroUton will be of service to you. Before 
you leave the Manor, desire Mr. Dean to have an eye to 
the gardeners. 

God bless you, from yr. aflE. father 
Ch. Carroll OF Carrollton. 1 

In a letter to his son-in-law, Richard Caton, written 
from the Manor, July 20th, Charles Carroll of Car- 
rollton in the midst of business details, inserts a 
paragraph or two which may be quoted : " We have 
had a fine rain this morning, between four and five 
o'clock," says the energetic old gentleman who still 
preserved his habit of early rising, " I hope we shall 
have more; the corn, tobacco, and young clover 
wanted rain, and more than has yet fallen here. 
. . . When will the brick and plaster and scant- 
ling for the Catholic Chapel at Annapolis be for- 
warded to that city ? " * 

This Roman Catholic Chapel, called St. Mary's 
Church, was not completed until about 1830, and 
it was erected chiefly through the liberality of 

1 Family papers, Hon. John Lee Carroll. Published in pari in 
AffUten's Journal, Sept. 19th, 1874. 

1 MS : Letter, Frank D. Andrews, Vinelant), New Jersey. 

Laments ike Loss of Friends. 329 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton. It stood on the Duke 
of Gloucester Street, and was in good condition 
when Ridgely described it in 1839.' It was torn 
down only a few years ago, on account of its unsafe 

William Pinkney died in 1822, and in this same 
year John Eager Howard lost his wife. Both events 
are alluded to in letters of Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton to Robert Goodloe Harper : 

" Baltimore, 28th February, 1S22 : I presume the sud- 
denness and violence of poor PinVney's disorder pre- 
vented him from making a will during his illness, and if 
not made previously to it, probably he has made none. 
His death is a heavy loss to his family. Mr. Oliver told 
me he believed Pinkney had saved and laid up $30,000. 
This sum divided among his children will make but a 
scanty fortune to each." 

" Dougkoregan, 21st J^une ; We are all well; nothing 
further from Mr. de Neuville. I am concerned to hear 
that Judge Chase is so declining ; to him, to his family, 
and to the family with which you now reside, I desire to 
be kindly remembered." 

" October 22nd .- How is Col. Howard ? This last 
blow notwithstanding the firmness of his character, has 
made a deep impression on his mind and heart ; though 
averse he may be from seeing company, yet the visit of a 
friend might console him, at least discover that you feel 
for him. I suggest the propriety of calling on him. 
Should he decline your visit, you may learn from his son 
Ben how he bears his loss."' 

1 Ridgdy's " Annals of Annapolis," p. 34s. 

1 Riley's "History of Annapolis," p. 304. 

' Family pipers, Mrs. William C. Pennington. 

330 Charlts Carroll of Carroll/on. 

The Potomac Company of which Charles Carroll 
had so long been a member was merged in 1 823 into 
the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company. Vir- 
ginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and the District of 
Columbia, sent delegates to a convention to meet 
in Washington to organize the Company, which had 
for its object the construction of a canal along the 
Potomac River to its head, and from that point to 
the waters of the Ohio. They met on the 6th of 
November, and the new company was incorporated, 
January 27, 1824. 

The Alum Works Company was another enter- 
prise in which Charles Carroll was interested at this 
time. He wrote on the 12th of May 1823, about 
the alum which was to be reserved for his use, suf- 
ficient to pay his last note of $1000 given to Mr. 
Mitchell, agent of the Alum Works Company. This 
corporation failed and judgments were rendered 
against the Alum Works in November of this year. 
Among the visitors at " Doughoregan Manor " in 
the fall of 1823, was the Count de Menon, eitherthe 
nephew or brother-in-law of Madame le Peltier, and 
this was very probably the same French Count who 
is mentioned as at" Doughoregan " in 1820. The last 
letterof importance in the correspondence of Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton with his son-in-law Robert 
Goodloe Harper, was written from " Doughoregan," 
I2th of August, 1824. General Harper, who was 
then in failing health, was, with his family, visiting 
his brother-in-law, Dr. Joseph Speed, in Tompkins 
County, New York. After some details about the 
crops in Maryland, Charles Carroll adds : 

Visit of Lafayette to Baltimore. 331 

" I dwell on these matters as I have nothing more in- 
teresting. No doubt the newspapers have informed you 
of the sudden death of our Chancellor Johnson ; it is 
conjectured Mr. John Buchanan will be his successor. 
We have not received any late letters from England ; by 
the last, early in June, Mrs. Patterson's health was im- 
proving. Mr. and Mrs. Bayard will leave us next Tues- 
day, the 17th inst. The tate proceedings in Albany 
seem to promise Mr. Crawford a better chance of being 
President. I apprehended your accommodations on a 
considerable part of your route would be very indiffer- 
ent, and would lessen the pleasure if not the benefit of 
travelling. I find they have been comfortable all the 
way, and in most instances good. This proves that it is 
wrong to anticipate evils which may never happen ; a 
lesson I would impress on Mrs. Harper, too apt to look 
on the gloomy side of incidents that may occur through 
life. Give my love to her and your children. I suppose 
we may expect you about the 20th of September, when 
I hope we shall have the consolation of beholding you 
greatly benefited by your journey." 1 

General Harper died in Baltimore, January 15, 
1825. Mary Sophia Carroll, the second daughter of 
Charles Carroll of " Homewood " and Harriet Chew, 
born in 1804, had married the Hon. Richard H. Bay- 
ard of Delaware, and was visiting with her husband 
at the Manor in August, 1824, as has been seen. 
The great incident of interest in America marking 
the year 1824, was the visit to its shores of General 
Lafayette. Preparations were early made in Vir- 
ginia, for a celebration at Yorktown, the scene of the 

' Family papers, Mn. William C. Pennington. 

332 Charlts Carroll of Carrollton. 

surrender of Cornwall!*, on the 19th of October, the 
anniversary of this event. Madison, Jefferson, and 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton were all invited to be 
present but declined " from age and infirmities." 
Charles Carroll wrote the following letter expressing 
his regret at his inability to be present. 

Baltimore, October 5th, 1814. 
Sir : I received this morning your letter of the 27th 
past. I am Aattered by the volunteer companies of Vir- 
ginia in inviting me to the village of Yorktown 011 the 19th 
instant. My advanced age prevents ray being present at 
the place where the surrender of Lord Cornwallis to the 
united American and French Forces, sealed our indepen- 
dence. The recollection of a scene so long past will be 
highly gratifying to the nation's guest, who by his valor 
and services contributed to that important event. I re- 
main, with great respect, Sir, your most humble servant, 
Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. 
Robert G. Scott, Esq., Richmond, Va.' 

In Maryland, the two most conspicuous survivors 
of the Revolutionary period were Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton and John Eager Howard. And they 
were associated together in a toast proposed, at this 
time, by George Washington Parke Custis of "Ar- 
lington," when he drank to Baltimore, " the city of 
Howard and Carroll." Lafayette came to Baltimore 
from Philadelphia, October 7th, with a party of 
gentlemen among whom was John Quincy Adams, 
who has left in his memoirs an account of the recep- 
tion of " the nation's guest " in the Monumental city. 

' Niles's Register, vol, xivii., p. tao. 

Prefers Jackson for President. 333 

At Fort McHenry, he says, they were met by the 
Governor of Maryland and others. 

" Mr. Charles Carroll of Carrollton, one of the three 
surviving signers of the Declaration of Independence, 
Col. John Eager Howard . . . and several other 
veterans of the same class were there, all deeply affected 
by the scene which was purely pathetic. After partak- 
ing of a collation in the tent (used by General Washing- 
ton during the Revolutionary War and borrowed from 
Mr. Custis of Arlington) the procession for the general's 
entry into the city was formed." ' 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton formed a part of this 
pageant, which is fully described also in the news 
papers of the day. Lafayette was entertained at 
" Belvedere " by Col. Howard. And on the night of 
the 9th of October a grand ball was given to La- 
fayette, at which Charles Carroll of Carrollton was 
present for part of the evening. 

We learn from the memoirs of John Quincy 
Adams, something further as to Charles Carroll's 
political sentiments at this time. In the winter of 
1824-1825, there were four Presidential candidates 
in the field, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, 
William H. Crawford and Andrew Jackson, all of 
them professing to be " Republicans," or Demo- 
crats, for the party of the Federalists had ceased to 
exist as an organization, though it had its represen- 
tatives in individuals. From Charles Carroll's allu- 
sion to Crawford's chances for the Presidency in his 
letter of August, 1824, tt would seem that he advo- 

' " Memoirs of John Quincy Adams," vol. vi., p, 436. 

334 Charles Carroll of CarrolUon. 

cated the cause of the able Georgian. In February, 
1825, it appears that as between Adams and Jack- 
son, he preferred the latter, believing that he would 
be less inimical to the Federalist remnant. In this 
opinion he was supported by Roger Brooke Taney, 
John Quincy Adams who was then in Washington 
writes : 

" Mr. Warfield came ... He said that he had not 
expressed his determination for whom he should vote 
in the House on Wednesday. His friends, Mr. Charles 
Carrol) of CarrolUon, and Mr. Taney, of Baltimore, had 
urged him to vote for General Jackson, under an impres- 
sion that if I should be elected, the administration would 
be conducted on the principle of proscribing the Federal 
party. I said I regretted much that Mr. Carroll for 
whose character I entertained a profound veneration, and 
Mr. Taney, of whose talents I had heard high encomium, 
should harbor such opinions of me." ' 

The biographer of Judge Taney informs us that 
the latter's conversion to Democracy, in which change 
of faith he was joined by many other Maryland 
Federalists, was caused by the publication in 1824, 
of the correspondence of Monroe and Jackson, 1816- 
1817, on the subject of the New England Federalists 
and their attitude in the war of 1812, the proceed- 
ings of the Hartford Convention having been kept 
secret by those engaged in it. 

Charles Carroll of " Homewood " died on the 3d 
of April, 1825. He had been the object of his father's 
tender affection and solicitude as the correspondence 
1 Ibid,, vol. vi., p. 4gg. 

Survives Both Son-in-Law and Son. 335 

of Charles Carroll of Carrollton testifies. In one of 
these many letters of shrewd, practical wisdom, and 
pious exhortation, the good man writes to his son : 
"God bless and prepare you for a better world, for 
the present is but a passing meteor compared to 
eternity." Writing to him in the summer of 1809, 
when his health was not good, the father says: 
"This cool weather will contribute to remove your 
indisposition, but you must lend your assistance by 
keeping your mind employed, by due exercise of 
body and mind, and by a light regimen and absti- 
nence from wine and heating liquors, by going to bed 
at nine o'clock and rising by five o'clock in the morn- 
ing. I believe lounging in bed after waking in the 
morning, to be very injurious to health, particularly 
to persons inclined to a corpulent habit. I pre- 
scribe nothing for you but what I practice myself." 
In one of his letter of 1815, Charles Carroll says: 
" While Mr, Hurley remains with you I hope you 
will profit by his good advice. At the hour of your 
death, ah ! my son, you will feel the emptiness of all 
sublunary things; and that hour may be much 
nearer than you expect. Think well on it, I mean 
your eternal welfare." 

Charles Carroll, Jr., was handsome in feature, and 
of winning, agreeable manners, characteristics cal- 
culated to render him socially popular. He left, 
with other children, a son, of whom mention has 
been made, the fifth of the name and line, known later 
as Col. Charles Carroll to whom his grandfather de- 
vised "Doughoregan Manor." Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton had now survived both his favorite son- 

336 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

in-law and his only son. He was eighty-nine years 
old, and the following deeply impressive letter was 
written by him in September, 1825, apparently in 
response to one from a friend, perhaps the editor of 
the National Journal. 

" On the 30th of this month I entered into my eighty- 
ninth year. This, in any country, would be deemed 2 
long life, jet as you observe, if it has not been directed 
to the only end for which man was created, it is a mere 
nothing, an empty phantom, an indivisible point, com- 
pared with eternity. Too much of my time and attention 
have been misapplied on matters to which an impartial 
judge, penetrating the secrets of hearts, before whom I 
shall soon appear, will ascribe [no ?] merit deserving 
recompense. On the mercy of my Redeemer I rely for 
salvation, and on His merits ; not on the works I have 
done in obedience to His precepts, for even these, I fear, 
a mixture of alloy will render unavailing and cause to be 
rejected." ' 

Though he had reached such an advanced age, 
Charles Carroll's mind was still vigorous, and his 
interest in public affairs unabated. The publication 
of the debates in the Federal Convention, up to this 
time kept secret, drew men's minds to the considera- 
tion of the formation of the existing Federal Govern- 
ment. And Charles Carroll of Carrollton, it seems, 
still cherished his old fears as to the dangers mena- 
cing the central system from the sovereign States 
that had delegated to it some of their powers. 
..p. 374. Tkt Notional Journal, Joly, 

Honored by tke City of New York. 337 

Judge Hanson had lent him the volume which, he 
returned with the following note : 

"Mr. Carroll returns to Judge Hanson the book contain- 
ing the secret debates and proceedings of the Conven- 
tion. Mr. [the name illegible] and others who opposed the 
Confederation were apprehensive that the general govern- 
ment would swallow up the State governments. I wish 
to God the very reverse may not happen. I already 
discover the seeds of such an event ; both must be pre- 
served to insure the continuance of Liberty in the spirit 
of the Constitutions of both. 

26th February, 1826. 
[Endorsed] The Honorable Judge Hanson." ' 
The year 1826 had brought round the fiftieth an- 
niversary of the signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, the semi-centennial of the birth of the 
States forming the "Confederation" of 1789, as 
Charles Carroll styled the existing Union, and all eyes 
were turned upon the three men still living who had 
signed the immortal charter of '76, one of them, in- 
deed, being the illustrious Virginian who had penned 
it. The Erie Canal had just been completed, uniting 
the Northern Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean, and the 
city of New York, in striking medals to commemor- 
ate this important event, ordered that the three 
highest, made of gold, should be presented to the 
three survivors of the signers, Thomas Jefferson, 
John Adams and Charles Carroll of Carrollton. To 
the Committee which presented him with this token 
of reverence and regard, Charles Carroll wrote as 
follows : 

' Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

338 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

Baltimore, May 9th, 1826: Gentlemen, I was this 
day highly gratified by your letter of the 28th past, and 
the delivery of the gold medal, of the highest class, com- 
memorating the completion of the Erie Canal, uniting the 
great western lakes with the Atlantic Ocean, which as a 
committee of the corporation of the city of New York, 
you were instructed to deliver to me, being one of the 
surviving signers of the Declaration of Independence of 
these United States. I am much honored by this testi- 
mony of respect paid to me by the order of the Common 
Council of the city of New York for the part I took in 
signing that important paper. 

The completion of the great work, uniting the western 
lakes with the ocean, does honor to the State of New 
York. May the benefits resulting from the undertaking 
amply reward the wise and patriotic exertions of its citi- 
zens, and perpetuate to the city of New York its growing 

Accept, gentlemen, my thanks for your letter and the 
satisfaction you have expressed in conveying to me this 
testimony of public respect. I remain, with great re- 
spect, gentlemen, your most humble servant, 

Charles Carroll op Carrollton. 

P. S. I have also received the medal, enclosed in a 
box made of the maple from Lake Erie. The memoir of 
the Canal of New York when printed, I request the favor 
of you to forward to me ; it will be a most interesting and 
instructive communication. 1 

The citizens of Washington invited the surviving 

signers of the " Declaration " to the celebration of 

the fiftieth anniversary of American Independence, 

on the 4th of July, 1826, and also the two ex-Prcsi- 

1 Nilei'i Register, vol. xxx., p. 314. 

Death of Adams and Jefferson. 339 

dents, James Madison and James Monroe. All live 
declined the invitation. Charles Carroll, who had 
also been asked to attend the celebration in New 
York and had declined to do so, gave this as a rea- 
son for not going to Washington in his letter from 
"Doughoregan Manor," June 17th, to the chairman 
of the Washington committee.' But no doubt he 
did not feel able to endure the fatigue and excite- 
ment, especially at such a hot season of the year. 
This memorable 4th of July was signalized by the 
dramatic death, almost at the same moment, of 
Jefferson and Adams, leaving Charles Carroll of 
Carroliton the sole survivor of the Signers. He was 
now called upon to unite with his fellow-countrymen 
in paying the last honors to the memory of the two 
departed statesman. A committee of the corpora- 
tion of Baltimore city, accompanied by the Mayor, - 
visited Charles Carroll at " Doughoregan Manor," 
presenting him with a written request to be present 
at the memorial services to take place in Baltimore. 
He replied in a letter addressed to the Mayor : 

Doughoregan Manor, 16 July, i8a6. 
Sir : 

I request you to convey to the municipal authorities 
of the city of Baltimore, and to the committee of arrange- 
ments, my acceptance of their invitation to join in those 
ceremonies with which it is intended to commemorate 
the veneration and respect so justly due to the memories 
of the two departed and illustrious signers of the Decla- 
ration of Independence, who bore so conspicuous a part 
in that great event. The testimonies of respect to be 

1 Ibid,, p. 34a, 

340 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

paid on this solemn occasion to the memories of citizens 
so deserving of public gratitude, will be a strong incen- 
tive to the present and future generations to merit that 
esteem which disinterested patriotism sooner or later 
never fails to command. 

Accept, Sir, individually, my warm thanks for the 
honor you have done me on this occasion, and believe 
me with the greatest respect, Sir, yr. most humble 

Ch. Carroll op Carrollton, 
To the Honorable John Montgomery, Esq., Mayor of 

the city of Baltimore. ' 

Three days later Charles Carroll wrote the follow- 
ing interesting letter to Charles H. Wharton of 
Philadelphia, who was then in Washington: 

1S26, July IQth, Doughoregan. 
Dear Sir : 

I received the 17th, your friendly letter of the 14th 
instant. As I am fast approaching to the last scene, 
which will put an end to all earthly cares and concerns, 
I am looking to that state from which all care, all solici- 
tude and all passions which agitate mankind are ex- 
cluded. Revelation instructs us that eternal happiness 
or eternal misery will be the destiny of man in the life to 
come ; the most pious, the most exemplary have trem- 
bled at the thought of the dreadful alternative. Oh ! 
what will be the fate of those who little think of it, or 
thinking square not their actions accordingly. 

Though I disapproved of Mr. Jefferson's Administra- 
tis : Letter. Mies M. A. Cohen. Baltimore. Published in 
Niles's Register, vol. xxx., p. 375. 

Attends Memorial Services. 341 

tion, and was dissatisfied with a part of Mr. Adams', 
both unquestionably greatly contributed to the Inde- 
pendence of this country ; their services should be re- 
membered, and their errors forgotten and forgiven. 
This evening I am going to Baltimore to attend to- 
morrow the procession and ceremonies to be paid to the 
memories of those praised and dispraised Presidents. 

The Baron de Montreul and his family are now here : 
they are indeed amiable and we are all delighted with 
their manners, ease, affability and cheerfulness. When 
they return to France the society of Washington will 
feel the loss. 

I was not in Congress when the vote of Independence 
was taken. As soon as I took my seat I signed that 
important declaration, which has thus far produced, and 
I hope will perpetuate the happiness of these States. 
You say you should be happy to see rne ; why then do 
you not come to see me. The distance is not great, and 
you are young compared with me. I shall always be 
happy to see you at this my summer and autumnal resi- 
dence. Wishing you health and happiness, I remain, 
Dear Sir, your friend and humble servant, 

Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. 1 

The memorial services in honor of Adams and 
Jefferson took place on the 20th of July. In the 
procession was a Funeral Car with black horses and 
trappings of mourning. This was preceded by the 
clergy, a band of music playing dirges, and a troop 
of horse with standard draped in black and swords 
sheathed. In a barouche following the car were the 

1 MS : Letter, Charles Roberts, Philadelphia. See Brotherhood'* 
Book eftht Signers, for facsimile. 

342 Charles Carroll of Carrolltm. 

distinguished mourners, Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton, the surviving signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, General Samuel Smith, who was to be the 
orator of the day, and Col. John Eager Howard. 
The Governor of Maryland and his staff followed, 
with the Executive Council in carriages, the com- 
mittee of arrangements and the many others who 
made up the imposing cortege. Charles Carroll was 
the chief mourner, says a writer of the day, and four 
generations followed him : " those who fought at 
Bunker Hill and Yorktown, those who fought at 
North Point and New Orleans, those now arrived at 
the point of manhood, and those who clinging to 
their parents or collected under their instructors 
(youths at the schools and juvenile institutions) 
urged the short, rapid steps of infancy to keep pace 
with the proud ranks that marched along." * 

Charles Carroll sat for his bust to Browere, at the 
sculptor's request, in this month, July, 1826, as he 
mentions in a letter to Archibald Robertson, the 
artist. The Browere bust of Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton was exhibited in Baltimore and pro- 
nounced an admirable likeness.* 

DOUGHOREGAN MANOR, July 29, 1 826. 


Mr. Browere has produced and read to me several let- 
ters from sundry most respectable personages ; on their 
recommendation and at his request I sat to him to take 
my bust. He has taken it, and in my opinion and that 
of my family, and of all who have seen it, the resem- 
blance is most striking. The operation from its com- 

1 Niles's Register, vol. xxx., p. 383. * Ibid., p. 411. 

Copies of the Declaration. 343 

mencement to its completion was performed in two hours, 
with very little inconvenience and no pain to myself. 

This bust Mr. Browere contemplates placing, with many 
others, in a national gallery of busts. That bis efforts 
may be crowned with success is my earnest wish. That 
bis talents and genius deserve it I have no hesitation in 

I remain with great respect, Sir, your most bumble 

Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. 

To Archibald Robertson. 1 

A letter of John Quincy Adams, written June 
24th, 1824, on the subject of the circumstances at- 
tending the signing of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, was sent to Charles Carroll of Carrollton at 
" Doughoregan Manor," September 15th, 1826, with 
the facsimile copies of the Declaration to which 
Carroll had appended his signature, August 20th, 
just fifty years from the day he had originally signed 
it. Carroll had signed several of these engrossed 
copies, as the sole survivor of the signers of the orig- 
inal paper. One of the two presented to him in Sep- 
tember, 1 826, he gave to John McTavish, the husband 
of his favorite granddaughter. Another one of these 
copies of the Declaration was " presented to the 
New York City Library, countersigned by President 
John Quincy Adams and several of his cabinet offi- 
cers, and some other public characters, and also en- 
dorsed by Governor De Witt Clinton and others of 
the State of New York. This copy is bound in folia 

' MS : Letter, Gen. C. W. Darling, Oneida Mist. Society. 

344 Charles Carroll of Carrolllan. 

form in vellum, and after having been misplaced for 
many years, has recently been recovered." * 

A poetess next brought a wreath of bay for the 
aged patriot's brow, the nonagenarian who held the 
interesting position of the last of the stalwart band 
of the Signers of '76, who a half-century before had 
risked life and fortune for the republican principle of 
the right of self-government. To Mrs. Sigourney's 
poetical tribute Charles Carroll made response in a 
fine and feeling letter. 


Assyria boasted him who humbled Tyre, 
Her warrior monarch. Greece the clarion swell'd 
For him of Macedon, whose sick 'ning tear 
Flow'd o'er the narrow limits of a world, 
Though in a wine cup's narrower round his soul, 
Dissolving sank. Stern Carthage too was proud 
Of old Hamilcar's son, when from the height 
Of Alpine cliffs, with vengeful eye she scann'd 
Her haughty rival. Rome beset the heavens, 
Even while her veins were bursting, with the shout 
Of " Io Caesar ! " On red Sweden's sky 
A meteor glared, till dire Pultowa quench'd 
The wild-fire flame. France trembled as she took 
Her idol on her shoulders, and compell'd 
Tribute from mightier climes, but the cold blast 
That swept Siberian pines breathed o'er his brow, 
Proving he was but clay. — 

Behold they died ! 

1 •* Autograph Collections of the United States," L)man C. Draj er, 
p. 105. 

Poem by Mrs. Sigourney. 345 

These demigods of earth, — and left their fame 
To ravaged realms, and slaughter'd hecatombs, 
And widow's tears. But in this western world 
Which nature in her bosom long conceal'd, 
As her last, precious gem, a band arose 
Of nobler heroes. They, no conquest sought, 
No throne usurp'd, nor vassal homage claim'd, 
But bade the sceptre, and the crowned head 
Bow to the righteous cause. Time laid his hand 
Upon their silver'd brows, and summon'd all 
Save one, who in the dignity of age 
Linger'd amid the blessings they had wrought, 
Crown'd by a nation's thanks. — 

To honor's tomb 
He saw his brethren gather'd, one by one, 
Yet found tkey might not die. 

Amid the haunts 
Of industry, who o'er his harvest sings, 
Of lettered knowledge, liberty and wealth. 
They move illustrious in the gifts they gave. 
When to the woodman's axe the forest groans 
Brief answer, and the new-born city springs, 
It bears their name. Those mighty streams that roll 
The tide of commerce o'er our cultured vales, 
And ocean's thundering wave which proudly bears 
The star-clad banner on its course sublime, 
Speak forth their praise. 

The husbandman who guides 
His caravan far from his father's fields, 
On toward the setting sun, and boldly rears 
A cell upon the frontiers, makes their deeds 
His text-book nightly to his list'ning sons 
Who throng the winter fire. Their pictured forms 

346 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

Look down from halls of taste and wake the soul 
Of the young student to heroic deeds. 
Babes learn to name them in their murmur'd prayer. 
And as Penates, at each household hearth, 
Where freedom smiles, they dwell. 

Say not 't is death 
When this clay fabric falls, and weary yields 
Each element a part. Is it not life 
To prompt heroic thought, to cheer the toil 
Alike of statesmen and of laboring swain, 
To prop the columns of a nation's strength, 
And soar on gratitude's unresting wing 
Around the earth ? — Such glorious life they live. 1 

Doughoregan, 14th September, 1826 : Madam : I was 
this day honored with your letter of the 5 th instant con- 
taining your beautiful verses on departed and forgotten 
heroes : they have all sunk into the Abyss of oblivion ; 
their fame now exists only in history. 

Who are deserving of immortality ? they who serve 
God in truth, and they who have rendered great, essen- 
tial, and disinterested services and benefits to their 

To be esteemed and loved by a whole people is most 
flattering and acceptable ; especially to those really 
meriting that esteem and love. I am not so vain as 
to consider myself as one of them ; I conscientiously 
voted for the Independence of my country ; its cause 
was righteous, and I lent my feeble aid in its support 
during the struggle. 

Accept, Madam, my thanks for your approbation of 

1 " Poems by the Author of 4 Moral Pieces in Prose and Verse/ " 
Boston, 1827, p. 194. 

Carroll's Letter of Thanks. 


my conduct and wishes for my health and happiness ; 
the same acknowledgement I beg your husband to 

I remain with great respect, Madam, 
Your most obedient humble servant 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 
To Madam L. Sigourncy, Hartford, Connecticut. 1 

A medal was struck by Charles Carroll to com- 
memorate his ninetieth birthday, September 20, 
1826, Three of them were of gold and were given 
to his daughters and eldest grandson. Silver ones 
were given the other grandchildren. On one side 
is the profile bust of Charles Carroll in relief, 
with the legend round the margin : " To Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton." On the other face of the 
medal are the words: "The surviving Signer of 
the Declaration of Independence after the 50th 
Anniversary," surrounded by a laurel wreath en- 
twined with ribbon, a scroll, pen, and olive branch, 
below. And around the margin here is the motto : 
"Upon entering his 90th. year. Sep. XX. MDCCC- 
XXVI." Charles Carroll is described as he appeared 
on hts birthday anniversary, 1826, by a writer in 
the American Farmer, September 22d, who tells of 
the present annually made him on this day by some 
of his neighbors : 

"There are more than 100 deer on the Harewood 

estate, from which the best buck is always selected as 

an annual offering to the venerable Charles Carroll of 

Carrollton on his birthday. The last of these occurred 

> MS : Letter, Chariot j. Hotdly, L.L.D. Hartford, Conn. 

348 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

on Wednesday last, the 20th, when in fine health and 
spirits he received the heart-felt congratulations of 
family and friends, at his manor on Elkridge. . . . 
He plunges into his limestone spring bath every morning 
before sunrise, and still rides on horseback with pleasure 
in good weather. A large portion of the day is devoted 
to reading. He retains his partiality for Latin and 
French literature." ' 

From the letter of Charles Carroll to Robert 
Gilmor of Baltimore, written about this time, a quo- 
tation has been given in a former chapter : 

Manor, 15th Oct., 1826. 
Dear Sir : 

It would give me pleasure to comply with your request 
but it is not in my power. I held no correspondence 
with the members of the Revolutionary Congress, except 
those from Maryland. Many letters passed between 
Messrs. Chase and Paca and myself on the passing events 
of that critical period ; when those events had gone by, 
the matter to which they relate ceasing to be interesting 
to the writers the letters were destroyed, at least those 
that were directed to me. 

I shall be much gratified with the purusal of Doctor 
Franklin's letter to the Lady on the loss of a dear con- 
nection ; every subject handled by that great man bore 
the image of his genius, and none was more suitable to 
it than administering consolation to the person so deeply 

With my respects to Mrs. Gilmor, I remain with esteem, 
Dear Sir, Your most humble servant 

Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. 1 

1 Niles's Register, vol. xxxi., p. 55. 
8 Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

Macready' s Visit to Carroll. 349 

Robert Gilmor, it seems, had written to Charles 
Carroll "requesting his aid in completing a collec- 
tion of autographs of the signers of the Declaration 
of Independence," as he notes on the margin of 
Carroll's letter. 

Two pen-pictures of Charles Carroll of CarroIIton 
have come down to us, describing him, in this his 
ninetieth year ; one by Sullivan, who it would appear 
gives his account at second-hand, and the other, full 
of enthusiastic appreciation, from Macready, the cele- 
brated actor, who, as he relates, visited Charles Carroll 
" on his own particular invitation." Sullivan says : 

" Mr. Charles Carroll was rather a small and thin per- 
son, of very gracious and polished manners. At the age 
of ninety he was stilt upright, and could see and hear as 
welt as men commonly do. He had a smiling expression 
when he spoke, and had none of the reserve which usu- 
ally attends old age. He was said to have preserved his 
vigor, by riding on horseback, and by daily bathing in 
cold water. He was a gentleman of the ' old school ' of 
deportment, which is passing away if not gone." ' 

Charles Carroll was at his winter home, which was 
then in Baltimore, with his daughter Mrs. Caton, 
when visited by Macready the latter part of Novem- 
ber, 1826. Macready writes that he was 

" A man most interesting from his varied and extensive 
acquirements, and especially as being the last surviving 
Signer of the Declaration of Independence. He was a 
rare instance of extreme old age (being then in his nine- 
tieth year) retaining all the vivacity and grace of youth 
1 Sullivan's " Familiar Letters on Public Characters," p. 108, 1833. 

350 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

with the polish of one educated in the school of Chester- 
field. In my life's experience I have never met with a 
more finished gentleman. At his advanced age he kept 
up his acquaintance with the classics. He spoke of Eng- 
land with respect, and of his own country, its institutions, 
its prospects, and its dangers, with perfect freedom, 
anticipating its eventual greatness, if not marred by fac- 
tion and the vice of intemperance in the use of ardent 
spirits, detaining me not unwillingly, more than two 
hours in most attractive conversation. When at last I 
was obliged to take my leave, he rose, and to my entreaty 
that he would not attempt to follow me down stairs, he 
replied in the liveliest manner, * Oh, I shall never see 
you again, and so I will see the last of you.' He shook 
hands with me at the street door, and I bade a reluctant 
adieu to one of the noblest samples of manhood I had 
ever seen, or am ever likely to look upon." * 

The following letter dictated by Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton, relating to his ancestry, was written in 
response to the queries of an Irish gentleman of the 
same name living in Cork. 

Baltimore, 24th February, 1827. 


Mr. Carroll of Carrollton received a letter from you 
dated the first of December last, enquiring of him if he 
could inform you if any, and what relationship there may 
be between you and his family. He desires me to in- 
form you that he has no knowledge of any of the branches 
of his family in Ireland. His grandfather left England 
in the year 1688. His father was sent at an early period 
to France, to receive his education, and was there at the 

1 Macready's "Reminiscences," by Sir Frederick Pollock, Bart., 
London, 1875, vol. i., p. 322. 

The " Carrolllonian " Newspaper. 35 r 

time his father (the grandfather of Mr, Carroll of Carroll- 
ton) died. He had therefore no opportunity of learning 
the particulars relating to his family. The arms of your 
seal are the same he bears. The family [motto] in Ire- 
land previous to his grandfather's coming to America 
was " In Fide el in Bella fortes" The one adopted by 
his grandfather on quitting England is " Ubicumquc, cum 
Libertale" He desires me to assure you that it gives him 
pleasure to hear you are in the enjoyment of ease and in- 
dependence, with a family possessing the gifts of educa- 
tion and an ample provision. 

I am, Sir, your most obedient servant 

George Neil son. 
To Charles Carroll Esq., No. 3 St. Patrick street, Cork, 


To the editor of a newspaper printed in Annap- 
olis, and called in his honor The Carrolllonian, 
Charles Carroll wrote kindly notes of appreciation, 
March 20th, and August 22, 1827, accompanied in 
the first instance by a substantial token of his re- 
gard. " Enclosed you will have my check," he 
writes, "for fifty dollars as an acknowledgment of 
the compliment paid by the title of Carrolllonian 
given to your newspaper, which I hope meets with 
the encouragement it deserves and will be profit- 
able.'" In August, it appears, he had been suffer- 
ing with inflammation of the eyes of which he speaks 
to Mr. McNair as his " late indisposition." " I thank 
you," he adds, " for your friendly sentiments respect- 
ing my health and continuance of it, and am pleased 

352 Charles Carroll of CarroUtan. 

by your forwarding to the Marchioness Wellesley a 
complete file of The Carrolltonian ; she will be 
amused by the perusal of them and will be grati- 
fied by this mark of attention," l 

Charles Carroll's granddaughter, Mrs. Robert 
Patterson had lost her husband in 1822. She, with 
her two sisters, Mrs. Hervey, afterwards Duchess 
of Leeds, and Elizabeth Caton, who became later 
Lady Stafford, were together in England, soon after ; 
and at the country-seat of the Duke of Wellington, 
where they were visiting, the fair widow met the 
Duke's elder brother, the Marquis of Wellesley, a 
widower of sixty-three. He fell in love with the 
beautiful American, and in 1825, he addressed her 
and they were married in Dublin, where the Marquis 
of Wellesley was then living in vice-regal state, as 
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. Here the Marchioness 
of Wellesley presided, with the Marquis, at a grand 
ball given on the nth of May, 1826, seated on a 
throne, under a canopy of scarlet and gold. At a 
banquet in Charleston, South Carolina, the 4th of 
July, 1827, Bishop England, in allusion to these 
dignities and honors, gave the following toast : 
" Charles Carroll of Carrollton ; in the land from 
which his grandfather fled in terror, his granddaugh- 
ter now reigns a queen." 9 

The opinion of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, on 
public matters, was still sought at this time, by his 
friends and admirers, but that he was not disposed 

1 MS : Letter, Charles Roberts, Philadelphia. 
8 ** The American Graces," by Eugene L. Didier, Harper's Maga- 
ninti September, 1880. 

Letter to Richard Peters. 353 

to make public his views on current politics appears 
from the following communication to one of his 
correspondents. Asked to give his preference as to 
the two candidates for the Presidency, his reply was 
cautious and non-committal : 

" 1817, May 35th : I received yesterday your letter of 
the 33d. I take no part in the contest respecting the 
election of the next President ; of course I give no 
opinion which of the candidates should be the choice of 
the people. Anxious for the welfare of the country, my 
only wish is, that it may fall on him whose measures will 
be solely directed to the public good." ' 

As in 1S24, the contest was again between John 
Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson, and this time 
Jackson was to win. Adams, with Henry Clay as 
his Secretary of State, had shown himself a Federal- 
ist, to all intents and purposes, and this division of 
the "Republican" party now called themselves 
" National Republicans," in opposition to the true 
Democratic party led by Jackson. That Charles 
Carroll was still a Federalist on the more essential 
points in controversy, in connection with the Federal 
and State governments, is manifest from an enter- 
taining letter addressed by him to his old friend, and 
associate on the Board of War, Richard Peters of 

DoughoregAN, 35th June, 1837. 
My dear Sir : 

The sentiments expressed in your acceptable and in- 
teresting letter accord perfectly with mine. Though no 
1 Niks'i Register, vol. ixiii., p. 337, 

354 Charles Carroll of Carrolllon, 

correspondence has taken place between us since I ceased 
to be a member of the committee of the Board of War, 
the drudgery of which fell upon you, the transactions of 
those days still occupy my thoughts ; of course you are 
frequently an object of them. All who took a part in 
that hazardous and glorious cause are dear to me ; the 
memory of those gone before us I venerate, the living I 
love ; all acted from principle and all contributed, more 
or less, to our Independence. The government estab- 
lished by the people will secure their happiness as long 
as its end, spirit and principles are acted upon and pre- 
served. Should the jealousy and ambition of some States 
succeed in sapping the powers of it, or so restrict the 
exercise of them as to control its superintendence over 
the States within the limits prescribed by the Constitution, 
the confederacy will be dissolved and all the evils ex- 
perienced under the first will recur, and in a greater 
degree in proportion to the increase of population and 
multiplicity of clashing interests. 

I think with you, the addition of new States will not 
produce, but will rather prevent, at least retard, such an 
event. Are there not other evils threatening the general 
government ? What government, the principal object of 
which should be the preservation of morals, can subsist 
midst their general corruption ; what has a greater ten- 
dency to corrupt them than the prevalence of drunken- 
ness of the lower classes of society ? 

I consider the Supreme Court of the United States as 
the strongest guardian of the powers of Congress and 
rights of the people ; as long as that Court is composed 
of learned, upright and intrepid judges the Union will 
be preserved. Would it not be an improvement of the 
Federal judiciary to make the Supreme Court consisting 
now of seven judges, reducing that number, merely a 

Personal Recollections. 355 

court of appeal, stationed at Washington, holding three 
terms in each year ; that court being so constituted, 
circuit judges should be appointed sufficient for the ad- 
ministration of justice in this extended and extending 
empire. But I forget I am writing to a judge, a good 
and upright one, Sutor me ultra crcpidam. 

I do not correspond with Lafayette ; just before his 
sailing, expecting him in Baltimore, I invited him to my 
country-seat. I suspect he did not get my letter ; in all 
of yours to him I beg you to assure him of my affection- 
ate remembrance and esteem. I am sorry to learn from 
your letter that Mr. Jay is lingering under a sickly con- 
stitution of body but possessing a mind unimpaired by 
sickness. I envy your happiness in corresponding with 
so good and great a man ; in my estimation he is one of 
the brightest characters this country has produced. I 
yet remember with pleasure a conversation at his house 
over a bottle of good old Madeira, between him and Mr. 
Clinton afterwards Vice-President, at which I was present 
but not bearing any part in it ; this incident has prob- 
ably escaped his memory, but it will never mine. 

I am pretty active for a man in his ninetieth year ; 
my rambling is over, and now limited to between this 
manor and Baltimore. I should be happy to see you 
again, and of this I despair from the causes mentioned 
in your letter and in this. Your recovery from your 
late indisposition will soon permit me [you ?] to resume 
the cold bath which I have used, at intervals, upwards of 
fifty yean. Since coming here I have gone into my cold 
bath only thrice owing to the damp and cool weather ; 
when settled and warmer I shall resume the habit. I 
have always taken great delight in reading ; the weakness 
of my eyes deprives me of that pleasure. Conversing with 
the dead we are amused and instructed, and not flat- 

356 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

tered ; to be excluded from their conversation at my 
time of life is a serious misfortune ; to be exempt from 
every evil in this state of probation is the lot of very few, 
if of any. 

You seem to think your letter is too garrulous ; I am 
pleased with its garrulity ; dulceest decipene in loco. Re- 
flecting on the prosperous termination of the contest 
with England ; the fortitude, steady perseverance dis- 
played and the privations suppressed [sic] during its 
continuance what consolation must they not feel who 
were actors in it. 

With respect and esteem, I remain, Dear Sir, 
Your friend and humble servant 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 
To the Hon. Richard Peters, Philadelphia. 1 

Home affections and domestic interests occupied 
now the larger place in the correspondence of the 
aged statesman. He had written to his agent from 
Baltimore in May, ordering wagons to be sent in 
from the Manor to carry things out, preparatory to 
his removal there for the summer. And in antici- 
pation of the usual hospitality exercised at his 
country home, two barrels of port wine, containing 
twenty-five gallons each, had been despatched to 
the Manor a month or two before. * 

From " Doughoregan," June nth, Charles Carroll 
wrote to his son-in-law, Richard Caton, telling him 
of the prospects for wheat, of the new lime-kiln, the 
rebuilding of the saw-mill dam, the putting new 
stones in the grist-mill, and other plantation affairs. 

1 Pennsylvania Historical Society. 
' MS. Letter, Worthing! on C. Ford. 

Letter on Religious Liberty. 357 

Mrs. Harper, who had not been in good health, had 
left him that morning to go to the Springs. The 
latter continues: "When shall I have the pleasure 
of seeing you and my daughter at the Manor? 
Little Mary Wellesley has a cold and is teething. 
The cold affects somewhat her spirits, but I appre- 
hend no danger, I hope the waters of Leamington, 
change of air, and company, and the return of spring, 
if they do not perfectly restore the Marchioness's 
health, will in a great degree alleviate her com- 
plaints. It is probable that the Marquis may hold 
another year the lieutenancy of Ireland." " Mr. 
Vaughn " is mentioned as at the Manor in July, and 
he goes from there to Long Branch. Mrs. McTavish 
was, (with her family,) spending the summer with 
her grandfather. 

Charles Carroll rented his house and garden in An- 
napolis to Mr. John Randall in 1827. His farm near 
the town was rented to a Mr. Nichols, who raised to- 
bacco on it, having several hogsheads on hand in 
August of this year. In September we find Charles 
Carroll importing a quantity of wine from Leghorn, 
for the use of his family.' One other letter of Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton's, of general interest, is extant, 
written in 1827. This was addressed to the Rev. 
John Standford, of New York, and is upon the sub- 
ject of religious liberty : 

Doughomegan, October 9, 1837. 

Reverend and dear Sir : 

I was yesterday favored with your friendly letter of the 

10th past, and the discourses on the opening of the House 

1 Letter* to Richard Citon, Eiq. 

358 Charles Carroll tf CarrolUon. 

of Refuge and on the death of Jefferson and Adams. The 
former I have not yet read. With the latter I am highly 
pleased and I sincerely thank you for your pious wishes for 
my happiness in the life to come. Your sentiments on relig- 
ious liberty coincide entirely with mine. To obtain re- 
ligious, as well as civil liberty, I entered zealously into the 
Revolution, and observing the Christian religion divided 
into many sects, I founded the hope that no one would be 
so predominant as to become the religion of the State. 
That hope was thus early entertained, because all of tbem 
joined in ihe same cause, with few exceptions of indi- 
viduals. God grant that this religious liberty may be pre- 
served in these States, to the end of time, and that all 
believing in the religion of Christ may practice the lead- 
ing principle of charity, the basis of every virtue. 
1 remain with great respect, Rev. Sir, 

Your most humble Servant, 
Charles Carroll of Carollton. 
To the Rev. John Standford, Chaplain of Humane and 
Criminal Institutions in the City of New York.' 

It was about this time that John H. B. Latrobe 
published his sketch of Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton, in Sanderson's Biography of the Signers. Mr. 
Latrobe writes in later years : 

" After 1 had finished my work, I took it to Mr. Carroll 
whom I knew very well indeed, and read it to him, as he was 
seated in an arm chair in his own room in his son-in-law's 
house in Baltimore. He listened with marked attention 
and without a comment until I had ceased to read, when 
after a pause he said : ' Why, Latrobe, you have made a 
1 Scbufs " History of Maryland," vol. ii., p. 13b. foot-note. 

Letter to fames Monroe. 359 

much greater man of me than I ever thought I was ; and 
yet really you have said nothing in what you have written 
that is not true.' In my mind's eye I see Mr. Carroll now, 
a small, attenuated old man, with a prominent nose and 
somewhat receding chin, small eyes that sparkled when he 
was interested in conversation. His head was small and 
his hair white, rather long and silky, while his face and 
forehead were seamed with wrinkles. But old and feeble as 
he seemed to be, his manner and speech were those of a 
refined and courteous gentleman, and you saw at a glance 
whence came by inheritance the charm of manner that so 
eminently distinguished his son, Charles Carroll of Home- 
wood, and his daughters Mrs. Harper and Mrs. Caton." 

James Monroe published a pamphlet in 1828, ad- 
dressed to the " people and government of the 
United States," sending a copy to Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton. The latter wrote the following letter of 
thanks in reply : 

Baltimore, 23d April, iSsS. 
Dear Sir : 

I received a few days since, your friendly letter of the 
18th instant, conveying your Memoir to the people and 
government of the United States. I have not yet had 
time to read the whole, but will, with all the attention the 
subject requires. From a passage in your letter I derive 
the hope of a personal interview, when we will discourse 
on the subjects detailed in your Memoir and on the trans- 
actions your letter has recalled to my recollection. In 
speaking of my services to our country, all that in truth 
I can say is, that you overrate ihem ; they were, how- 

360 Charles Carroll of CarroUUm. 

ever, disinterested, persevering and confident of ultimate 
success. I remain with great respect, dear Sir, 

Your most humble servant, 
Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. 
To James Monroe, Esq., late President of the United 
States, Aldie, Loudon Co., Virginia.' 

A compliment was paid to Charles Carroll of Car- 
rollton in May 1828, by the House of Representa- 
tives in bestowing upon him the franking privilege. 
This is given him, said the Speaker, as a "token of 
distinguished respect and veneration which Congress 
entertains toward an early and devoted friend to lib- 
erty, and one who stood eminently forward in the 
purest and noblest band of patriots that the world 
lias ever seen." Charles Carroll replied: "This 
privilege I consider an honorable approbation of the 
part I took in the Revolution, and commands my 
grateful acknowledgments and thanks." " 

The 4th of July, 1822, was celebrated in Maryland 
by the laying the corner-stone of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad by the Grand Lodge of Masons, in 
which ceremonies Charles Carroll of Carrollton bore 
a conspicuous part. The pick, spade, hammer and 
trowel that were to be used were all presented to 
Charles Carroll by the Blacksmiths' Association, 
and he wrote a letter to them July 15th, thanking 
them for an address they had made to him, and say- 
ing he had delivered these instruments to the direc- 
tors of the road, to be employed in its construction. 
He adds: 

1 MS. Letter, D. McN. SUuffer, New York. 
* Niles't Register, vol. niiv. , p. ai6. 

Baltimore and Okie 

"You observe that republics 
people under that form of government 
than under any other. That the republic' 
Declaration of Independence may com 
lime is my fervent prayer. Thai protract 
however, will depend on the morality, sobi 
dustry of the people, and on no part more 
mechanics, forming in our cities the greatest 
their most useful inhabitants." 

The implements here enumerated are still pre- 
served, and with the badge worn by Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton on this occasion, were among the 
relics exhibited by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
at the World's Fair in Chicago. Charles Carroll 
was on the first Board of Directors of this, the first 
Railroad Company in the United States. In a letter 
to William Gibbons, written February 28th, 1829, 
Charles Carroll has something to say on the ques- 
tion then agitating England, of "Catholic Eman- 
cipation ": 

"The Duke of Wellington's letter to the R. C. primate 
satisfies me that the Roman Catholic will never be re- 
stored to equal rights with the rest of the King's subjects 
until the British nation cease to be persecuting, the 
Established Church [becomes ?] dispassionate and dis- 
interested, and the Protestant ascendancy in Ireland 
cease to be selfish. I am pleased with the Primate's 
answer to the Duke's letter. It speaks the language of 
truth ; ' you dare not from the fear of losing your place, 
hazard the attempt of getting an act passed which you 
think just, and conducive to the welfare of your country.' 
1 Ibid., p. 346. 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

ft am of the Primate's opinion ; were the Emancipation 
act passed all the virulence of party and opposition 
would cease in a few weeks after its passage." ' 

On the death of Bushrod Washington, Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton was elected president of the 
American Colonization Society, February, 1830. 
Charles Carroll was now obliged, from his impaired 
sight, to employ an amanuensis. Two letters of his 
are extant written in 1830, one to the Rev. Mr. 
Sprague, of Albany, giving an account of his gene- 
alogy, (torn which extracts have been made in pre- 
vious chapters, and the other to the Superior of the 
Sulpitians, upon donating land and fifty shares of 
bank stock to St. Charles College, Howard County 
(formerly Anne Arundel). The corner-stone of St. 
Charles College was laid by Charles Carroll of Car- 
rollton on ground which had been part of the Manor 
estate, July nth, 1831. In the letter referred to, con- 
veying the deed, Charles Carroll writes : " I request 
that mass be said once a month for myself and fam- 
ily. . . . That this gift may be useful to religion and 
aid our church in rearing those who will guide us in 
the way of truth, is the fervent prayer of your sincere 
friend, etc." ' The College, with its imposing build- 
ings and beautiful grounds, is to-day in a flourishing 
condition and one of its priests holds services regu- 
larly in the Chapel of " Doughoregan Manor," a 
walk of about a mile, after crossing the turnpike 
road, through the Manor park. 

1 New York State Library, Albany, N. Y. 

* Records. Clerk's Office, Ellicott City, Md. Family papers, Rev. 
Thomas Sim Lee, 

His Latter Years Described. 363 

The Rev. Mr. Pise in his oration upon Charles 
Carroll, previously quoted, gives an interesting pic* 
ture of him in these last years of his life. From 
1822 to 1832 Mr. Pise had been honored, as he says, 
with the familiar acquaintance of Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton "and his delightful family." He tells, 
from personal observation of this 

"venerable and serene old age; of those rare virtues 
which adorned him, of his simplicity of heart and man- 
ner, urbanity, elegant hospitality, social intercourse with 
his friends, solicitude and care for his domestics and 
slaves, suavity, alacrity, charity, liberality, piety, religion, 
[to which] thousands can bear testimony. I have seen 
him. . . . spending his summers under the shade of 
those trees which his father's hand had planted nearly a 
century and a half ago, and which eonsociart amant love 
to twine their hospitable boughs over the venerable man- 
sion of ' Ooughoregan.' " 

He then describes his manner of life in summer, 
enumerating the early rising, the cold bath, and 
morning ride on horseback, followed by prayers, or 
hearing mass in the chapel, if the chaplain was there. 
Later the hours given to reading his favorite English 
authors, Pope and Addison, and the other writers he 
had learned to love in his youth; the Greek and 
Roman classics, with volumes such as Wraxall's 
Memoirs, Eustace's Travels in Italy, of which he 
makes mention in some of his letters. He was fond, 
too, of French literature. His " conversations with 
the dead " were varied by conversation with his 
guests, the Manor seldom being without visitors. 

364. Charles Carroll of CarrolUon. 

Of the winter months spent with Mrs. Caton in Bal- 
timore, Mr. Fise writes: 

" Nothing could be more delightful than the fireside 
character of this amiable Patriot. The social nature of 
the hearth and the blaze seemed to excite his spirits to an 
unrestrained flow of conversation, wit, hilarity and jocose 
entertainment. His old age was the very reverse of that 
of the generality of mankind, as described by Horace. 
. . He found fault with none, and SO far from 

being a castigator minorum, he displayed peculiar conde- 
scension, and evinced an especial partiality towards the 
young, in whose company he appeared to catch once 
more, all the fire and vivacity of youth." 

He loved to talk of the Revolution. This, says 
Mr. Pise, was his favorite topic: 

" It was deeply riveted in his recollection, with all its 
details and all its dangers ; often have I heard him tell, 
with an eye flashing with enthusiasm, of the destitute state 
of the country, of the want of troops, of discipline, of 
ammunition, of everything, when the first Congress de- 
clared the Colonies independent. The members of that 
Congress were all fresh in his memory. He would often 
describe the persons and characters of the leading per- 
sonages of those days, and passages of their speeches 
which had then made an impression on his mind, he still 
remembered. ' Were I to enter the Hall, at this remote 
period,' I once heard him say, 'and meet my associates 
who signed the instrument of our independence, I would 
know them all, from Hancock down to Stephen Hop- 
kins.' " 

He read his beautiful editions of the classics, says 
Pise, up to his ninety-third year. 

Gratifying Public Tribute. 365 

" I once entered his study, and found him intently ab- 
sorbed in meditating the treatise of Cicero on old age. 
He entered on a highly entertaining and critical discus- 
sion on the subject of the philosophic writings of that 
extraordinary Roman. He seemed to turn with inex- 
pressible satisfaction to some passages of the treatise he 
was perusing ; and dwelt with a deep feeling of the wis- 
dom of it, on the admirable sentiment, following the line 
cited from Ennius. 

Nemv mi lackryirtis itcoret nrque fumrajlttu 


Nen ctniit lugendam mortem, quam immortalittu censtquatur. 

' After the Bible,' he added, with his peculiar earnestness 
and vivacity of manner, ' and the Following of Christ, 
give me, Sir, the philosophic works of Cicero.' " ' 

It is a peculiarly appropriate circumstance that 
the last letter known to be extant, written by- 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, was penned on the 
occasion of the proposed celebration in Baltimore of 
the centennial of Washington's birthday. It fitly 
closes the correspondence of the aged patriot, link- 
ing the final months of his life with the patriotic past 
of which he had been a part. 

Baltimore, aoth Feb., 1833. 

I. J. Cohen, Esq. 

I have a pleasure in acknowledging the receipt of your 
Letter acting as chairman of the General Committee for 
the celebration of the centennial anniversary of the late 

'Oration of Rev, Com tin tine Pitt, D.D., Georgetown, 183a, 
Printed by Joshua N. Rind. 

366 Charles Carroll of CarrolUon. 

General Washington. I am sensible of the honor done 
me by the Committee, and would gladly accept the invi- 
tation, did my health admit of it. I have been confined 
to the house foe many weeks, and altho' I have regained 
my health I should be afraid of exposure to a cold air. 
The event you are about to commemorate must be felt by 
every individual who loves his country and who can ap- 
preciate the blessings it enjoys. To General Washington 
mainly belongs under the protection of Providence, these 
blessings, and I have in unison with my fellow-country- 
men offered up my prayers to that Providence which sus- 
tained us, and my gratitude to the memory of the man 
whose virlues so ably maintained the struggle that created 
us into a Nation, and by whose wisdom it was fostered, 
and now flourishes. 

Accept my respectful thanks and consideration, to 
yourself and the Committee, and believe me to be 
Your obedient humble servant 
Ch. Carroll of Carroll-ton. 1 

The " Young Men's National Republican Con- 
vention " met in Washington on the nth of May, 
1832, and passed resolutions outlining their posi- 
tion on the political questions of the hour, opposing 
the re-election of Jackson, and advocating Henry 
Clay as their candidate for President. They ap- 
pointed a committee consisting of one delegate 
from each of the States they represented, and one 
from the District of Columbia, to express to Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton, " the last surviving Signer of 
the Declaration of Independence, the high sense 
entertained by the members of this convention, of 

1 MS. Letter, Mia M. A. Cohen, Baltimore. 

Final Illness and Death. 367 

the virtues of himself and associates and of their 
labors in the great cause of national union and inde- 
pendence." The committee went to Baltimore and 
waited upon Charles Carroll in person, being intro- 
duced to him separately by Brantz Mayer of Mary- 
land, their chairman. Mr. Mayer delivered an 
address, and an eloquent letter was read from the 
three hundred young men composing the conven- 
tion. 1 Charles Carroll must have been deeply 
touched by this tribute of youthful enthusiasm, the 
last public ovation he lived to receive. And in 
returning verbally his thanks to the delegation he 
closed the dramatic episode, where the Fast and 
Future clasped hands, Carroll the Federalist salut- 
ing Clay the Whig. But there was another party 
still more significant of the future of his section 
and of his descendants, which was to hold a con- 
vention a little later and to put on record its appre- 
ciation of Charles Carroll of Carrollton. While the 
convention of South Carolina, called to pass the 
Ordinance of Nullification, was in session, intelli- 
gence reached them of the death of Carroll. They 
immediately, by a unanimous vote, passed resolu- 
tions of regret, and the members were instructed to 
wear the usual badge of mourning, crape on the 
left arm, for thirty days." 
On the 14th of November, 1832, came the last 

1 Niles's Register, to], xlii. , p. 236. It is interesting to Dote that 
Brantz Mayer lived to write the Memoir of Carroll for the "Centen- 
nial Memorial" of 1876. 

* Ibid., vol. xliii., p. 390. Congress put on mourning for Cairo)] 
three months, a tribute hitherto paid only to Washington. 

368 Charles Carroll of Carrolllon. 

scene in this remarkable life, when full of years and 
full of honors Charles Carroll of Carrollton was 
gathered to his fathers. Of his last illness the Rev. 
Mr. Pise writes : 

" He met his end like a philosopher and a Christian. 
As long as I possess the power of memory I shall never 
forget the interview which I had with the dying patriot, 
a short time before he sank in death. He was seated on 
a couch, in the room in which he had been accustomed 
to receive his familiar friends ; his daughter hung in deep 
grief over one side, and his granddaughter watched by 
the other, in tears ; he was at the moment of my enter- 
ing in a state of lethargy, but he soon awoke from it, and, 
on my being made known to him, 'You find me very 
low,' he whispered, ' I am going, Sir, to the tomb of my 
Fathers.' The earnest expression, the calm resignation, 
the amiable conviction, with which he uttered this senti- 
ment, displayed his character as a philosopher, as much, 
perhaps, as any act or saying of his past life. And when 
he found that the ladies melted with grief, he endeavored 
to turn their attention from the approaching catastrophe 
by jesting about his physicians, whom he facetiously 
styled his Esculapiuses." ' 

One of these physicians. Dr. Richard Steuart, thus 
describes the death of Charles Carroll of Carroll- 

" It was toward sundown in the month of November, 
and very cold weather. In a large room — his bed-room 
— a semicircle was formed before a large, open fire-place. 
The venerable old man was in a large easy-chair ; in the 
centre, before him, a table with blessed candles, an an- 
1 Oration, by C. C. Pise, Georgetown, 183a, 

A Beautiful Christian Faith. 369 

tique silver bowl of holy water, and a crucifix ; by his 
side the priest, Rev. John E. Chaunce, President of St. 
Mary's College and afterwards Bishop of Natchez, — in his 
rich robes, about to offer him the last rites of the Holy 
Catholic Church. On each side of his chair knelt a 
daughter and grandchildren, with some friends, making 
a complete semicircle ; and just in the rear, three or four 
old negro servants, all of the same faith, knelt in the most 
venerating manner. The whole assemblage made up a 
picture never to be forgotten. The ceremony proceeded. 
The old gentleman had been for a long time suffering 
from weak eyes, and could not endure the proximity of 
the lights immediately before him. His eyes were there- 
fore kept closed, but he was so familiar with the forms 
of this solemn ceremony that he responded and acted as 
if he saw everything passing around. At the moment of 
offering the Host he leaned forward without opening his 
eyes, yet responsive to the word of the administration of 
the holy offering. It was done with so much intelligence 
and grace, that no one could doubt for a moment how 
fully his soul was alive to the act." 

The narration of Dr. Steuart then enters into the 
little details illustrating his piety, his unfailing cour- 
tesy. When pressed to take food after his long fast, 

" in the most gentle and intelligent manner he replied, 
' Thank you, Doctor, not just now ; this ceremony is so 
deeply interesting to the Christian that it supplies all the 
wants of nature. I feel no desire for food.' In a few 
moments more one of his granddaughters and the doctor 
lifted him from the chair and placed him in his bed. He 
said to them, ' Thank you ; that is nicely done.' " 

370 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

When again urged to take some nourishment, he 
refused, and soon after fell into a doze. While 
sleeping, his position seemed to become uncomfort- 
able, and the doctor lifting him to an easier one, 
he looked up and, seeing who it was, said, " Thank 
you, doctor," These were his last words. " It was 
after midnight, the hour not exactly remembered, 
when the vital spark went out without a struggle, 
he breathing as calmly as if falling into a gentle 
sleep." ' 

Doubtless it was some time in this, his last illness, 
and he had been for weeks " declining from ossifica- 
tion of his heart and the debility of old age," that 
he gave utterance to the sentiments recorded by 
the Rev. Mr. Pise, and often quoted as the " last 
words " of Charles Carroll of CarroUton : 

"I have lived to my ninety-sixth year ; I have enjoyed 
continued health, I have been blessed with great wealth, 
prosperity, and most of the good things which the world 
can bestow — public approbation, esteem, applause ; but 
what I now look back on with the greatest satisfaction 
to myself is, that I have practiced the duties of my re- 

1 Appliton's Journal, September 19, 1874. Magaanc of Ameri- 
can History, February, 187B, articles by J. C. Carpenter. 


CARROLL WILLS, 1718, 1728, i;80, 1831. 






In the name of God, Amen. 

I Charles Carroll of Anne Arundell County, being at the 
writing hereof in perfect health of Body, and of sound 
mind, memory and understanding, but taking into seri- 
ous consideration the frailty and uncertainly of this Life, 
and being designed by God's divine permission to make 
a voyage into Europe speedily, and willing to leave my 
worldly affairs in the clearest and best condition which 
my circumstances will adraitt of, in order to prevent all 
disputes or misunderstandings that may by any means 
arise betwixt my loving wife, children or Relations after 
my decease do make and ordain this my Last Will and 
testament in manner and form following, hereby revok- 
ing, annulling and making void all former Wills, testa- 
ments or other Codicills heretofore by me made, and 
declaring this to be my last Will and Testament. 


I Give and Bequeath my Soul to God who gave it, my 
body to the Earth, hoping that through and by the mer- 
itts, sufferings, and mediation of my only Savior and 
Redeemer Jesus Christ, I may be admitted into the 
heavenly Kingdom prepared by God for those who love, 

374 Charles Carroll of Carrollton* 

fear and truly serve Him, and as to the worldly posses- 
sions. Estate and Goods which God of His infinite 
bounty far above my deserts hath been pleased to be- 
stow upon me, I give and bequeath as followeth, vizt : 
I order all my just debts to be paid, &c. 

I give such poor people of this Province, as shall be 
thought by my Trustees, hereafter named, the fittest 
objects of Charity, the quantity of five thousand pounds 
of Tobacco, to be forthwith as the season will admit, 
paid out of the best and securist of my Debts and dis- 
posed pursuant to the Direction of the said trustees or 
the Survivors of them for the best advantage and relief 
of such poor whose prayers I begg for the repose of my 
Soul, in case there be no reddy tobacco debts due at the 
time of decease, the [same] to be paid them in money at a 
penny pr pound. I likewise give to the poor of this 
town the sume of tenn pounds to be distributed the day 
of my buriall or otherwise when my death's known. 

Item. — I give unto my said trustees tenn thousand 
pounds of tobacco and twenty pounds sterling to be dis- 
posed to such charitable uses as I shall direct. 

Item 3. — I give and devise unto my loving wife Mary 
Carroll all my houses-hould goods, bedding, linen, woolen, 
brass, pewter Iron, Chests, Chest of Drawers, tables, 
chairs, cheny, glass, looking glasses, and Generally all 
utensils of househould stuff that shall be in use at my 
dwelling house at Annapolis at the time of my death, 
my plate excepted, which I hereby give to my three 
Sonnes, to be equally divided between them, as they 
respectively come to age ; and allsoe excepting my after 
[altar ?] plate which I give solely to my sone Henry, but 
my will is that my loving wife have the keeping and use 
of Charles and Daniells parte's of the said househould 
plate 'till my said Sone Charles come to age, and likewise 

Appendix C 375 

the keeping and use of my sone Darnell's parte while she 
lives . 

Item. — I likewise devise unto my said loving wife dur- 
ing her lifetime my tract of Land in Prince Georges 
County called Enfield Chace, containing about sixteen 
hundred Acres. 

Item. — I likewise devise to my said wife my dwelling 
house at Annapolis during her life, but if my Sonne Henry 
shall agree to build her such a house as she shall like, 
and on such part of Enfield Chase as she shall direct, 
then he to enjoy my said dwelling house as my heir at 
Law. And I hereby devise and appoint that my Execu- 
tors, or any of them, place thereon at convenient quar- 
ters to the good likeing of my said wife, fifteen able 
negroe Slaves to be at the direction of my said wife, her 
overseer or overseers to make Crops of Corne, tobacco 
graine, or doe any other labour or work whatever they 
shall be sett about, and the produce to be for the sole 
use of my said wife, her Executors and Administrators, 
and in case of the death or disability of any of such slaves 
at any time dureing my wife's life, I doe will and appoint 
that my Ex*" put another in his or their place, and keep 
the number complete while my said Wife lives, and after 
her death that such negroes be divided amongst my Ex- 
ecutors, and this provision I make for my wife in full 
compensation for her Dower of my Real Estate and 
rationabile parti bonorum of my personall estate. I fur- 
ther give unto my wife my Chariott and Horses with 
all it's furniture thereunto belonging. 

Item. — I will order and appoint that until! Enfield 
Chase be sufficient to raise stock enough to support itself 
that my Executors furnish from some other of my planta- 
tions what it falls short of a reasonable subsistence for 
the Slaves, and that in case my wife shall think fitt to con- 

376 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

tinue her habitation at Annapolis she shall have during 
such her continuance the use of my old Plantation and 
such stock as shall be thereon at (he time of my dead), 
making good the principall, as also free wooding for her 
house on any part of the said I-and. And for a further ad- 
dition towards a decent maintenance for my said Wife I 
give her one thousand pounds sterling to be paid by my 
Executors in six months after my death, and do therewith 
as she shall think fitt. 

Item. — I also give and bequeath unto my said wife for 
her better support the rents of my houses and Lotts at 
Annapolis during her widowhood, except the Lotts herein 
named vizt the house and Lott I bought of Mr. Wornell 
Hunt, which I hereby devise unto my son Charles and 
the Heirs of his Body lawfully begotten, and my Market 
house Lott which I give to my son Daniel! and the heirs 
of his Body lawfully begotten, my Lott bought of Wil- 
liam Taylord which I give to my Daughter Mary and the 
heirs of her body lawfully begotten, and the lott whereon 
Edward Smithe lives which I give to my Daughter Elianor 
and the heirs of her body lawfully begotten. 

Item. — I also give unto my said two Daughters Mary 
and Elianor one Moyeiy of my tract of Land of twenty 
thousand acres, intended to be laid out for roe on Poto- 
mack lo have and to hold five thousand acres thereof to 
my Daughter Mary and the heirs of her body lawfully be- 
gotten, and for want of such heirs, to her sister Elianor 
and the heirs of her body lawfully begotten, the olher 
five thousand acres I devise to my daughter Elianor and 
the heirs of her body lawfully begotten, and for want of 
such, to my daughter Mary, and the heirs of her body 
lawfully begotten, and if both my said Daughters should 
die without Issue, or enter into religion, then the re- 
mainder to descend to my heir at Law. 


Appendix C 377 

Item. — I likewise give unto each of my said two Daugh- 
ters one thousand pounds sterling to be paid respectively 
at their ages of sixteen years, or days of marriage ; and 
in the mean time the Interest of their money to goe tow- 
ards their maintenance, and in the case of the death of 
either of them before their respective age of sixteen 
years, or marriage, then I devise the portion of that so 
deceasing to the other sister, and in case of both their 
deaths before the said age or marriage, then I give the 
said two thousand pounds to my Executors, and in case 
my said Daughters should not prove dutyful to their 
mother and my trustees hereafter named and marry ac- 
cording to the directions of them or ye survivor of them, 
then I leave them to the discretion of their said mother, 
and my said trustees as to their fortunes. 

Item. — I give devise and bequeath unto my two Sones 
Charles and Daniel] all my lands in Baltimore County, 
except those hereinafter expressed wherein I have an ab- 
solute Estate in fee simple, and which are free from con- 
ditions, limitations or Equity of redemption on payment 
of money, as also all the land which at any time during 
my life I may take up or purchase in fee simple in the 
said County, to have and to hold unto my said sons 
Charles and Daniell, viz. the one Moiety thereof unto my 
son Charles and his heirs forever, and the other Moiety 
thereof to my son Daniell and his heirs forever, to be 
equally divided share and share alike. 

Item. — I devise unto my four kinswomen Elinor Boyd, 

Margerett Macnaraarra, Joyce Bradford and Maccoy 

my tract of land in Baltimore County called Encles good 
will, to be equally divided betwixt them and their heirs 
forever, and to my kinswoman Johanna Crocksdell five 
pounds current money, and to my kinsman Major John 
Bradford six pounds to buy him a mourning suit. In 

378 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

case any gift or legacy be made to my wife during my life, 
or that any divisional! part of the estate of any parent or 
Relation fall to her in that time, my will is that it be reck- 
oned no part of my Estate, but do hereby give the same 
to my said Wife, to be disposed of as she shall think iitt. 

I give unto my loving kinsmen Thomas Macnemara, 
James Carroll, William Fritzredmond, Charles Carroll, 
Dominick Carroll, Michael Taylor and Daniel Carroll the 
sum of six pounds each to buy them mourning. 

Whereas I now have several sums of money out 
upon mortgages and bills of Sale for negroes, and other 
personal! goods and probably may have others at the 
time of my decease, I doe therefore hereby give and 
devise the same to my Executors and their heirs towards 
payment of what just debts I shall owe at the time of my 
Death and for payment of my Legacys and gifts afore- 
said, and all the rest, as allso all my personal! estate what- 
soever, whether consisting of negro slaves, horses, cattle, 
ready money, money in England in the hands of any of 
my correspondants, or of any other denomination or kind 
whatsoever be the same in money or tobacco debts, out- 
standing or reduced into possession, I give and bequeath 
to my said Executors equally to be divided between 
them share and share alike, and I doe hereby nominate, 
ordain, constitute and appoint my three Sons Henry, 
Charles and Daniell and ye survivors of them to be 
Executors of this my last will and testament, and I fur- 
ther appoint that my loving Brothers-in-law Mr. Henry 
Darnall, Mr. Benjamin Hall, My Kinsmen Mr. James 
Carroll and Daniel Carroll to be overseers and trustees 
thereof to see the same punctually observed and fulfilled 
and in case of the absence or inability of my Executors 
to take the Execution thereof upon themselves according 
to the true intent and meaning thereof, and for the use 

Appendix C 379 

therein mentioned, hereby Earnestly recomending to 
them by their good advice and instructions to recomend 
to my said Executors virtue, sobriety andadecent frugal- 
ity, and retain [restrain ?] as much as possible can be 
the extravagancy incident to youth. 

I doe hereby revoke, annul!, cancel! and make void 
all former wills, testaments, or codicils by me made, and 
declare this to be my only last Will and Testament, and 
no other this first day of December, one thousand Seven 
hundred and Eighteen 

Charles Carroll. 

Signed, Sealed declared and published the day and year 
aforesaid, in the presence of 

Luke Gardner 

Jacob Henderson 

D. Dulany 

John Gresham 

Thos. Stewart. 

On the back of the aforegoing Will was thus endorsed 

July the twenty-eighth, seventeen hundred and twenty. 
The Reverend Jacob Henderson and John Gresham 
Esq. two of the evidences subscribing the within Will 
make Oath that they saw Charles Carroll Esq. the within 
testator seal the within instrument as his last Will and 
Testament, and that he published and declared the same 
so to be, and that at the time of his SO doing he was of 
sound and perfect mind and memory, but that to the best 
of their remembrance they did not see him subscribe the 
same, his name being writt to the seal before they see it, 
but that they are well acquainted with his handwriting, 
he acknowledging it so to be before them before me 
Th. Bordlev Com" Gen"\ 

380 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

Eodcm Die 

Mr. Henry Darnall Mr. Jas. Carroll Mr. Daniel! Car- 
roll three ex"' of the within Will mentioned make Oath 
that they do not know of any later Will or Testament 
made by the said Testator in his lifetime but believe 
this to be his last Will and Testament, 

before me 
Th. Bordley Com" Gkh\ 

Likewise Madame Mary Carroll the Widow of the De- 
ceased makes oath as above the same Day, and also de- 
clares her consent to, and acceptance of the legacies and 
Devises in the within will, and that she is well satisfied 
therewith in lieu of any other claims she might have 
against the Deceased estate according to Act of Assembly. 
Th. Bordley Com" Gen l . 

Vide further probate to (his will in Lib. C.C. No. 3, folio 393, 


In the name of God, Amen. 

I James Carroll of Tingaul in Alhallows Parish in Ann 
Arundel County being through the Mercy of God in per- 
fect Health, do declare what follows to be my last Wilt 
and Testament, hereby revoking all other wills hereto- 
fore by me made. First I humbly Recomend and give 
my soul unto my heavenly Father through whose Mercy 
and the Merits of Christ Jesus I most humbly hope for 
eternal happiness. 

Item. — I desire that all my just debts (which are few 
and small) be punctually paid. 

Item. — I give to forty such poor mendicants of and in 
the parishes of English and Lorrah in lower Ormuud in 

Appendix C. 381 

the County of Tipperary in the Kingdom of Ireland as 
my Executors or such as they or the Major part of them 
shall appoint to distribute the same, shall deem proper 
objects of charity, the sum of ten shillings Irish money a 

Item. — I give to such twenty poor people in this parish 
of my Residence, and the Parish where my Quarters are 
in Prince Georges County such as my Executors shall 
judge to be in necessity, two Barrels of Indian Corn a 
piece at times at their Discretion, within four years after 
my decease, to be delivered if applied for at my dwelling 
place, or Carrollburgh, or part at one, or part at another, 
at the discretion of the proprietors of those places. I 
desire that such of my apparel as may be fit (and not in- 
decent) for my slaves to wear, may be given to such of 
them as are honest, and have a sense of Christian dutys, 
as Tomboy, Jack, Jerey, Dick etc. And that means may 
be used (at the discretion of my devisee) to Instruct 
them all in the Christian Doctrine. 

Item. — It is my Will and desire that with all Conven- 
ient Reasonable speed my Debts be received or secured 
after the best manner my Executors can. I empower 
my Executors, or the Major part of them, to sell and 
dispose of all my Lands in Baltimore County, my Lands 
in Somerset County, all my Lands in Calvert County, 
also all my Mortgages and Bills of Sale with Conditions 
for Redemption. Also my two Lots in Annapolis, lying 
near the head of the Creek, and which I bought of Mr. 
John Hammond — the neat produce or amount of my 
Debts aforesaid, the sale of my Lands, Lotts, Mortgages, 
and bills of sale aforesaid, I dispose of and in the fol- 
lowing manner : Imprimis, I appoint that out of it and 
my money Lodged, or that shall be in the London 
Merchants bands (which is to be understood as part of 

382 Charles Carroll of Carrolllon. 

my outstanding debts) my debts be eatisfyed, after which 
I desire and appoint one thousand pounds sterling of 
the produce aforesaid be applied towards the Education 
of my Nephew and heir apparent Anthony Carrol, my 
Brother Daniel's only son, to be laid out in the manner 
hereinafter mentioned, that is to say, one hundred 
pounds sterling to be laid down in consideration of all 
charges in going through his lower studys, and (at the 
discretion of my Executors, or the survivors of them) 
such summes annually afterwards as may enable him to 
go through his higher studys, and so on through a course 
of the study of Law or physick. But physick Rather, as 
it may afford the least temptation to change his Religion. 
And in Case my nephew shall dye or prove unsusceptive 
of Learning, or prove Incorrigible, or want application 
in any of the courses aforesaid before he attains to 
Twenty one years — then it is my Will and I do require 
my Executors to discontinue the application of money 
to his education, or if he prove vicious, to also discon- 
tinue. In which cases It is my Will that the money 
designed for his education be applyed to the education 
of my Nephew James Carroll, son of my brother Michael 
if he shall not exceed sixteen years of age at my Death, 
but if he shall, to be laid out on such one of his brothers 
as shall not be sixteen years at the time of my death. I 
do recommend to my Executors to place the one thou- 
sand pounds sterling after a secure manner at Interest 
so as the Interest may defray the ordinary annual stipends 
necessary to be expended for his education. And fur- 
ther it is my will that in case any friend or Guardian 
hinder or obstruct the Childs being educated in such 
place and after such manner as my Executors shall think 
fit, that in such case the money be not laid out on him, 
but be applyed as in case of his Death as above. And 

Appendix C 383 

lest any dispute should hereafter arise about this point 
between my said cosin Anthony or his guardian and my 
Executors, so great is my confidence in my Executors 
that I leave it to them to apply the said thousand pounds 
and its interest at their choice to my Nephew James or 
Anthony, It being my will that whatsoever Child or 
Children of my Brothers receive benefit by this will be, 
until they go and pass through their studys already men- 
tioned, at the Intire direction of my Executors, or the 
survivors of them. It is my Will in case my Nephew 
Anthony aforesaid Live and do not forfeit my good De- 
signs for him by any the means above mentioned, that 
after his passing through his studys aforesaid, he have 
the thousand pounds aforesaid, or so much as shall re- 
main unexpended on him. I give to my Cosins Domin- 
ick, Anthony and Daniel Carrolls, sons of my brother 
Michael, five hundred acres of land each to them — sev- 
erally and their Heirs and assigns severally forever out 
of a Tract of Land called pork Hall, lying at pipe creek, 
the remaining nine hundred and eighty I bequeath to 
my sister Johanna Croxell, and my cosin Mary Higgins, 
to them and their Heirs severally forever. Notwithstand- 
ing what is already said with Relation to my Lands in 
Baltimore County, I bequeath to my Cosin Michael Tay- 
lor my tract of land called Bin containing about seven 
hundred and odd — Acres, to him and his heirs forever. 
My Land called the Hop yard I bequeath to my Cousins 
Edward Tully and Michael TuIIy's two sons, that is to 
say one half to Edward, his heirs and assigns, the other 
half to the aforesaid two sons their Heirs and assigns. 
It is my will that the survivors of my Executors may act 
and do what all my Executors axe empowered to act or 
do by my will. I bequeath to my Cosin Anthony Carroll 
now with me, two Negroes viz Henry and Mary, to be 

384 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

delivered if alive, to him the tenth of October after ray 
decease the better to enable him to seat his five hundred 
acres of land, which is to be laid out in a convenient 
form where he shall think fit to seat if he settles first ; I 
bequeath to my sister Johanna ray two Negroes James 
and Daniel, provided she, her husband and their Family, 
or the survivors of them will remove to and settle on the 
above five hundred acres to her given, to be delivered to 
her, if alive, the roth of October after my decease, pro- 
vided they go and seat the land as aforesaid the same 
fall. And it is my Will that the Residue (after the thou- 
sand pounds as aforesaid bequeathed to my Cosin An- 
thony Carroll son of my Brother Daniel), of what my 
standing Debts, Money in England, Bills of Exchange 
remitted, Tobacco remitted or to be remitted or housed, 
Lands, Mortgages and Bills of Sales, or other securities 
shall amount to, I give and appoint to be disposed of as 
follows. That is to be laid out and expended on the 
education of such two of my Brother Michael's Sons as 
are under and nearest fifteen years of age at my death. 

Having sold to George J cams a piece of Land, another 
to Francis Day for which I am paid, I authorize my 
Executors, or any two of them to convey them to the 
said George and Francis according to agreement, I 've 
also sold two hundred acres, part of pork Hall, to George 
Roberts — I empower my Executors, or any two of them, 
on receiving the consideration money to make the Land 
over to him. / bequeath to my very dear Cosen and God- 
son Charles Carroll the ps. or parcel of a Lot of Ground 
given me by him and hii mother, also the Lett adjoining there- 
to, lying partly between the same and half a Lett bought of 
Benjamin Tasker Esq. and whereon my new house is, also 
the aforesaid half Lott bought of Mr. Tasker, all lying 
adjoining one to the other in the City of Annapolis, unto him 

Appendix C 385 

the said Charles his heirs and assigns forever.' I also 
bequeath unto the said Charles my dwelling place con- 
sisting of two parcels of Land containing about four 
hundred and sixty acres. Also what remains unsold of 
Bright Seat and Ayno near Petuxent, above the head of 
South River in Ann Arundel County, also my Lands 
called Carrols Burgh, Chenys plantation, and about 
sixty acres, part of Ridgely and Tylors Chance, in all 
upwards of two thousand acres lying in Prince George's 
County, also my two Lotts in Queens Anne Town, and 
two parcells of Land near the said Town, one bought of 
Thomas Lancaster, the other of Turner Wootten, lying 
in the said county. I bequeath and give unto him the 
said Charles his Heirs and assigns forever, also all my ser- 
vants and slaves, household stuff, goods, and chatties and 
personal estate whatsoever, or wheresoever and of what 
denomination soever, not before disposed of in and by this 
will, unto him the said Charles and his assigns forever. 
I desire there be one hundred pounds sterling laid down 
and paid for my nephew James, his education in his 
lower studyes, and that there be paid to bear his expenses 
to London in order to be sent thence to School where 
my Executors shall order, fifteen pounds sterling more, 
all which, as well as my debts, to be paid out of my 
money in England, outstanding debts, lands and mort- 
gages, Bills of Sale, tobacco housed, shipped or ready to 
be shipped designing no Diminution whatsoever to be 
made of my General Devise to my Cosen Charles Carroll. 
I appoint my Cosen Anthony my heir at Law, and my 
aforesaid Cosen James, my joint Executors, and during 
their minority and absence, Cosen and Godson Charles 
Carrol, Mr. John Diggs, Mr. Francis Hall, and my Cosen 
Doctor Charles Carroll of Annapolis, Executors of this 
1 These iUlics are not in the original will. 

386 CJuirles Carroll of Carroltlon. 

my last will and testament in testimony whereof I have 
hereunto Set my hand and seal this twelfth day of Feb- 
ruary one thousand and seven hundred and twenty eight, 
in the presence of the Witnesses thereunto subscribed. 
James Carroll. 
Samuel Chew of Maid- 

Witnesses that the same 
was signed and scaled and 
declared as his Will in 

presence of us. 

Richard Hill 
Wm. Richardson 
And. Tailk. 

On the tack of the aforegoing will was thus endorst, viz. 
June 37th. 1719. 

Then came Doctor Richard Hill, one of the subscrib- 
ing evidences to the within will, who takes his test in 
usual form (being one of the people called Quakers) that 
he saw the within named James Carroll the Testator sign 
and seal the within Instrument as his Last Will and 
testament, and at the same time heard him publish and 
declare the same to be, and that at the Time of his so 
doing he was of sound disposing mind and memory to 
the best of his knowledge, and he further affirms that he 
signed as an evidence in the presence of the Testator. 

Affirmed to before me the day and year above 
John Bealk, Deputy Com", 

A. A. County. 
July 24th, 1728. 

Then came Doctor Samuel Chew of Maidstone, one of 
the subscribing evidences to the within will who takes 
his test in usual form, (being one of the people called 
Quakers) that he saw the within named James Carroll the 
Testator sign and seal the within instrument as his last 
will and testament, and at the same time heard him pub- 
lish and declare the same so to be, and that at the time 

Appendix C. " 387 

of his so doing he was of sound disposing mind and 
memory, to the best of his knowledge, and he further af- 
firms that he signed as an evidence in the presence of the 
Testator, and that the other evidences to the within will 
signed as Evidences thereto at the same time. 

Affirmed to before me the day and year last mentioned. 
John Beale, Deputy Com", 

A. A. County. 

Whereas I James Carroll of AUhallow's parish at South 
River hundred in Ann Arundel County, have by my Last 
Will and Testament, bearing date the twelfth Day of 
this Instant February Anno Doni, 1728 Bequeathed unto 
my cosin Charles Carrol a certain part of my estate, In 
trust and confidence that he would invest therewith my 
Good friend Mr. George Thorold of Portobacco, in 
Charles County, But through apprehen[sion] of the said 
Charles Death I do by this Codicil which I desire and re- 
quire to be deemed and taken as part of my Last Will 
and Testament, Confirm and Give unto the said George, 
what I expected and do not doubt the said Charles would 
give pursuant to my instruction if Death or other acci- 
dent did not interpose Hereby confirming my former 
Will in all respects except the following clause, which I 
do hereby rescind annull and make void as to the said 
Charles his heirs, executors and administrators. It is 
thus expressed viz — I also bequeath unto the said Charles 
my Dwelling Place consisting of two parcels of Land con- 
taining about Four hundred and sixty acres, also what 
remains unsold of Bright seat and Ayno near Patuxent, 
above the head of South River in Ann Arundel County, 
also my lands called Carrollsburgh, Cheneys Plantation, 
and about sixty acres part of Ridgelyand Tylers Chance, 
in all upwards of two thousand Acres lying in Prince 
Georges County. Also my two Lotts lying in Queen 

388 C liar Us Carroll of Carrollton. 

Anns Town, and two parcels of Land lying near the said 
Town, one bought of Thomas Lancaster, tother of Turner 
Woolen lying in the said county, also all my servants and 
slaves, Household stuff, goods and chattels and personal 
estate whatsoever or wheresoever and of what Denomina- 
tion soever, all which I give and bequeathed to the said 
Charles, his heirs and assigns forever. But now by this 
codicil do hereby give, devise and bequeath the aforesaid 
Lands goods and chattels in as full and ample manner 
unto the aforesaid George Thorold, his heirs and assigns 
forever, as the same are bequeathed to my Af 1 Cosin, 
and do hereby give and bequeath the aforementioned 
Lands and the goods and chatties aforesaid unto the said 
George Thorold, his heirs and assigns forever. And in 
case of his Death before me then I bequeath the aforesaid 
Lands, and Goods, Chatties unto my very good friend Mr. 
Peter Attwood of Portobacco aforesaid, his heirs and 
assigns forever. And in case of both their Deaths before 
mine, then I bequeath the aforesaid Lands & Goods & 
chatties unto Mr. Joseph Greaton his heirs and assigns 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and 
seal this seventeenth day of February one thousand, 
seven hundred and twenty-eight. 

James Carroll. 

Signed, scaled published and declared as a Codicil to 
his last will in the presence of us 

John Walch Anth. Carroll 


John B. Galloker 


On the back of the aforegoing Codicil was thus en- 

Appendix C. 389 

June 27, 1729. 

Then came John Welsh and John Galloker, two of the 
subscribing evidences to the within Instrument, who 
makes Oath upon the Holy Evangelist of Almighty God 
that they see the within named James Carroll, the Tes- 
tator sign and seal the within Instrument as a Codocil 01 
part of his last Will and Testament, and at the same time 
heard him publish and Declare the same so to be, and 
that at the time of his so doing he was of sound disposing 
mind and memory to the best of their knowledge, and 
that they signed as evidences to the within Instrument in 
the presence of the Testator. 

Sworn to before me the day and year above 

John Beale, Dep™. Com"*,, 

A. A. County. 

July 15, 1729. 

Then came John Galloker and also made Oath on the 
Holy Evangely of Almighty God, that Anthony Carroll, 
one of the evidences to the within instrument or codicil, 
signed as an evidence thereto at the same time with the 
said John Galloker, in the presence of the Testator. 
Sworn to before me, the day and year last mentioned. 
John Beale, Deputy Coh", 

A. A. County. 
July, ye 21st, 1729. 

Then came John Walch and also made oath on the 
Holy Evangelists of Almighty God, that Anthony Car- 
roll, one of the Evidences to the within Instrument or 
Codicil signed as an evidence thereto at the same time 
with the said John Walch in the presence of the Testator. 
Sworn to before me the day and year last mentioned 
John Beale, Deputy Com"., 

A. A. County. 

3go Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 



In the name of God, Amen. 

1, Charles Carroll of Anne Arundel County, at the writ- 
ing hereof in perfect health of body and of sound 
memory and understanding, for which I thank God, Do 
make and ordain this my last will and testament in the 
manner following. 

Imprimis, I order all my just debts to be paid, which 
are but few and small. 2nd. I order my body to be 
buried as privately as possible consistently with decency. 
3rd. Whereas my nephew Charles Carroll and his sisters 
Eleanor and Mary are entitled to a moiety of severall 
lands, as may appear by my father's will, I do hereby 
empower my executor hereinafter named, to sell all the 
said lands which I have not already sold and accounted 
for, and to pay one moiety of the proceeds to the repre- 
sentatives of my said nephew Charles Carroll and his 
sister Eleanor, and to his sister Mary, my niece. 

4th. Whereas my cousin Rachell Darnall always behaved 
very dutifully to my late wife, her aunt, and in her last 
sickness was very tender of her and tended her with the 
greatest care and affection and has by a long residence 
with me merited my esteem and affection, I bequeath to 
my said Cousin Rachall Darnall thirty pounds sterling to 
be paid her in three months after my death. I also be- 
queath to my said Cousin Rachell Darnall thirty pounds 
sterling a year during her life, the first yearly payment 
to be made in twelve months after my death. 

Item, all other my estate both real and personal of 
what kind or nature soever not herein before bequeathed, 

Appendix C 391 

with all my lands, houses, etc., now in my possession or 
which I shall purchase before my death, I give and be- 
queath unto my son Charles Carroll by my late wife 
Elizabeth Brooke, the daughter of Clement Brooke, Esq : , 
to him I say I bequeath them and to his heirs forever in 
fee simple. 

7lh, I constitute and appoint my son Charles Carroll 
my whole and sole executor of this my last will and 

8th Item, I do hereby nominate, constitute, and appoint 
my said son Charles Carroll my whole and s„Ie executor 
to prove this my will in the Commissary's office by the 
subscribing witnesses thereto for passing my lands and 
real estate as herein before mentioned and to entitle him- 
self to Letters Testamentary thereon to enable himself to 
recover what may be due to me and that he then also give 
good and undoubted security for his performance of this 
will, and payment of all my debts, for which purpose I 
desire he will have undersign an admission of asselts but 
by no means to lodge any inventory or list of debts or to 
pass any account of my estate in any publick office. 

9th, Lastly I declare this to be my last will and testa- 
ment and I hereby revoke all wills by me heretofore made. 
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and 
seal this nineteenth day of June Anno Domini, one thou- 
sand, seven hundred and eighty. Cha : Carroll. 

Signed, sealed, published, and declared by Charles the 
Testator to be his last Will and testament in the presence 
of us the subscribers, 

Edwd. Gaither, Jr., 

Re u hen Mere weather, 

Thomas Dorrev, 

RlDGF.I.V Warfield. 

392 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

At the foot of the foregoing Will were the following en- 
dorsements to wit : 

Anne Arundel County Set., the 5th day of Tune, 1783, 
Then came Edw* 1 Gaither J r , Thomas Dorsey and Ridgely 
Warfield three of the subscribing witnesses to the within 
last will and testament of Charles Carroll late of Anne 
Arundel County deceased, and severally made oath on the 
Holy Evangely of Almighty God, that they did see the 
Testator therein named sign and seal this will, and that 
they heard him publish, pronounce and declare the same 
to be his last will and testament, that at the time of his 
so doing he was to the best of their apprehension, of 
sound and disposing mind, memory and understanding ; 
and that they respectively subscribed their names as wit- 
nesses to this will, in the presence and at the request of 
the Testator, and in the presence of each other, and that 
they also saw Reuben Meri weather subscribe his name as 
a witness to this will in the presence of the Testator and 
at his request. 

Certified by Thos. Gassaway, 
Reg. Wills, Anne A. County, 

Anne Arundel County Set. June 5th, 1782, Came 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton the executor appointed in 
the within will and made oath on the Holy Evangely of 
Almighty God that the within instrument of writing is 
the true and whole will and testament of Charles Carroll 
late of Anne Arundel County deceased, that hath come 
to his hands or possession ; and that he doth not know 
of any other made since. 

Certified by Thos. Gassaway, 
Reg. Wills, Anne A. Co". 

Maryland, Anne Arundel County, Set : 

I hereby certify, that the within and foregoing Will of 
Charles Carroll is truly copied from Liber T. G. No. i, 

Appendix C 393 

folio 106, out of the Will Record Books in the office of 
the Register of Wills for Anne Arundel County aforesaid. 
In testimony whereof, I hereunto subscribe my name and 
affix the Seal of the Orphans' Court for Anne Arundel 
County, this 18th day of October, A. D„ 1883. 

John W. Brasheass, 
Register Wills, A. A. County. 


State of Maryland : 

I, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, of Anne Arundel 
County, in the said State, do make this my last will and 
testament, in manner following, hereby revoking all for- 
mer wills and codicils by me made, that is to say : — 

To my Grandson Charles Carroll and his Heirs, I 
devise all my Island in Chesapeake Bay, called Poplar 
Island also all my Lots and Houses in the City of An- 
napolis, (except the Houses and Lots hereinafter devised to 
my daughter Mary Caton), also all my Estate, Plantation, 
or tract of Land in the vicinity of Annapolis, called " the 
Farm," with the two adjoining Tracts of Land called 
Edges advance, and Edges addition, and all my tract of 
Land in Anne Arundel County, on the road from An- 
napolis to Elk Ridge, called " part of Trusty Friend," or 
the Half -way .House ; I also devise to him for his life 
without impeachment of waste, my Manor in Anne Arun- 
del County, called Doughoragen Manor, or Doughoragen 
Manor enlarged, with all my Lands adjoining thereto ; and 
after his death to his eldest Son, lawfully begotten whom 
he may leave alive, or in ventre sa mere at the time of bis 
death, and to the Heirs of such eldest Son for ever ; and 

394 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

in case my said Grandson should die without leaving any 
son then alive, or of whom his wife may be then pregnant, 
I then devise all my Raid Manor and adjoining Lands to 
his eldest legitimate male descendant in the eldest male 
line who may then be alive or in ventre ta mere, and to 
the Heirs of such eldest male descendant for ever ; and 
in default of such legitimate male descendant of my said 
Grandson in the male line, 1 then devise all my said 
Manor, and adjoining Lands to my daughters Mary Caton 
and Catharine Harper, and their Heirs as tenants in 
common and to the children, grand children, and de- 
scendants of my deceased Son Charles Carroll, and their 
Heirs as tennants in common in such manner as that 
each of my said daughters shall have each an equal third 
part, and the children of my said Son then alive, and the 
children or descendants of such of them as may then be 
dead shall have one equal third part among them, which 
last mentioned third shall be so divided that each child of 
my said Son then living shall have one equal part thereof 
in fee simple, and the children and other descendants of 
each child then dead one equal part equally among them 
in fee simple ^f stirpes, the children of each dead child 
or descendant standing in the place of their Parent, and 
taking the part which said parent if alive would have 
had, equally to be divided among them. And if at the 
death of my said Grandson, my said daughters or either 
of them should be dead, it is my will and I hereby devise 
and direct, that their children and descendants then alive 
shall stand in their places respectively as to my said 
Manor and adjoining I^ands, and shall take to them and 
their Heirs as tenants in common, the parts respectively 
which my said daughters if alive would have respectively 
taken, the third part of each of my daughters in such 
case, being divided among her children then alive, and 

Appendix C. 395 

the descendants of such of them as may be then dead in 
such manner as that each child then alive shall take in 
fee simple one equal part of the said third, and the chil- 
dren and other descendants of each child then dead one 
equal part in fee simple equally among them per stirpes, 
the children of each deceased child or descendant stand- 
ing in the place of their parent and taking equally among 
them the part which that parent if alive would have had, 
I give to my Grandson Charles Carroll all the Slaves and 
other personal property which at the time of my death 
shall be on the Farm called the Folly (which is part of my 
Manor) that is to say, personal property which at the 
time of my death shall be commonly employed or used 
on or belonging to the said Farm, commonly called the 
Folly. All the rest of the Slaves, Horses, Cattle, Hogs, 
Sheep, and farming utensils which at the time of my 
death shall be on, and belong to my aforesaid Manor 
called Doughoragen Manor, or Doughoragen Manor 
enlarged, I direct to be divided into three equal parts, 
one of which parts I give to my Grandson Charles Car- 
roll, his Executors, Administrators and Assigns, An- 
other third part to my three Grandchildren, Charles 
Carroll Harper, Robert Goodloe Harper, and Emily 
Harper ; equally to be divided between them share and 
share alike. And the remaining third part of the afore- 
said Negroes, Horses, Cattle, Hogs, Sheep and Farming 
Utensils I give to my four Granddaughters Mary Ann 
Patterson, Elizabeth Caton, Louisa Catherine Harvy, and 
Emily MacTavish, equally to be divided between them, 
and if either of my said last mentioned four Grand- 
daughters should die in my life-time, without leaving 
issue living at my death, the share which would have 
belonged to her in case she had survived me shall go to 
her surviving sisters, and the descendants of such of them 

396 Charles Carroll of CarrolUon. 

as may have died before me leaving issue equally to be 
divided between them, the issue of such deceased Grand- 
daughter to stand in the place, and be entitled to the 
share that would have belonged to such deceased Grand- 
daughter in case she had survived me. All the test of 
the personal property of every kind that may be on my 
said Manor at the time of my decease, I give to my 
Grandson Charles Carroll, his Executors, Administrators 
and Assigns. All my Wines in every other place except 
the said Manor I give to my two Daughters and my said 
Grandson, to be equally divided among them in such 
manner as that each shall have one third of each kind 
and quality. 

Whereas I hold sundry Lots in the City of Baltimore 
leased out on ground rent, by leases renewable forever, 
and other Lots with Houses on them which are rented 
from year to year, and some vacant Lots yielding no rent, 
I do hereby devise to my friends John MacTavish of the 
City of Baltimore and Lewis Neth of the City of Annap- 
olis, and Richard S. Steuart of the City of Baltimore 
aforesaid, and to the survivor of them and to the Heirs 
of such survivor, all my Lots and Houses and Rents in 
the City of Baltimore, except my Lots and Houses front- 
ing on Gay street and Frederick street, or either of them, 
between Second and Water Street. 1 also give and be- 
queath to the said John MacTavish, Lewis Neth, and 
Richard S. Steuart and the survivor of them and the Ex- 
ecutors and Administrators of such survivor, the follow- 
ing Slaves, that is to say, Luke, William, Richard, Dennis 
Carpenter, William, Robert, James, Old Henny and her 
Grandchildren, Polly and her daughter, Sarah, and Katy 
and her children, Peggy and her children, and Nellie - 
and her children, which said Slaves now reside and are 
employed at the house of Richard Caton in the City of 

Appendix C. 397 

Baltimore, or at the farm called Brookland Wood, near 
the City of Baltimore, also all the children and descend- 
ants of the above mentioned female Slaves, which may 
be born after the date of this my last will and testament, 
and during my life. I further give and bequeath to the 
said John MacTavish, Lewis Neth, and Richard 5. Steu- 
art, and the survivor of them, and the Executors and 
Administrators of such survivor, all the Plate, Household 
and Kitchen furniture which shall at the time of my 
decease be at the dwelling house of the said Richard 
Caton in the City of Baltimore, or at the said Farm 
called Brookland Wood and be commonly used and 
employed, or kept in or about the said two dwellings, or 
either of them. To have and to hold the said Lots, 
Houses, Rents, Slaves, Plate and Furniture and Property 
to the said John MacTavish, Lewis Neth, and Richard 
S. Steuart, and the survivor of them, and the Heirs, Ex- 
ecutors and Administrators of such survivors, for and 
during the lives of Richard Caton, and my daughter 
Mary Caton his wife and the life of the survivor of them 
upon the following trusts, that is to say, in trust for my 
daughter Mary Caton during her natural life, for her 
sole and separate use free from the controul or power 
of her present or any future husband, and to permit her 
or any person she may authorize to receive and take 
during her life the rents, profits and issues thereof, for 
her sole and separate use, and to make and execute dur- 
ing her life all such Sales, Conveyances, Leases, Trans- 
fers, and Assignments thereof, or any part thereof, as she 
by writing under her hand shall from time to time direct ; 
and the proceeds of all such Sales, Conveyances, Leases, 
Transfers, and Assignments from time to time to invest 
in such purchases of Stock, Funds, Rents or Property of 
any kind as she by writing under her hand may from 

398 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

time to time direct, to be held by them in their names in 
trust for her sole and separate use as aforesaid during 
her life, and in case her said husband Richard Caton 
should survive her, then in trust as to all the said Lots, 
Houses, Rents, Slaves, Plate, Furniture and also prop- 
erty of any kind that may have arisen from the Sale, 
Conveyance, Lease, Transfer, Assignment and reinvest- 
ment aforesaid, to hold the same for the use and benefit 
of the said Richard Caton during his life, and to permit 
him to take and receive during his life the rents and 
profits and issues thereof for his own use, and to make 
such Sales, Transfers, Assignments, Conveyances and 
Leases thereof, and of any part or parts thereof as he 
may direct by writing under his hand from time to time, 
and the proceeds of all such Sales, Conveyances, Leases, 
Transfers and Assignments, to invest in their own names 
in such Stocks or other productive funds as he may from 
time to time direct ; the same to be held in trust for hira 
in the same manner, and with the like benefit and advan- 
tages and powers, as are above mentioned, and from and 
after the death of the said Richard Caton and Mary 
Caton, I give, devise and bequeath all the said Lots, 
Houses, Rents, Slaves, Male and Furniture, and also all 
property of every kind accruing from the Sale, Trans- 
fer, Conveyance, Lease, Assignment and reinvestments 
aforesaid, unto my Granddaughters Mary Ann Patterson, 
Elizabeth Caton, Louisa Catharine Hervey, and Emily 
MacTavish, their Heirs, Executors, and Administrators 
as tenants in common, equally to be divided between 
them. I devise to my friends John MacTavish and 
Richard S. Steuart, of the City of Baltimore, and Lewis 
Neth, of the City of Annapolis, and the survivors and 
survivor of them, and to the Heirs of such survivor, 
Fifteen thousand eight hundred and ninety-seven Acres 

Appendix C. 399 

of Land in the State of Pennsylvania, being an undi- 
vided part of twenty-seven thousand six hundred and 
ninety-one acres held by me in different parts of that 
State. Also all my late dwelling house in the City of 
Annapolis, and the Outhouses, Garden, and Lots ad- 
joining and belonging to the said dwelling house, includ- 
ing the Lot between the said dwelling house and the 
house formerly occupied and owned by the late Doctor U. 
Scott, also the Carriage House on the opposite side of the 
street, that passes in front of my said dwelling house ; the 
said John MacTavish, Richard S. Steuart and Lewis Neth, 
and the survivors and survivor of them, to hold the said 
Lands, Lots and Houses, in trust for my daughter Mary 
Caton her Heirs and Assigns, for her sole and separate 
use free from the controul and power of her present or 
any future husband, with power to my said daughter Mary 
Caton, to sell, give, convey, or otherwise dispose of the 
said Lands, Lots and Houses, or any of them, or any 
part thereof, by deed or last will and testament, or in any 
other mode in which she may think proper in the same 
manner as if she were a feme sole. I devise to my daugh- 
ter Catharine Harper, and her Heirs and Assigns forever, 
Five thousand, eight hundred and ninety-seven acres of 
Land in the State of Pennsylvania, being one undivided 
part of the aforesaid Twenty-seven thousand six hundred 
and ninety-one acres held by me in different parts of the 
State of Pennsylvania aforesaid ; also all my Houses and 
Lots in the City of Baltimore which front on Gay street 
and Frederick street, or either of them, between Second 
and Water streets, to her the said Catharine Harper, her 
Heirs and Assigns for ever. The remaining part of the 
aforesaid Twenty-seven thousand six hundred and ninety- 
one acres of Land held by me in different parts of the 
State of Pennsylvania, I devise to my Granddaughters 

400 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

Elizabeth Chew Tucker, Mary Sophia Bayard, Hariet 
Carroll, and Louisa Catharine Carroll, and their Heirs 
as tenants in common to be equally divided among them. 
I devise to my Grandchildren Charles Carroll Harper, 
Robert Goodloe Harper, and Emily Harper and their 
Heirs forever as tenants in common all my Lands in 
Tioga and Steuben Counties in the State of New York 
commonly called Moreland Manor, as well as that part 
which I purchased from a certain Robert C. Johnson, as 
those parts which were purchased by my late Son-in-law 
Robert Goodloe Harper from the said Robert C. John- 
son and a certain Isaac Bronson, and conveyed to me by 
the said Robert G. Harper by way of mortgage. 

I give to my Grandson, Charles Carroll Harper, his 
Heirs and Assigns for ever my Plantation in Baltimore 
County, called Oakland, conveyed to me by my late Son- 
in-law, Robert Goodloe Harper. 

I devise and bequeath to the Right Revend Ambrose 
Arch Bishop of Baltimore and his Heirs, the Chapel on 
my Manor of Doughoragen near to the dwelling house, 
with all the Utensils, Vessels, Furniture, Books, and 
Vestments used in the said Chapel for the purposes of 
public worship, and for the accommodation of the offici- 
ating Priest, and the Land on which the said Chapel 
stands ; and also one square Acre of Ground near to the 
said Chapel including the Burying Ground now used for 
burying the dead of the Congregation worshipping in the 
said Chapel ; and also a right of way to and from the 
said Chapel and Burying Ground for ever ; for the pur- 
poses of attending the duties of religion, burying the 
dead, making repairs and other necessary purposes. 
And also the sum of Five thousand dollars now due to 
me from the Reverend John Tcssier, being the part that 
remains due of the sum of Fifteen thousand dollars orig- 

Appendix C. 401 

inally lent by me to the Reverend William Dubourg, and 
all my Right, Title, Interest and Estate of, in, and to, a 
certain piece or parcel of ground within the present 
limits of the City of Baltimore, heretofore mortgaged to 
me to secure the payment of the said sum of Fifteen 
thousand dollars, and also all arrears of interest on the 
said sum of Five thousand dollars that may be due or 
growing due to me at the time of my decease, and I 
direct, and my will is, that in the general division of the 
residuum of my personal Estate directed by this my will 
to be made into three parts, this sum of live thousand 
dollars shall be charged to the family of my Son lately 
deceased, and taken as a part of the third allotted to 
that Branch of my family ; and that in the division of 
that third between my Grandson and his sisters, or their 
representatives, the said sum of Five thousand dollars 
shall be charged to my Grandson solely, and considered 
as part of his portion of that third. I make this disposi- 
tion because I believe that the large Estate allotted by 
this will to my Grandson, will greatly benefit by the use 
and application which will be made of this sum of money, 
while the other branches of my family will not be in the 
way of participating in this benefit. 

I hereby release and discharge my Granddaughter Mary 
Ann Patterson from the payment of her two notes to me 
and also from all rent due from her to me at the date of 
this my last will and testament, provided the said notes 
and rent shall remain unpaid at my death, and provided 
also, that nothing herein contained shall be construed 
to release any rent which may become or fall due after 
the date of this my last will and testament. 

I give and bequeath to my friend John MacTavish, 
the sum of Twenty thousand dollars. 

All the rest and residue of my Estate, real, personal, 

402 Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

and raise, I direct to be divided by my Executors into 
three parts as equal as may be in value with regard to 
present productiveness as well as to future ; and out of 
one of those thirds I direct them to raise by such means 
as they may judge most advantageous and beneficial for 
those to be ultimately interested in this third, the follow- 
ing annuity ; for which purpose I give them all the neces- 
sary powers, including the power to convey real estate in 
fee simple when required, for accomplishing the object ; 
to transfer Stocks, and to sell personal estate, that is to 
say, an annuity of Three thousand dollars for my daugh- 
ter-in-law Harriet Carroll during her life, to be paid to 
her quarterly or half yearly and in full and entire dis- 
charge and satisfaction of the sum of Three thousand 
dollars annually secured to her by her marriage settle- 
ment, and charged thereby on my Manor of CarroUton 
and the adjoining Lands, which are to be fully discharged 
and exonerated therefrom by this payment ; and if my 
said daughter-in-law should decline receiving this annu- 
ity in discharge and satisfaction of her marriage settle- 
ment, I then authorize and direct my Executors to 
retain the annuity, or the fund out of which it is to arise 
in their own hands during her life, and to pay the said 
sum to her annually in discharge of her claim under that 
Settlement. And I request my said daughter-in-law to 
accept this annuity in lieu of the said provision by her 
marriage Settlement, and in consideration thereof, to 
release my said Manor of CarroUton by a sufficient deed 
from all claim on account of the annuity provided for 
her as aforesaid by her marriage Settlement, so as to 
leave my said Manor free and unincumbered to those to 
whom I have already conveyed it after the termination 
of the life estate reserved to myself ; because the Sale of 
it should they be inclined to sell it, might be injured by 

Appendix C. 403 

its remaining in any degree subject to this encumbrance ; 
and as an equal sum is secured to her by this my will, 
she can lose nothing by the Release. And it is my will 
that after the said annuity shall be raised and secured 
out of the said Third, and after my said daughter-in-law 
shall have by a good and sufficient Deed consented 
to accept and receive the Annuity of Three thousand 
dollars for her life, hereby provided for her in lieu and 
discharge of the Annuity of Three thousand dollars pro- 
vided for her by her marriage Settlement aforesaid, and 
shall by such good and sufficient deed have released my 
said Manor of Carrollton and other Lands in Frederick 
County from all claim under, or by virtue of the said 
marriage Settlement, and not before, all that remains of 
it shall be divided equally by my Executors between my 
Grandson Charles Carroll, and four Granddaughters, his 
Sisters, or such of the whole five as shall be alive at the 
time of my decease, and the children of such as may be 
then dead ; giving to each, one equal part, and to the 
children of any of them that may be then dead equally 
among them, the part which their parents respectively 
would have taken if alive, and that in case of any part of 
the said Third being retained as a fund for producing 
the said annuity in whole or in part, such fund shall be 
divided and disposed of in the same manner when the 
said annuity shall cease. And if it should so happen 
that at the time of my decease all my said five Grand- 
children should be dead without leaving any children 
or descendants I then will that all the aforesaid residue 
of the said third shall go to my daughters, Mary Caton 
and Catharine Harper share and share alike, and if either 
or both of them should be then dead, their parts respec- 
tively shall go to their children, to be equally divided 
among them, in such manner that the children of each 

404 Charles Carroll of CarrolUon, 

shall take equally among them, the part that their mother 
if alive would have taken. And as to the remaining two 
thirds of all the general residue of my estate directed 
above to be divided into three equal parts, I devise and 
bequeath one of those thirds to my friends John Mac- 
Tavlsh and Richard S. Steuart of the City of Baltimore, 
and Lewis Neth of the City of Annapolis, and the sur- 
vivors and survivor of them and to the Heirs, Executors, 
and Administrators of such survivor during the life time 
of my daughter Mary Caton, in trust for my said daughter 
Mary Caton, during her life, for her sole and separate 
use, free from the controul or power of her present or any 
future husband ; and to permit her, or any person whom 
she may authorize to receive and take during her life, the 
rents, profits, interest, income and dividends thereof for 
her sole and separate use ; and to make and execute 
from time to time during her life all such Sales, Convey- 
ances, Leases, Transfers, and Assignments thereof or of 
any part thereof, as she by writing under her hand shall 
from time to time direct ; and Hie proceeds of all such 
Sales, Conveyances, Leases, Transfers, and Assignments 
from time to time to invest in such purchases of Stock, 
Funds, Rents, or property of any kind, as she may by 
writing under her hand direct from time to time to be 
held by them in their names in trust for her sole and 
separate use as aforesaid during her life. And upon the 
death of the said Mary Caton, I give, devise, and bequeath 
the said one third of the general Residuum aforesaid 
unto my Granddaughters, Mary Ann Patterson, Elizabeth 
Caton, Louisa Catherine Hervey, and Emily MacTavish, 
their Heirs, Executors and Administrators forever as ten- 
ants in common, and if any one or more of my said Grand- 
daughters shall die in my lifetime without issue, the share 
that would have belonged to such Granddaughter in case 

Appendix C. 405 

she had survived me, shall go and belong to the surviv- 
ing sisters of such deceased Granddaughter and the issue 
of such of them as shall have died leaving issue, such 
issue to stand in the place, and have the share that would 
have belonged to his, her, or their mother if she had then 
been living. And as to all the remaining third part of 
the general Residuum aforesaid, I give, devise and be- 
queath the said one third of the general residuum afore- 
said to my Grandchildren, Charles Carroll Harper, Emily 
Harper, and Robert Goodloe Harper, their Heirs, Exec- 
utors and Administrators as tenants in common. But if 
my daughter Catharine Harper shall within six months 
after my death, convey to my last mentioned Grandchil- 
dren or their descendants in fee simple, all those parts 
of the Manor of Carrollton heretofore conveyed by me 
to the said Catharine Harper (the said Land to be con- 
veyed to the said children or descendants of such of them 
as may be dead, in such proportions, as at the time of 
the making of the said deed, they shall be respectively 
entitled in the said last mentioned one third of the gen- 
eral Residuum aforesaid) then, as soon, as the said con- 
veyance shall be duly made by the said Catharine Harper, 
and the Title to the said Lands become legally and fully 
vested in my said Grandchildren or their descendants in 
manner aforesaid, I then and in that event give to my 
daughter, her Heirs, Executors and Administrators the 
said last mentioned one third of the general Residuum 

And whereas I have heretofore given to my Son and 
daughters from time to time, and paid and advanced for 
them respectively, sundry sums of money for their Settle- 
ment, Establishment, and Advancement in life, and may 
hereafter make further advances for them respectively 
for the same purpose, all which sums so advanced are to 

406 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

be charged to them respectively, and whereas for the 
better explaining of my will and intention in this respect, 
I have raised accounts with my Grandson, Charles Car- 
roll as the Administrator of his father, and with my 
daughters respectively in a Book marked F. A. in which 
I have charged and intend hereafter to charge each of 
them respectively in their General Accounts with all such 
sums as are to be considered as given towards the Estab- 
lishment, Settlement, and Advancement in life of the 
three Branches of my Family, and are consequently to be 
carried to their debit ; Now my will is, and I do hereby 
bequeath, direct and devise that all sums charged in my 
said Book marked F. A. against my Grandson Charles 
Carroll as the Administrator of his father shall stand and 
be debited in the division of the general Residuum of 
my estate as a part of the one third of the said residuum 
devised to my said Grandson and his four sisters, and shall 
be allotted and accounted for as a part of their said one 
third. And all sums charged against my daughter Mary 
Caton shall stand and be debited in the said division of 
the general residuum as a part of the one third of the 
said residuum devised in trust for my said daughter 
Mary Caton for life with remainder to her four daughters 
and shall be allotted and accounted for as a part of the 
said one third, and all sums charged against my daughter 
Catharine Harper shall stand and be debited in the said 
division of the general residuum as a part of the one third 
of the said residuum devised to her three children, and 
shall be allotted and accounted for as a part of the said 
one third, but neither of them shall be debited or charged 
in the said division with any interest on the said sums so 
advanced, or to be advanced to them, or on any of them, 
nor with any sums heretofore allowed and paid to them 
respectively by way of annuity or annual stipend for their 

Appendix C. 407 

support and maintenance or personal expences, or with 
any sums hereafter to be so allowed and paid to them 
respectively for the same purposes. 

And it is my will, and I do hereby further devise, be- 
queath and direct that in any case my said daughters or 
Grandchildren, or either of them should die in my life* 
time, none of the provisions hereby made for such of 
them as may so die shall be considered as lapsed or void 
Devises or Legacies, but that the estates and Interests of 
every kind hereby limited to take effect at their deaths 
respectively, in case of their surviving me shall take 
effect respectively at the time of my decease in case of 
any of them dying before me, in the same manner in all 
respects as if they had respectively survived me and then 
died, and when no Estates or Interests are hereby limited 
to take effect on the death of either of my Daughters, or 
Grandchildren it is my will, and I do hereby further devise, 
bequeath and direct that in case of the death of either or 
both of my daughters or any of my Grandchildren, in my 
lifetime, the property interest and estates of every kind 
hereby devised or bequeathed by way of Trust orotherwise 
to each of them respectively so dying, shall at my decease 
go to and be vested in the same persons, and for the 
same interests and Estates therein respectively, and sub- 
ject to the same conditions, powers and provisions in all 
respects, who would have taken such property, interest 
and estates, either by operation of Law or by virtue of 
this my last will in case the daughter or Grandchild 
so dying, had survived me and then died ; and I hereby 
devise and bequeath the said Property Interest and 
Estates accordingly to such persons, for such Interests 
and Estates therein and subject to such conditions, 
powers and provisions as are aforesaid respectively, ex- 
cepting however, out of this clause of my will, those 

408 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

cases where there is an express limitation over, in case 
of the death of a Deviiee or Legatee in my Lifetime, pro- 
vided such express limitation shall be to a different per- 
son or persons from those designated in this clause of 
my Will. 

It is my will, and I direct that no Inventory shall be 
made or returned of my personal Estate, but, that my 
Executors sign and file in the Orphans Court of the proper 
County an Admission of Assets to pay all just demands 
against me ; and confidently relying on the friendly and 
affectionate disposition of my children and Executors 
towards each other, I do earnestly recommend that if 
any difference of opinion should arise among them touch- 
ing this my will, or in the execution or construction 
thereof they will agree to refer it to the decision of some 
common friend or friends, in preference to any legal 

And as it is not my intention or expectation that the 
Trustees appointed by my will, or the survivor of them, 
or the Heirs, Executors, or Administrators of such sur- 
vivor, shall have any labor or trouble, or incur any risk 
or expense in the performance of the Trusts created by 
my said Will, but that the various Devizees and legatees 
shall and will lake upon themselves all the business, 
labour, trouble and expense of the affairs of my Estate ; 
merely acting in the name, and with the permission and 
sanction of the said Trustees when necessary ; I do 
therefore for avoiding and preventing any doubt that 
might hereafter arise on the subject of Commission or 
Compensation to my said Trustees, or either of them, 
or either of their Heirs, Executors or Administrators, 
Declare and Direct that no Commission or Compensation 
whatever shall be allowed or paid to my said Trustees or 
either of them, or to the Heirs, Executors or Adminis- 

Appendix C. 409 

trators of the survivor of them for 01 on account of any 
matter or thing to be done, directed or assented to by 
them, or either, or any of them, in or about the affairs of 
my Estate, or the Execution of the said Trusts, or either 
or any of them, except the necessary expenses which they 
or any of them may from time to time incur in and about 
the said Trusts, or any of them ; which expenses I direct 
to be paid, or borne by the persons respectively, for 
whom or for whose benefit the acts giving rise to such 
Expenses shall respectively be done. 

Having already divided my Manor and Lands in Fred- 
erick County among the different Branches of my family, 
reserving to myself a Life Estate therein, and having 
caused the said Lands (including my Manor of Carroll- 
ton, and all the Lands which I hold adjoining it, or in 
its vicinity) to be divided into twelve parts or Lots, 
equal in quantity and value, by Peter Mantz, John H. 
Simmons and Ignatius Davis, who by my direction have 
made a plot of the said Lands and division, with an ac- 
companying Table of Courses, all which I have approved, 
and attested my approbation by signing the said Table 
on the Eighth day of February One thousand, eight hun- 
dred and twenty one, and having in further pursuance 
of my plan in this respect, divided the parts by Lot 
among the different Branches of my family, and executed 
Conveyances to each of them for their several parts, re- 
serving to myself a Life Estate in the whole, — One of 
which Conveyances is to my daughter Catharine Harper 
and her Heirs by way of Covenant to stand seized, bear- 
ing date on the seventh day of February One Thousand 
Eight Hundred and Twenty one, of and for Lots Num- 
bers Six, Eight, Eleven and Twelve, and the small or 
two acre Lots, Numbers Six, Eight, Eleven and Twelve 
by metes and bounds, being one equal third part in 

410 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

quantity and value of the said Manor and Lands ; One 
other of which Conveyances is to Robert Patterson and 
Mary Ann Patterson and the Survivor of them, and the 
Heirs of such Survivor by way of Lease and Release 
bearing date respectively on the sixth and seventh days 
of February One Thousand, Eight hundred and twenty 
one, and for Six hundred Acres of Land, part of the said 
Manor by metes and bounds, and of and for Lot Num- 
ber Nine, and the small or two acre Lot number nine, 
also by metes and bounds being together one equal 
Twelfth part of the whole of the said Manor and Lands 
in quantity and value ; One other of which Conveyances 
is to my Granddaughter Elizabeth Caton and her Heirs 
by way of Covenant to stand seized bearing date on the 
Seventh day of February One Thousand, Eight hundred 
and twenty one, of and for Lot Number One, and the 
small or two acre Lot Number One by metes and bounds, 
being one equal Twelfth part of the said Manor and 
Lands in quantity and value ; — One other of which Con- 
veyances is to my Granddaughter, Louisa Catharine 
Hervey, commonly called Lady Hervey, and her Heirs 
by way of covenant to stand seized, bearing date on the 
Seventh day of February One thousand, Eight hun- 
dred and twenty one, of and for Lot number Two and 
the small or two acre Lot number Two by metes and 
bounds, being one equal Twelfth part of the said 
Manor and Lands in quantity and value : — One other of 
which Conveyances is to my Granddaughter Emily Mac- 
Tavish and her Heirs by way of Covenant to stand 
seized, bearing date on the Seventh day of February, 
One thousand, Eight hundred and twenty one, of and 
for Lot number Five, and the small or two acre Lot 
number Five by metes and bounds, being one equal 
Twelfth part of the said Manor and Lands in quan- 

Appendix C. 411 

tity and value ; which four twelfth parts last mentioned 
are the portion of the said Manor and Lands for- 
merly destined for my daughter Mary Cat on, and by 
consent of her and her husband thus conveyed to her 
said four Daughters in her stead ; One other of which 
Conveyances is to my Granddaughter Mary Sophia Bay- 
ard and her Heirs by way of Covenant to stand seized, 
bearing date on the Seventh day of February One thou- 
sand, eight hundred and twenty one, of and for Lot 
number Ten and the small or two acre Lot number Ten 
by metes and bounds, being one equal twelfth part in 
quantity and value of the said Manor and Lands ; One 
other of which Conveyances is to John Eager Howard 
the younger, and Doctor William Howard both of Balti- 
more, and the Survivor of them, and the Heirs of such 
Survivor in Trust for my Granddaughter Elizabeth Chew 
Carroll now Elizabeth Chew Tucker and her Heirs, sub- 
ject to certain charges, of and for Lot number Three and 
the small or two acre Lot number Three by metes and 
bounds, being one equal Twelfth part in quantity and 
value of all the said Manor and Lands by deeds of Lease 
and Release bearing date respectively on the sixth and 
seventh days of February one thousand eight hundred 
and twenty one ; One other of which Conveyances is to 
the said John Eager Howard the younger, and Doctor 
William Howard and the Survivor of them, and the Heirs 
of such Survivor in trust for my Granddaughter, Harriet 
Carroll and her Heirs, subject to certain charges of and 
for Lot number Four and the small or two acre Lot 
number Four by metes and bounds being one equal 
twelfth part in quantity and value of all the said Manor 
and Lands by deeds of Lease and Release bearing date 
respectively on the sixth and seventh days of February 
one thousand, eight hundred and twenty one ; One other 

412 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

of which Conveyances is to the said John Eager Howard 
the younger, and Doctor William Howard, and the Sur- 
vivor of them and the Heirs of such Survivor, in Trust 
for my Granddaughter Louisa Catharine Carroll and her 
Heirs subject to certain charges of and for Lot number 
Seven, and the small or two acre Lot number Seven, by 
metes and bounds being one equal Twelfth part in quan- 
tity and value of all the said Manor and Lands by deeds 
of Lease and Release, bearing dates respectively on the 
sixth and seventh days of February one thousand, eight 
hundred and twenty one ; and, as doubts may exist con- 
cerning the validity and operation of the said Convey- 
ances or some of them by reason of outstanding Estates 
in Trustees in one undivided third heretofore conveyed 
to my daughter Mary Caton and her Heirs and of vari- 
ous contingent interests and limitations over of parts of 
the said undivided third created by conveyances made 
of parts of the said third by my said daughter and her 
husband to some of their daughters ; all difficulty to 
arise from which doubts, I am desirous of preventing by 
devising to the same persons and their Heirs, any in- 
terest in their respective parts that may remain in me at 
the time of my decease ; I do therefore devise in man- 
ner following ; that is to say, To my Daughter Catharine 
Harper and her Heirs all the aforesaid Lots, Numbers 
Six, Eight, Eleven and Twelve, and the small or two 
acre Lots Numbers Six, Eight, Eleven and Twelve, 
which are conveyed to her as aforesaid according to the 
metes and bounds expressed in the said deed to her of 
the seventh day of February, One thousand, Eight Hun- 
dred and Twenty one ; and to the said Mary Ann Patter- 
son, the survivor of the said Robert Patterson and her 
Heirs, all the aforesaid Six hundred acres of Land and 
Lots Numbers Nine which are conveyed to the said Mary 

Appendix C. 413 

Ann and Robert as aforesaid, according to the several 
metes and bounds thereof, expressed in the said deeds 
of Lease and Release to them of the sixth and seventh 
days of February, One thousand, eight hundred and 
twenty one ; to my said Granddaughter Elizabeth Caton 
and her Heirs, all the aforesaid Lot Number One, and 
the small or two acre Lot Number one, which are con- 
veyed to her as aforesaid according to the metes and 
bounds expressed in the said deed to her bearing date on 
the seventh day of February, One thousand eight hun- 
dred and twenty one ; to my said Granddaughter Louisa 
Catharine Hervey and her Heirs, all the aforesaid Lot 
Number two, and the small or two acre Lot Number 
Two, which are conveyed to her as aforesaid according 
to the metes and bounds expressed in the said deed to 
her, bearing date on the seventh day of February, One 
thousand eight hundred and twenty one ; to my said 
Granddaughter Emily MacTavish and her Heirs, all the 
aforesaid Lot Number Five, and the small or two acre 
Lot Number Five which are conveyed to her as aforesaid 
according to the metes and bounds expressed in the said 
deed to her, bearing date on the seventh day of February 
one thousand eight hundred and twenty one ; To my 
said Granddaughter Mary Sophia Bayard and her Heirs, 
all the aforesaid Lot Number Ten and the small or 
two acre Lot Number Ten which are conveyed to 
her as aforesaid according to the metes and bounds 
expressed in the said deed to her, bearing date on the 
Seventh day of February, One Thousand Eight hundred 
and Twenty one ; and to the said Doctor William Howard 
the Survivor of the said John Eager Howard the younger, 
and his Heirs, all the aforesaid Lot Number Three, and 
the small or two acre Lot Number Three which are con- 
veyed to them as aforesaid in Trust for my said Grand- 

414 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

daughter Elizabeth Chew Carroll now Elizabeth Chew 
Tucker and her Heirs, and for other purposes, according 
to the metes and bounds expressed in the said deeds of 
Lease and Release thereof to them, bearing date respect- 
ively on the sixth and seventh days of February, one 
thousand eight hundred and twenty one ; which devise 
is upon the same Trusts, and for the same intents and 
purposes as are expressed in the deed of Release last 
aforesaid ; and to the said Doctor William Howard, the 
Survivor of the said John Eager Howard the younger, 
and his Heirs, all the aforesaid Lot Number Four, and 
the small or two acre Lot Number Four, which was con- 
veyed to them as aforesaid in Trust for my said Grand 
daughter Harriet Carroll and her Heirs, and for other 
purposes, according to the metes and bounds expressed 
in the said deeds of Lease and Release thereof to them, 
bearing date respectively on the Sixth and Seventh days 
of February, One Thousand, Eight Hundred and Twenty 
one, which devise is upon the same Trusts, and for the 
same intents and purposes as are expressed in the deed 
of Release last aforesaid ; and to the said Doctor 
William Howard the Survivor of the said John Eager 
Howard the younger and his Heirs all the aforesaid 
Lot Number Seven, and the small or two acre Lot Num- 
ber Seven which are conveyed to them as aforesaid in 
Trust for my said Granddaughter Louisa Catharine Car- 
roll and her Heirs, and for other purposes, according to 
the metes and bounds expressed in the said deeds of 
Lease and Release thereof to them, bearing date respec- 
tively on the Sixth and Seventh days of February, One 
Thousand, Eight hundred and Twenty one ; which De- 
vise is upon the same Trusts, and for the same intents 
and purposes as are expressed in the deed of Release 
last aforesaid- 

Appendix C. 415 

And whereas I have Contracted, and may hereafter 
contract for the Sale of sundry parcels and tracts of land, 
to Conveyances of and for which the Contracting parties 
will become Entitled on fulfilling the conditions of their 
respective Contracts, which may not take place during 
my life, I do hereby direct and empower my Executors 
hereinafter named, and the survivors or survivor of them 
to execute Conveyances for and of all such Lands in 
Fee simple or otherwise according to the respective con- 
tracts to the respective contracting parties, or those 
claiming under them, on the fulfilment of the Conditions 
of Sale by them respectively, and I do hereby Devise all 
such Lands to my said Executors and to the Survivor of 
them and the Heirs of such Survivor for the purpose of 
better enabling them so to Convey. 

I have already paid for my Grandson Charles Carroll 
a sum of money in order to prevent the Sale of Home 
Wood, which belongs to him; and may hereafter pay 
other sums for his individual benefit ; and as it is not 
just that the portion of my Estate devised to his Sisters 
should be charged with money paid for his exclusive 
benefit, I hereby direct that all sums (except the annual 
allowance for the support of himself and his family) 
which shall be charged against him not as Administrator 
in my said Book marked F. A., and which shall remain 
open against him at the time of my decease, shall be 
allotted and charged against him as a part of his share 
of the one Third of the General Residuum devised to 
him and his Sisters, and shall be accounted for out of 
his part of the said one third. 

I do hereby nominate, Constitute, and appoint Robert 
Oliver, Richard Caton, and John MacTavish, Executors 
of this my last Will and Testament. But as the said 
John MacTavish is not a Citizen of the United States, 

41 6 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

and may theiefore at the time of my death not be quali- 
fied by Law to act as one of my Executors, I do therefore 
(in case the said John MacTavish by reason of any legal 
Impediment should be disqualified from acting as one of 
my Executors), hereby substitute my Granddaughter, 
Emily MacTavish in the place of her husband, the said 
John MacTavish, and in that case constitute and appoint 
the said Emily MacTavish, Executrix, and the said Rob- 
ert Oliver and Richard Caton, Executors, of this my last 
Will and Testament. And I do further will and direct 
that no Commission or Compensation whatsoever be al- 
lowed on the Settlement of my Estate ; it being my ex- 
press desire that no expense be incurred in the winding 
up of the same, excepting such, as shall be just and 

I give to Mrs. Jane Shaw the sum of One Thousand 
dollars provided she survives me. 

My servant Bill has served me faithfully, and if he 
survives me, I wish to make his latter years comfortable. 
But at my death he may be over forty-five years of age, 
and therefore, incapable of receiving a manumission. 
If he should be over forty-five at the time of my death, 
I request that, he may be released from service, and that 
my Grandson, Charles Carroll, pay him an Annuity of 
Fifty dollars a year, during his Life, and to permit him, 
if he desires it, to reside on the Manor of Doughoregan. 
If my said servant Bill should be under forty-five years 
of age at the time of my death, I hereby manumit him, 
and set him free at my death, and direct my said Grand- 
son to pay him the above Annuity. 

In witness whereof, I have to this my last Will and 
Testament set and subscribed my Hand and Seal, this 
second day of September, One Thousand, Eight hundred 
and Twenty-five. Ch, Carroll of Carrollton. 


Appendix C. 417 

Signed, Sealed, Published, and Declared by the Tes- 
tator as his last Will and Testament, in the presence of 
us, who at his request, in his presence, and in the pres- 
ence of each other, have subscribed our Names as 
Witnesses thereto, the following interlineations and cor- 
rections being first made, that is to say, the words " each 
of " being first inserted between the words " of " and 
" my " in the eighth line of the fifth page, the words 
" last mentioned four " between the words " said " and 
" Granddaughters " in the fourth line from the bottom 
of the seventh page, the words " Katy and " between 
the words " and " and " her " in the fifteenth line of the 
tenth page, and the words " and Nelly and her children " 
between the words " children " and " which " in the 
following line of the same page ; the words " and the 
house formerly occupied " in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth lines of the sixteenth page being first expunged, 
and the words "and owned" at the commencement of 
the fourth Hue from the bottom of the same page being 
inserted ; the words " of her " in the ninth line of the 
seventeenth page being also expunged as well as the 
words " Two Thousand " in the fourth line of the eigh- 
teenth page ; the words " and also all arrears of interest 
on the said Sum of Five Thousand Dollars " being in- 
serted between the words " Dollars " and " that " in the 
fifth line from the botlom of the twenty-first page; 
the words " and rent " between the words " notes " and 
" shall " in the eleventh line of the twenty-third page ; 
the words " and with my Daughters respectively " be- 
tween the words " father " and " in " in the fourth line 
from the bottom of the thirty-fourth page, the words " as 
a part of the one third of the said residuum " between 
the words " residuum " and " devised " in the first line 
of the thirty-sixth page ; and the words " now Elizabeth 

418 Charles Carroll of Carrolllon. 

Chew Tucker " being also inserted between the third and 
fourth lines from the bottom of the forty-seventh page, 
and the same words again introduced between the sec- 
ond and third lines of the fifty-fifth page ; the numerical 
figures in red ink at the comers of the pages from lorty- 
five to fifty-eight inclusive being also Expunged. 
Witnesses : 
R. B. Taney, 
Allen Thomas, 
Geo. Howard, 
Geo. Cook. 

make this Codicil to my last Will and Testament. 

i si. I give and devise to my Grandson, Charles Car- 
roll, his Heirs and Assigns, all my Manor and Lands 
situate in Anne Arundle County, called, or -known by the 
name of Doughoregan Manor, or Doughoregan Manor 
enlarged, together with all my other Lands adjoining to 
the said Tract or Tracts of land, or to either of them. 
But, if my said Grandson, Charles Carroll, shall die with- 
out leaving issue, Male, living at the time of his death, 
or in ventre sa mere, then, I give and devise all of the 
said Lands, from and after the death of the said Charles 
Carroll to my daughters Mary Caton and Catharine 
Harper and to all the daughters now born, or hereafter 
to be born, of my said Grandson, Charles Carroll, their 
Heirs and Assigns for ever, as Tenants in common, and 
not as joint Tenants to be divided between them in the 
following manner. The one third of all of the said Lands 
above mentioned to my daughter Mary Caton, her Heirs 
and Assigns. Another third part to my daughter Catha- 
rine Harper, her Heirs and Assigns ; and the remaining 
third part to all the daughters of my said Grandson now 

Appendix C. 419 

born, or hereafter to be born, their Heirs and Assigns 
for ever, equally to be divided between them as Tenants 
in common. 

3d. In my Will I have devised to my daughter Catha- 
rine Harper, Five thousand Eight hundred and Ninety- 
Seven Acres of land in Pennsylvania, being an undivided 
part of Twenty-seven thousand Six Hundred and Ninety- 
one Acres, and also certain Houses and Lots fronting on 
Gay street in the City of Baltimore, — Now, I do by this 
Codocil give and devise the said Five thousand Eight 
Hundred and Ninety-Seven Acres of land and the said 
Houses and Lots fronting on Gay Street, in the City of 
Baltimore, to my three Grandchildren, Charles C. Har- 
per, Emily Harper, and Robert Harper, their Heirs and 
Assigns, for ever, to be equally divided between them as 
Tenants in Common. 

3d. In my said Will I have devised and bequeathed 
sundry Lots and Rents in the City of Baltimore, together 
with the plate, household and kitchen furniture which 
may be commonly used or employed in or about the 
House in which my Soii-in Law, Richard Caton, resides 
in the City of Baltimore, or at the Farm in Baltimore 
County, called Brookland Wood at the time of my death, 
and also all the Slaves commonly employed in or at, and 
about the said House or Farm at the time of my death 
to my friends John MacTavish, Richard Steuart, and 
Lewis Neth, in trust for the separate use of my Daughter 
Mary Caton during her life, and after her death for the 
use of the said Richard Caton during his life, and after 
his death to their four daughters, Mary (now Marchioness 
of Wellesly), Elizabeth Caton, Louisa, and Emily, their 
Heirs and Assigns for ever, as by the said Will, reference 
being thereunto had, will more fully and at large appear. 
Now I do hereby revoke so much of the said clause 

4 20 Charles Carroll of CarrolUon. 

above mentioned in my Will as directs that the said 
property so devised or bequeathed, should be for the 
use of my Son-in-Law, Richard Cat on, for and during 
his life, in case he should survive his wife, Mary Caton. 
And, I will and direct that, all the Rents, Lots, Slaves, 
Plate, Household, and Kitchen furniture, and property 
mentioned, and devised or bequeathed by the aforesaid 
Clause of my Will, shall upon the death of my daughter 
Mary Caton, be conveyed and transferred by my said 
Trustees to my four Granddaughters, Mary (Marchioness 
of Wellesly), Elizabeth Caton, Louisa, now Lady Hervey, 
and Emily MacTavish, to them, their Heirs, Executors, 
Administrators, and Assigns as Tenants in Common. 

4th. I give and devise to my friends, John MacTavish, 
Doctor Richard Steuart, and Lewis Neth, and to the Sur- 
vivors and Survivor of them and to the Heirs of such 
Survivor, all my Lots and Rents in the Village of Caton - 
ville in Baltimore County, and all my right, title, and 
interest in, to, or out of the said Lots, in trust for the 
separate use of my daughter Mary Caton during her 
natural life, free from the controul of her husband, and 
from and after the death of the said Mary Caton for the 
use of her four daughters Mary, Elizabeth, Louisa, and 
Emily, their Heirs and Assigns for ever, in equal propor- 
tions as tenants in Common. 

Sth. I give and bequeath to my Granddaughter Emily 
MacTavish the one half of the Negroes and the one 
half of all the other personal property belonging to me, 
which may be on the farm called the Folly, part of 
Doughoregan Manor, at the time of my death ; but, this 
Bequest is not intended to embrace those Slaves on the 
said farm which formerly belonged to my Son, Charles 

6th. I give and bequeath to my Granddaughter 

Appendix C. 421 

Emily MacTavish, the following Negroes that is to say, 
Nancy (Gardener Harry's daughter), and her children, 
and Basil her husband — also Rachel Hart and her chil- 
dren and increase, William, (Charlott's son), Adolphus, 
(Beale's son), Susan, (Titia's daughter), and Julie, (Mil- 
ley's daughter), and also all the children of the above- 
mentioned female Slaves which may be born after the 
date of this Codocil and before my death. 

7th. I give, to my four Grand -daughters, Mary, (Mar- 
chioness of Wellesley), Elizabeth Caton, Louisa (Lady 
Hervey), and Emily McTavish to be equally divided 
between them as Tennants in Common, the following 
Slaves, some of whom at the date of this my Codocil are 
learning the several Trades annexed to their Names, 
that is to say, Paul, (Beat's son) Blacksmith ; James, 
(Harry's son) Ploughmaker ; William, (Toney's son) 
Stone Mason; Sally, (Charles' daughter) at Gibbons's; 
Moses, (Joe's son) Wheelwright ; Robert, a Shoemaker ; 
Kitty, (Ben's daughter) at this time at the Farm called 
Brookland Wood, and Ellen, (Harry Hart's daughter) 
who is also at Brookland. 

And it is my Will, and I do hereby direct that, if any 
of the Slaves mentioned in the two last preceding Clauses 
of this Codocil, that is to say in the sixth and seventh 
Clauses of this Codocil, shall be at Doughoregan Manor 
at the time of my death, tbey shall not be reckoned 
among the Slaves to be distributed in the manner men- 
tioned in my Will, nor shall the Slaves bequeathed to 
my Grand -daughters, or either of them in the said two 
Clauses of this Codocil be considered as a part of the 
one third of the Slaves on Doughoregan Manor be- 
queathed in my Will to my four last mentioned Grand- 
daughters to be equally divided between them. 

8th. I bequeath to my Grand-daughter Emily Mc'l'av- 

422 Charles Carroll of Carroltion. 

ish the one half of all the Tobacco, Corn, and Wheat 
which shall be on Doughoregan Manor and belong to me 
at the time of my death, and which at that time shall not 
have been sold, or contracted to be sold ; excepting from 
this bequest what may be due from Tenants. In this be- 
quest I mean to include the tobacco, Corn, and Wheat 
growing, or remaining on the ground, and also that which 
may be secured in Houses, Barnes, or otherwise, at the 
time of my death. I also give to the said Emily McTav- 
ish the one half of the plate and household furniture 
which shall belong to my dwelling House on Doughore- 
gan Manor at the time of my death. The other half of 
the said Tobacco, Corn, and Wheat, plate and household 
furniture, and all rents due at the time of my death to 
remain to my Grandson Charles Carroll. 

otli. I bequeath to my Grand-daughter Elizabeth Caton 
Ten thousand Dollars ; and also to my Grand- daughter 
Louisa (Lady Hervey) Ten Thousand Dollars. And I 
hereby direct thai the said Two Legacies, amounting to- 
gether to Twenty Thousand Dollars, be taken out of the 
one third of the General Residuum of my Estate devised 
and bequeathed in my aforesaid Will in trust for my 
daughter Mary Caton for life, and after her death to her 
four daughters. The said Sum of Twenty Thousand 
Dollars is to be reckoned and accounted as a part of the 
said last mentioned one third of the general residuum of 
my Estate in the division thereof, and the other two 
thirds of the said general residuum are not to be dimin- 
ished by reason of the said two Legacies. 

10th. It is my Will and intention that all property real 
and personal of every kind and description devised or 
bequeathed to my Grand-daughters, or to any, or to 
either of them, by my aforesaid Will, or by this Codocil, 
and all the Estate, interest, property and money to which 

Appendix C. 423 

my Grand -daughters, or any, or either of them may here- 
after become Entitled under or by virtue of my said Will, 
or this Codocil, shall be free from the Control of their 
respective husbands, and in order more effectually to ac- 
complish this purpose I hereby devise and bequeath to 
my friends John McTavish, Doctor Richard Steuart, and 
Lewis Neth all the properly, Estate and estates, interest 
and interests, share and shares, proportion and propor- 
tions, money and legacies, which by my said Will or this 
Codocil I have before given to my Grand-daughters, or 
to any, or to either of them in possession or remainder, 
or to which my said Grand- daughters or any, or either 
of them may become entitled in any manner under and 
by virtue of my said Will, or this Codocil, in trust that 
they the said John McTavish, Doctor Richard Steuart 
and Lewis Neth, and the Survivors and Survivor of them, 
will by proper Deeds and Instruments of writing secure 
the same, and every part and parcel thereof to the sepa- 
rate use of my Grand-daughters and of each and every 
of them according to their several proportions and inter- 
ests as specified and mentioned in my said Will, or in 
this Codocil, And in such manner that my said Grand- 
daughters and each and every of them may at all times 
hold their said respective interests free from the Controul 
of their present or future husbands, and be able and ca- 
pable notwithstanding their Coverture to use or dispose 
of the same and every part and parcel thereof by deed, 
Will, or otherwise, as absolutely and freely as if they were 
sole and unmarried. 

nth. In my aforesaid Will, I have devised and be- 
queathed to the Most Reverend Ambrose Marechal 
Arch-Bishop of Baltimore certain real and personal 
property particularly mentioned in my said Will, I hereby 
revoke and annul all the devises and bequests made to 

424 Charles Carroll of CarroUtm. 

him in my said Will, and declare the same and every 
part and parcel thereof, and the uses and privileges con- 
nected therewith to be annulled and revoked. — And, I 
hereby bequeath to the Most Reverend Ambrose Mare- 
chal the sum of Three Thousand Dollars. 

rath. I hereby revoke and annul so much of my afore- 
said last Will and Testament as may be inconsistent with 
this Codocil, and in all other respects ratify and Confirm 
the said Will. 

In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set my Hand 
and affixed my Seal this fifth day of February in the year 
of our Lord One Thousand Eight hundred and Twenty 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 
Signed, Sealed, Published and Declared by the above 
named Charles Carroll of Carrollton the Testator therein 
mentioned, as and for a Codocil to his Last Will and 
Testament, in the Presence of us, who, at his request, in 
his presence, and in the presence of each other, have sub- 
scribed our Names as Witnesses thereto. 

roswf.ll l. colt. 
John Thomas. 
R. B. Taney. 

make this my second Codocil to my last Will and Testa- 
ment. In my first Codocil, I have devised to my Grand- 
son Charles Carroll, his heirs and assigns, all my Lands 
called Doughoregan Manor, or Doughoregan Manor 
Enlarged, with all my lands adjoining the said tract or 
either of them, and in the event of his dying without 
issue male, living at the time of his death, or in ventre sa 
mere, I have by the same Codocil, devised over the same 

Appendix C. 425 

lands, among the families of my said Grandson, and my 
two daughters : as by the said Codocil appears. 

It has always been my desire to secure the said lands to 
the male branch of my family as long as the laws of this 
State will permit ; and as my said Grandson has at this 
time two sons, I have determined to change the disposi- 
tion heretofore made of these lands, and do now devise 
as follows : 

I give and devise all my lands called Doughoregan 
Manor, and all my lands called Doughoregan Manor 
Enlarged, and all my lands adjoining the said tracts of 
land or either of them, to my grandson Charles Carroll, 
to hold to him during his natural life ; and from and 
after his decease, I give and devise all the said lands to 
my great-grandson Charles Carroll, eldest son of my 
said grandson, for and during the term of his natural 
life : and from and after the decease of my said great- 
grandson Charles Carroll, to remain to the first son of 
my said great-grandson, and the heirs male of the body 
of such first son lawfully issuing ; and for default of such 
issue, then to the second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth, 
and all and every other sons of my said great-grand- 
son Charles Carroll, to be lawfully begotten, and to 
the heirs male of their bodies, respectively the elder 
of such son or sons, and the heirs male of his body 
lawfully issuing, always to be preferred and to take 
before the younger of such sons, and the heirs male of 
his body : — and in default of such issue, then I give the 
said lands to my great-grandson Thomas Lee Carroll, 
second son of my said grandson, for and during the term 
of his natural life ; and after his decease, to remain to 
his issue, in tail, male, in such manner as I have limited 
the same to my great-grandson Charles Carroll ; and his 
issue male : — and in default of such issue then to the 

426 Charles Carroll of CarrolUon. 

third son of my grandson Charles Carroll ; and to the 
heirs male of the body of such third sod, lawfully be- 
gotten ; and for default of such issue, then to the fourth, 
fifth and sixth, and all and every other sons of my said 
grandson Charles Carroll, lawfully begotten, and to the 
heirs male of their respective bodies : — the elder of such 
son or sons, and the heirs male of his body, lawfully be- 
gotten, always to be preferred, and to take before the 
younger of such sons and the heirs male of his body : 
and in default of such issue, then, the one undivided 
third part of the said lands to remain to the right heirs 
of my said grandson Charles Carroll forever. One other 
undivided third part, to my daughter Mary Caton her 
heirs and assigns ; and the remaining third part to my 
daughter Catharine Harper her heirs and assigns. 

In my Will, I have given to my daughter Mary Caton, 
certain lots in the City of Annapolis, and among them, 
my lot adjoining my former dwelling house, upon which 
my Coach-house stands : I hereby declare that in that 
devise I intended to give all of the ground to the waters 
edge, as a part of the said lot, and direct that the said 
devise shall be so construed and understood. And it is 
my Will that all of the property real and personal, devised 
and bequeathed to the trustees mentioned in my Will and 
Codocil, upon certain trusts therein mentioned shall be 
and remain subject to the said trusts, not only in the 
hands of the said trustees, but in the hands of the survi- 
vors and survivor of them, and the heirs, Executors and 
Administrators of the survivor. 

In my book of family accounts marked K. A. I have 
caused the accounts of my advances, made to the family 
of my deceased son, and of my two daughters, to be care- 
fully revised, and balanced to the twentieth day of No- 
vember Eighteen hundred and twenty-nine; and I have 

Appendix C. 427 

ascertained that up to that day, I have advanced to the 
family of my daughter, Mary Caton, Fifty-four thousand 
three hundred and thirty-two dollars and ninety-two 
cents ; to the family of my deceased son Charles Carroll, 
one hundred and seven thousand, four hundred and fifty- 
one Dollars and sixty-seven cents ; and to the family of my 
Daughter Catharine Harper, one hundred and four 
thousand, three hundred and five Dollars and fifty-three 
cents : and I do hereby ratify and confirm the balances 
so struck in my said book marked F. A. and declare the 
sums above mentioned to be the amount advanced to the 
respective families of my three children to the twentieth 
day of November in the year eighteen hundred and 
twenty-nine : which said several advances are to be ac- 
counted for, and allowed in the distribution of the 
general residuum of my Estate, in the manner directed 
in my Will. The sums of money charged against my 
grandsons Charles Carroll, and Charles Carroll Harper, 
as Administrators of their respective fathers are included 
in the balances above mentioned, and are not to be 
charged to my said Iwo grandsons individually, but to be 
allowed as a charge against their respective families, and 
form a part of the general balance herein before men- 
tioned : and the sums charged to my grandson Charles 
Carroll Harper individually are to be allowed as a charge 
against the share of the residuum of my Estate bequeathed 
to him and his brother and sister, and are not to be de- 
ducted from his proportion of that share in the division 
thereof, — between him and his brother and sister. 

In ray Will, I have given, among other things, One 
third of my Slaves on Doughoregan Manor (except those 
on that part of the Manor, called the Folly), to the four 
daughters of my daughter Mary Caton. I hereby revoke 
so much of the said bequest as relates to the said one 

428 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

third of the said Slaves so given to the children of my 
daughter Mary Caton, and I do hereby give and be- 
queath the said one third to my granddaughter Emily 

I transferred to my granddaughter Emily MacTavish, 
Two hundred Shares of Stock in the Bank of the United 
States, in the month of November last. The said shares 
were transferred to her as a gift, and I do hereby ratify 
and confirm it. 

The sums charged in my book marked F. A. advanced, 
or to be advanced for the education of my great-grand- 
son Charles Carroll MacTavish, are not to be charged 
against any bequest made to his mother or father, in my 
Will or Codocils. 

I hereby direct my Executors to pay to A. Brown and 
Sons, five hundred pounds Sterling, which they the said 
A. Brown and Sons, have loaned to my granddaughter, 
Elizabeth Caton, and the payment of which I have guar- 
anteed to them ; Which said sum so to be paid I intend 
as a gift to my said granddaughter, and hereby so de- 
clare it. 

I direct that Julia, the mother of my servant Bill, shall 
be allowed to live on Doughoregan Manor, during her 
life, and be provided for and supported by my grandson 
Charles Carroll. 

I hereby revoke so much of my said Will and first 
Codocil, as may be inconsistent with the directions and 
bequests contained in this my second Codocil, ratifying in 
all other respects my said Will and first Codocil. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand 
and affixed my seal, on this fifth day of January in the 
year of our Lord eighteen hundred and thirty. 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

Appendix C 429 

Signed, sealed, published, and declared by the above 
mentioned testator, as and for his second Codicil to his 
last Will and Testament, in the presence of us, who, at 
his request, in his presence, and in the presence of each 
other, have subscribed our names as witnesses thereto. 
R. B. Tansy, 
Matt" Bathurst, 
R. W. Fisher. 

Whereas I Charles Carroll of Carroll, ton, of 
Baltimore City in the State of Maryland, have hereto- 
fore made and duly executed my last will and testament, 
in writing, bearing date on the second day of September, 
in the year Eighteen hundred and twenty-five, and since 
the Execution thereof have annexed sundry Codocils 
thereto : and whereas since the execution of my said last 
will and testament, I have also made sundry dispositions 
of portions of my Estate, real, personal and mixed, and 
have done various acts affecting the same, which disposi- 
tions and acts are not mentioned in my said last will and 
testament, or in any of the Codocils thereto : and whereas 
it is my anxious desire that the property which I may die 
possessed of, or which I may heretofore have disposed of, 
or in any way affected by any act of mine, or any part 
thereof, — may not become after my death, a subject of 
litigation among my heirs or devisees ; but that the dis- 
position which I have made of the same, or any part of 
it, by deed, last will and testament and the Codocils 
thereto, or otherwise, may remain without impeachment, 
by any person, or persons, claiming or to claim, in any 
manner, by from or under me, as heirs devisees or other- 
wise. I do therefore make this my Codocil, which I will 
and direct shall be taken and held as a part of my said 
will and testament in manner and form following ; that 

430 Charles Carroll of Carrolllon. 

is to say, — I do declare it to be my will and intention, 
that if any person or persons, claiming, or to claim, any 
interest or estate whatever, by from or under my last will 
and Testament, and the codocils thereto, or from or un- 
der any other act or deed of mine bearing my signature, 
or the heirs of such person, or persons, or any of them, 
shall directly or indirectly, attempt by suit in law or in 
Equity, or in any other manner, to set aside, alter, im- 
pair, disturb or interfere with, any disposition, which I 
have heretofore made of my said property or any part 
thereof, by last will and testament and the Codocils 
thereto, by deed, by writing bearing my signature or 
otherwise, or who shall not stand to or abide by the 
same ; according to the true intent and meaning thereof ; 
that then and from the time of such attempt, such per- 
son or persons so making, or causing to be made the 
same, shall forfeit and be deprived of all devise, bequest, 
legacy, estate or interest, made or created in his, her or 
their favor, in and by my said last will and testament, 
and the Codocils thereto ; and the property or estate 
real personal or mixed, so forfeited, shall immediately 
vest in the Executors of my said last will and testament, 
and the survivors of them, and the heirs of such sur- 
vivor, with full power to sue for and recover the same, 
should the person or persons so forfeiting refuse the 
peaceable delivery thereof ; and my said Executors and 
the survivor of them and the heirs of such survivor, shall 
hold the property so forfeited as aforesaid, in Trust, for 
the children of the persons so forfeiting, the revenue ac- 
cruing on the estate so forfeited, to be applied in the dis- 
cretion of my said Executors, and the survivor of them, 
to the maintainance and education of such children, in- 
vesting the surplus revenue, if any, in such manner as 
my said Executors, and the survivor of them may deem 

Appendix C. 


best, until the death of the person or persons so forfeit- 
ing as aforesaid, when and not before, the property so 
forfeited, together with the increase thereof, shall be 
transferred to such child or children in the manner indi- 
cated by my said last will and testament ; or in the ab- 
sence of such indication in the proportions prescribed by 
the laws of Maryland, with regard to the distribution of 
intestates Estates ; and if the person or persons so for* 
feiting as aforesaid shall have no children at the time of 
such forfeiture, then my said Executors and the survivor 
of them and the heirs of such survivor shall within one 
year, after the forfeiture aforesaid, or whenever they 
shall receive the same, distribute the property so for- 
feited among my heirs at law, according to the legal dis- 
tribution of the Estates of Intestates. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereto set my hand, and 
affixed my seal, this eighteenth day of November in the 
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty- 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 
Signed sealed published and declared by Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton, the above named Testator as and for 
a Codocil to his last Will in the presence of us, who at 
his request in his presence, and in the presence of each 
other have subscribed our names as witnesses thereto. 
Matt" Bathurst 
John White 
Rob' Barry 


EXTRACTS from original MS. of the pedigree of the 
Carroll family, Doughoregan Manor ; confirmed 
collaterally by the official genealogy in the " Linea An- 
tiqua " in Dublin Castle. (See chart.) 

"The original of the foregoing genealogies of the 
O'Carrolls was brought by Charles Carroll into Maryland 
in a little Irish MS. book which he strictly charged his 
wife to deliver to me, his sod Charles, and which when 
I was at Paris in the year, 1757, 1 got translated into 
Bnglish, as will appear by the Irish and English, in op- 
posite pages, from page 1 to page 65 ; the original little 
Irish MS. book being still in my possession. The above 
Charles was second son of Daniel Carroll, Esq., of Lilter- 
luna, in the King's County, in Ireland. In some meas- 
ure to corroborate the authenticity of the foregoing 
genealogies, the following are here added, which were 
lately transmitted to me from Ireland, viz. : Anno. 1765, 
by Anthony Carroll, son of Daniel, son of Anthony Car- 
roll, of Lisheenboy, in the county of Tipperary, which 
Anthony of Lisheenboy was elder brother to Charles, 
the first settler in Maryland, and it likewise evidences 
the faithfulness of the foregoing translation." (Here 
follows an authentic and exact genealogy of the family 
of the O'Carrolls of Litter and Adamstown — Litterluna 

434 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

and Cadamstown, or Bail e-mic- Adam — in the King's 
County Kingdom of Ireland). 

The above is given as quoted in " Stemmata Carroll- 
ana, being the true version of the Pedigree of Carroll of 
Carrollton and correcting that erroneously traced by Sir 
William Betham, late Ulster King-of-arms." [See chart.] 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton no doubt brought over 
for his father, this genealogy furnished by Anthony 
Carroll, on his return to America in 1765. It will be 
seen that Anthony Carroll is here spoken of by Charles 
Carroll of Annapolis as son of Daniel, son of Anthony 
Carroll of Lisheenboy, County of Tipperary. By refer- 
ring to the genealogy given by Anthony, it is found that 
Anthony of Lisheenboy, son of Daniel, had beside his eld- 
est son, Daniel, three other sons, Michael, James, and 
Charles. According to the chart given in this book, James 
was a Captain in Lord Dongan's Regiment of Dragoons, 
from whom descend Carrolls of Dublin and New York. 
Who then was James Carroll of Ann Arundel, Maryland, 
apparently from Tipperary County, Ireland, who made 
his will in 1728 ? (See Appendix.) He was undoubtedly 
a relative of Charles Carroll, brother of Anthony of 
Lisheenboy. (Sec his will and will of Charles Carroll 
the Immigrant.) James mentions in his will two brothers, 
Daniel and Michael ; he does not mention any brother 
Charles. But Charles, son of Anthony of Lisheenboy, 
died in 1724, therefore, of course, would not be men- 
tioned in his brother's will. James makes Anthony Car- 
roll, only son of his brother Daniel, his heir-at-law, and 
apparently was himself unmarried and childless. 

Anthony Carroll, grandson of Anthony of Lisheenboy, 
speaks in his letters to Charles Carroll of Annapolis, of 
his uncle Michael, who died in 1762. He mentions no 
brothers of his own and was apparently an only son. His 
mother and sisters were living in 1763 as were children 

Appendix D. 435 

of Michael. In James Carroll's will, he speaks of his 
nephews, sons of his brother Michael, James, Dominick, 
Anthony and Daniel. This Anthony may have been the 
Anthony Carroll mentioned as one of the witnesses to 
James Carroll's Will. 

In the Will of John Carroll of Ann Arundel County 
May 1st 1720, (Register of Wills office, Annapolis), both 
" Mr. James Carroll of Ann Arundel County " and " Mr. 
Dominick Carroll of Ann Arundel County, son of 
Michael Carroll of the Kingdom of Ireland, gentleman," 
are mentioned. Were not Dominick and his brothers the 
sons of Anthony's " uncle Michael ? " Of these Carrolls, 
the descendants alone of Dominick have been traced, if 
we may assume that the latter is identical with Dominick 
Carroll of Cecil County, who married Mary, daughter 

of Major Nicholas Sewall, widow of Lowe, Sept. 3rd 

1725. She married thirdly William Frisby, and fourthly 
a gentleman named Baldwin. (Chancery suits, Land 
office.) Dominick and Mary Carroll had five daughters, 
Mary, Julian, or Julianna, Eleanor, Susanna and Anasta- 
sia. Mary born April 15th 1727 married Captain Michael 
Earle of Swan Harbor, and died childless, 1787. Julian- 
na, born Jan. 3rd 1729, married Edward Tilghman 25th 
April 1759. Eleanor, born 23rd of March r73o, married 
James Earle. Susanna born 30th of June 1733. (Han- 
son's "Old Kent," and G. G. Eaton, genealogist, Wash- 

James Carroll, living in Somerset County in the 1st 
half of the 18th century may have been the son of 
Michael Carroll, and brother of Dominick. He mar- 
ried Eleanor Van Swearingen, daughter of Garrett Van 
Swearingen of Holland, and his second wife Mary Smith 
of St. Mary's county, where Van Swearingen was then 
living. Garrett Van Swearingen emigrated from Holland 
to Deleware 1656, and from Delaware to Maryland about 

436 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

1669. (Judge H. N. Goldsborough, and " The Tiernan 
Family in Maryland.") The son of James Carroll and 
Eleanor Van Swearingen, Henry James Carroll, married 
a Miss King of Somerset County, and they were the 
parents of Thomas King Carroll, Governor of Maryland, 

Joanna Carroll, sister of James, Daniel and Michael 
Carroll married Richard Croxall, and though the Croxall 
name is nearly extinct, many of the descendants of Jo- 
anna Carroll Croxall are living, and are socially prom- 
inent at the present day. Among them may be 
mentioned the artist R. Le Grand Johnston, Wash- 
ington D. C. and Mrs. Fielder C. Slingluff of Baltimore, 



Richard f Croxall of " Garrison Forest," m. Eleanor 
Buchanan. She d. Feb. 12 1805, aged 74; Charles* 
Croxall m. July 23, 1746, Rebecca, daughter of John 
Moale. They had a son Richard • lost at sea, 1782, aged 
24 ; James Carroll 1 Croxall, d. y. Oct. 17, 1748 ; Rachel' 
Croxall, m. Richard Carroll of " Mount Dillon ; " Mary" 
Croxall m. Nathaniel Rumney, d. Oct. 1754 ; daughter ■ 
d. y. daughter,' ra. Howard. 



Richard* Carroll, m. Judith Carter Armistead of 
"Hesse," Virginia, widow 1st of Richard Moale, 2nd 
of Robert Riddell ; Margaret' Carroll, m. 1st — McMe- 

chen, m. 2nd Harvey, had a son Carroll * Harvey ; 

Fanny ■ Carroll, m. Dr. Martin of Virginia. (Croxall 
Family Bible). 

Appendix D, 437 




I. Daniel ■ Carroll of Litterluna, King's County Ire- 
land, m. — . He bad two sons who left issue, Anthony ' of 
Lisheenboy, Co. Tipperary, b. — ; and Charles,* b. 1660, 
emigrated to Maryland, d. July ist, 1730. Anthony," 
will proved 1724, had four sons, Daniel,* Michael', 
James, ' Charles.* Daniel ' had son Anthony/ and daugh- 
ters, two or more, who were living, with their mother, 
in 1763. Michael,' d. 176a, had children living in 1763. 
James,' a captain in Lord Dongan's Regiment of Dra- 
goons, at the Boyne. Charles,' will proved 1724. 

II. Charles * Carroll arrived in Maryland the 1st day 
of October, 1688. He married Martha Underwood 
November 4th 1689. She died, November, 1690. Charles' 
and Martha Underwood Carroll had Anthony ', d. inf. 
Charles Carroll m. ad Mary Darnall, February 14, 
1693. She died February, 174a. Charles' and Mary 
Darnall Carroll had Charles ', b. April aj, 1695 d. April 
30 ; Charles * b. March 6, 1696, d. same day ; Henry * b, 
January 26, 1697, d. April 10, 1719 ; Elianor ', b. March 
36, 1699, d. 1 8th September, following ; Bridget, 1 b. 
September 1, 1700, d. same day ; Charles ' Carroll of 
Annapolis, b. April a, 170a, d. 1781 ; Anthony,* b. Novem- 
ber 2, d. December, 1705; Daniel,' of "Duddington" 
b. October 3, 1707, d. April 15, 1734 ; Mary,* b. June 3, 
i7ir; Elianor,' b. August a, 171a, "at Woodcott in Surry 
in old England." She died April 16, 1734. [The dates 
of the births of children of Charles* Carroll have been 
copied from the fly-leaves of his Latin Prayer Book where 
they are entered more fully than here given]. 

III. Charles * Carroll of Annapolis and " Doughore- 

438 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

gan Manor," m. Elizabeth, daughter of Clement and 
Jane Sewall Brooke. She was born Hay 17, 1709, died 
March 12, 1761. 

IV. Charles ' Carroll of Carrollton, only child of 
Charles ' and Elizabeth Brooke Carroll was b. September 
8 (old style) 1737, d. Nov. 14, 173a. He m. Mary 
Darnall June 5, 1768. She "was born March 19, 1749. 
The children of Charles ' Carrol] of CarolUon and Mary 
Darnall Carroll were 

V. Elizabeth ' b. 1769 ; Mary,' b. September a, 1770, 
m. Richard Caton, son of Joseph Caton of Liverpool, 
England, November, 1786 ; Louisa Rachel, b. 1773 ; 
Charles ' Carroll of " Homewood," b. March a, 1775 ; 
Anne Brooke,* b. 1776 ; Catherine,* b. December 18, 
1778; m. Robert Goodloe Harper; Eliza,' b, 1780, d. 

VI. The children of Richard and Mary' Carroll 
Caton were Mary,* m. 1st Robert Patterson, m. 2d. 
the Marquis of Wellesley, d. s. p. 1853 ; Elizabeth,' 
m. Baron Stafford, d. s. p. Oct. 39, 1862 ; Louisa 
Katherine,' m. 1st. Col. Sir Felton Bathurst Hervey, m. 
id Francis Osborne, seventh Duke of Leeds, d. s. p., 
April 8, 1874 ; Emily,' m. John McTavish, British con* 
sul to Baltimore. 

VI. Charles ' Carroll of " Homewood " m. July 17, 
1800, Harriet Chew. He died April 3, 1825, Mrs Carroll 
b. Oct. 22, 1775, d. April 8, 1861, The children of 
Charles ' and Harriet Chew Carroll were Charles,* b. 
July 2s. ,801 I Elizabeth Henrietta,* b. Oct. 6, 1803, m. 
Dr. Aaron Tucker; Mary Sophia,' b. April 9, 1804, ro. 
Hon. Richard H. Bayard ; Benjamin Chew,' b. Sept. 27, 
1805 ; Harriet Juliana,' b. Jan-y 30, 1808, m. Hon. John 
Lee of " Needwood," d. April 17, 1881 ; Louisa,' b. Oct, 
2, 1809, m. Isaac Rand Jackson. 

Appendix D. 439 

VI. Catherine ' Carroll m. at Annapolis, May rst, 1801, 
Hon. Robert Goodloe Harper. The children of R. G. 
and Catherine * Carroll Harper were Charles Carroll,' b. 
August 23, 1802, m. Charlotte Chiffelle ; Mary Diana,' b. 
Oct. 7, 1803 ; Richard Caton,* b. March 24. 1806 ; 
Emily Louisa Hinton,' b. May 28, 1812, died in Norfolk 
Va. (though a resident of Baltimore), 1892 ; Robert S. 

VII. The children of John and Emily' Caton Mc- 
Tavish were Charles Carroll,' b. Jan-y 18, 1818, m. 
Marcella Scott; Richard Caton,' b. March 24, 182 1 ; 

Mary Wellesley,' b. Nov. it, 1825, m. Howard, son 

of Earl of Carlisle ; Alexander Simon,' b. April 28, 
1829, m. Ella Gilmor. 

VII. Charles ' Carroll of " Doughoregan Manor," m. 
October, 1825, Mary Uigges Lee. She was born June 
9, 1800. [" Lee of Virginia " p. 385]. The children of 
Charles ' and Mary Digges Lee Carroll were Mary,' m. 
Dr. Eleazer Acosta ; Charles, 1 b. Oct. 1828, d. February, 
1895, s. p. He inherited " Doughoregan Manor," and 
is named in the will of his great grandfather, married 
Caroline Thompson of Virginia. Thomas Sim Lee," 
named in the will of his great grandfather, b. 1829, d. 
1833 ; Louisa,' m. George Cavendish Taylor of England, 
nephew of Lord Waterpark, an Irish peer. Mr. Taylor, 
while on a visit to " Doughoregan Manor," copied the 
genealogies from the Irish MS : book preserved in the 
family there, used by Fredrick John O'Carroll in his 
" Stemmata Carrollana." John Lee,' b. 1830, ro, ist 
Anita, dau. Royal Phelps of N. York, m. 2d Mary Carter 
Thompson, sister of Mrs. Charles Carroll. John Lee 
Carroll was member of Md. State Senate 1867-72, 
Governor of Maryland, 1 875, owns " Doughoregan 
Manor," where he resides during part of the year. 
Louisa,' Thomas Sim Lee,' Oswald,' d. infants ; Albert 


440 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

Henry/ m. May 4, 1858, Mary Cornelia, dau. Wm. George 
Read of Baltimore. He served in the Confederate Army 
during the War between the States, and was killed in bat- 
tle, near Martinsburg, Virginia, September 7, 1862. Mrs. 
Carroll m. 2d. Col. James Fenner Lee. Robert Goodloe 
Harper/ b. 1840, m. 1st Ella Thompson, d. s. p., m. 2d. 
Mary Digges Lee [" Lee of Virginia," p. 485]. Mr. R. 
G. Harper Carroll served also in the C. S. A. He re- 
sides in Howard County on his portion of the Manor 
estate. Helen Sophia/ m. Charles Oliver O'Donnell. 

VII. The children of Charles Carroll * and Charlotte 
Ch iff die Harper were Harriet Ladson/ b. April 13, 1828, 
d. March, 24, 1836 ; Catharine Carroll, 7 b. March 30, 
1832, d. May 27, 1841 ; Emily Louisa/ married Mr. 
William C. Pennington of Baltimore. 

VIII. The children of Charles Carroll 7 and Marcella 
Scott McTavish were Mary/ Emily/ b. 1855, Charles 
Carroll/ b. 1857, Virginia Scott/ b. 1859, Paul Winfield 
Scott/ b. i860. 

VIII. Alexander Simon T and Ella Gilmor McTavish 
had Francis Osborne § McTavish. 

VIII. Dr. Eleazer and Mary 7 Carroll Acosta had 
Rafaella § Acosta. 

VIII. George Cavendish and Louisa 7 Carroll Taylor 
had 2 sons and 3 daughters. 

VIII. John Lee 7 and Anita Phelps Carroll had 
Charles Lee/ b. 1857, d. 1858 ; Mary Louisa • m. Comte 
Jean de Kergolay of France ; Anita Maria,' m. Baron 
Louis de la Grange of France ; Royal Phelps/ m. Marion 
Langdon of New York ; Charles/ m. Susanne Bancroft ; 
Albert Henry/ d. 1867 ; Mary Irene/ ti. 1888 ; John 
Lee/d. 189- ; Mary Helen/ m. in Paris, 1897, Herbert 
D. Robbins of New York. John Lee and Mary Carter 
Thompson Carroll had Philip Acosta Carroll, b. 1879. 

Appendix D. 441 

VIII. Robert Goodloe Harper 1 and Mary Digges 
Lee Carroll had Charles/ b. August 12, 1873 ; Albert 
Henry/ b. October, 1874. 

VIII. Charles Oliver and Helen Sophia' Carroll 
O'Donnell had John,* Mary,* m. the Vicomte de La 
Bassetier, Paris, France ; Aileen. 8 

VIII. William Claphara and Emily Louisa 7 Harper 
Pennington had Clapham,* and Charles Harper • Penn- 
ington, artist. 


Daniel' Carroll of "Duddington Manor," married 
Ann, daughter of Notley Rozier of " Notley Hall," 

Prince George's Co. Md. Mrs. Carroll m. 2dly Benja- 
min Young. The children of Daniel and Ann Rozier 
Carroll were Charles, 4 of " Duddington," b. Sept. 12, 
1729, sometimes called Charles Carroll of " Carrolls- 
burg " ; Eleanor, 4 m. Daniel Carroll of Upper Marlboro, 
brother of Rt. Rev. John Carroll ; Mary, 4 m. Ignatius 
Digges of "Melwood," Prince George's Co., d. s. p. 
Mary Carroll was the 2d. wife of Ignatius Digges. 

V. Charles 4 Carroll of " Duddington " and " Carrolls- 
burg," 4 m. 1763, Mary dau. of Henry Hill. The chil- 
dren of Charles 4 and Mary Hill Carroll were Daniel,* of 
" Duddington," Charles,' of " Bellevue," Henry Hill, 8 of 
" Litterluna," Baltimore County. 

VI. Daniel' Carroll of "Duddington," m. 1st. Anne 
Brent, m. 2d. Anna R. Boyce. He built the manor-house 
of " Duddington " in 1793. The Duddington Manor es- 
tate of one thousand acres was surveyed for George 
Thompson, in 1663, Ann Young having possession of it, 
later through the Notley family with whom the Roziers 
intermarried. Charles 4 Carroll, Jr. received it from Ann 
Young, his mother, in 1758. Daniel ' Carroll of " Dudd- 

442 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

ington " was one of the commissioners for laying out the 
District of Columbia, and " Duddington " was in the city 
of Washington, occupying the square between ist and 2d 
and D and £ streets southeast Daniel* Carroll of 
" Duddington " died in 1849. His children were Charles," 
m. Mary Carroll of " Litterluna " ; Norah,* m. William 
Dudley Digges ; Maria,* m. Robert H. Fiuhugh ; Eliza- 
beth/ m. Henry J. Brent, Ann,' Sarah, 9 m. Maj. Nichol- 
son ; Rebecca,* d. 1887 ; Jane,* b. April 2, 182 1, d. 1896. 
VI. Charles* Carroll of "Bellevue," m. Anne Sprigg. 
He left his splendid estate in Washington County, Md., 
adjoining Hagerstown, in 181 1 to settle with other Mary- 
landers in the Genesee country, western New York. 
The children of Charles * and Anne Sprigg Carroll were 
Henry,* d. s. ; Charles H.* of " The Hermitage," M. C. 
1 843- 1 847, m. Alida Van Renssalaer ; Hannah,* d. s. ; 
William Thomas,* m. Sarah Sprigg ; Daniel Joseph,* d. s. ; 
Anne,* m. Dr. Lane ; Jane,* m. M. Tabb ; Elizabeth 
Barbara,* m. Henry Fitzhugh. 

VI. Henry* Carroll of "Litterluna," Baltimore 
County, m. Sarah Rogers. The children of Henry * and 
Sarah Rogers Carroll, were Mary,* m. Charles * Carroll 
of " Duddington " ; Henry,* m. Mary Sterrett. 

VII. William Dudley and Norah * Carroll Digges had 
George Attwood * ; Daniel Carroll T ; William Dudley T ; 
Robert T ; Charles 7 ; Anne T ; Catharine T ; Norah, T m. 
Dr. James Ethelbert Morgan of Washington, D. C. 

VII. Robert H. and Maria' Carroll Fitzhugh had 
Daniel Carroll Y Fitzhugh who married his cousin Maria 
A. Fitzhugh. 

VII. Henry J. and Elizabeth' Carroll Brent had 
Catherine D.,* married her cousin Daniel H. Fitzhugh. 

VII. Maj. and Sarah * Carroll Nicholson had 

Elizabeth/ m. Capt. Burrit. 

Appendix D. 443 

VII. Charles H.* and Alida Van Renssalaer Carroll 
had Cornelia/ m. E. P. Fuller and Anne E./ m. William 
Dana Fitzhugh. 

VII. The children of William Thomas * and Sarah 
Sprigg Carroll were Gen! Samuel Sprigg/ U. S. A., m. 
Helen Bennett ; Violetta Lansdale/ m. Dr. Thomas 
Swann Mercer, of West River, Md. ; Sarah/ m. 1st Gen! 
Charles Griffin, U. S. A., m. 2d. Count Esterhazy of Aus- 
tria ; Caroline/ m. Lieut. Boles, U. S. N ; Alida/ m. 
Gen! John M. Brown. 

VII. Dr. — and Anne* Carroll Lane had Elizabeth/ m. 
S. H. Peake ; Hardage, d. s. ; Harvey, d. s. 

VII. M. and Jane" Carroll Tabb had Mary/ m. Thos 
J. Gantt ; Anne d. s. ; Alida, m. Mr. Littlejohn. 

VII. The children of Henry and Elizabeth Barbara* 
Carroll Fitzhugh were Henry/ d. s. 1889; Gerrit; 7 
Anna 7 d. s. 1867 ; Gen 1 . Charles Lane/ U. S. A., m. 
Emma Shoenberger ; Col. Robert Hughes T Fitzhugh. 

VIII. The children of Dr. Thomas Swann and Violetta 
Lansdale 7 Carroll Mercer were Carroll/ and Tohn Fran- 
cis * Mercer. 

VIII. The children of Gen 1 . Charles Lane 7 and Emma 
Shoenberger Fitzhugh were Henry/ m. 1st Winifred Lee 
Poe, m. 2d Edith Frances Dantry ; George/ d. s.; Car- 
roll 8 Fitzhugh, m. Mary M. Bell. 


V. Eleanor 4 Carroll of " Duddington," married her 
cousin (See Notes on the Darnall Family), Daniel Carroll 
of Upper Marlboro', or Rock Creek, statesman. She 
died April 13, 1763. Daniel Carroll, b. July 22, 1730, 
was the son of Daniel Carroll of Upper Marlboro* who 
d. 1750, and the grandson of Kean Carroll of Ireland. 
The children of Daniel and Eleanor/ Carroll Carroll were 


444 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

Daniel/ m. Elizabeth Digges of "Warburton," Prince 
George's Co. Md. ; Mary/ m. Colonel Sim. 

VI. Daniel ft and Elizabeth Digges Carroll had the fol- 
lowing children ; William/ m. Henrietta, dau. David 
Williamson of Baltimore ; George Atwood/ m. Clarissa 
Mitchell ; Ann, d. at " The Cottage," Montgomery Co. 
Maryland, aged 85. 

VII. William * and Henrietta Williamson Carroll, had 
David Williamson T Carroll of Little Rock Arkansas ; 
John/ d. s. p.. Mary/ m. Benjamin Ellicott of Baltimore. 

VII. George Atwood * and Clarissa Mitchell Carroll, 
had George Richard f Carroll m. — Clarke. 

VIII. David Williamson 1 Carroll, m. — , had daughter, 
Mrs. Daniel Boone of Baltimore. 

VIII. Benjamin and Mary T Carroll Ellicott had daugh- 
ter/ m. Charles Balche of Philadelphia, U. S. Coast 

VIII. The children of George Richard 7 and — Clarke 
Carroll were Anna/ m. Outerbridge Horsey of " Need- 
wood," Md. ; Maria,* m. — Hooper of Sonona, California ; 
Daniel/ in C. S. A., killed in the War between the States. 


Ar % two lions combatant gu % supporting a sword ppr. 
in pale hilted and pommelled or. Crest : On a stump of 
an oak sprouting new branches ppr. a hawk rising of the 
last belled or. Motto : Ubicunque cum lihertate. 

On the old bookplate of Charles Carroll the Immigrant, 
the hawk in the crest is resting with folded wings, and as 
a symbol of the flight of the family to America, he is 
represented later with his wings outspread, or rising to 
wing his way across the Atlantic. " A hawk rising " is 
the crest on the bookplate of Charles Carroll of An- 

Appendix D. 445 

All the oldest silverplate at " Doughoregan Manor " 
has the older crest upon it, and the more recent silver 
has the rising hawk. In the Maryland Gazette, published 
at Annapolis, there is the following advertisement, under 
date of November 9th, 1749 : " Lost or stolen from the 
dwelling house of Charles Carroll Esq : in the city of 
Annapolis, about ten days ago, one old silver mug, hold- 
ing above half a pint ; with a coat of arms engraved 
thereon, being a sword erect, between two Lyons ram- 
pant. Likewise three silver spoons, with a crest engraved 
on each, being a Falcon, with wings expanded, standing 
on a stump having a branch on each side. [A reward of 
£$ offered]. 

Charles Carroll." 

In Burke's " General Armory " the Carroll Arms of 
Ireland are given as follows : 

Ar> two lions combatant gu. supporting a sword or 
hilt and pomel or. Crest : On the stump of an oak, sprout- 
ing new branches ppr. a hawk of the last belled or. 

Carroll, as borne by Henry Carroll of Ballynure, Co. 
Wicklow, 1828, the same with motto, In fide etinbello 

Charles Carroll the founder of the Maryland family of 
" Carrolls of Carrollton," changed the crest and motto, 
on coming to America. 



Arms : Argent, on a bend two fleurs de luce sable, be- 
tween three leopards faces or. 

Henry ' Darnall of Birels-Place, Essenden, Herts, Esq., 
Counsellor of Law, Grey's Inn, b. 1564, d. 1607. (Armorial 

446 Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

tombstone at Essenden, Herts, with list of his children). 
He had five sons, John,* Henry,' Sir Thomas/ Philip,* and 
Ralph.* The fourth son, Philip,* barrister of London, m. 
Mary — . His portrait and that of his wife are at " Poplar 
Hill," Maryland. John,* youngest son of Philip* and 
Mary Darnall, was Secretary to Lord Baltimore, and died 
in 1684. He married Susannah, daughter of Richard 
Bennett, Esq. and his wife Henrietta Maria Neale. 
She married secondly, Henry Lowe, nephew of Lady 
Baltimore. Henry,* eldest son of Philip* and Mary 
Darnall, " Collector of the Port of St. Mary's," came to 
the Province of Maryland in 1672, was commissioned 
Justice of the Peace in 1681. He was Colonel of Horse, 
Agent of the Lord Proprietor, and at one time Deputy 
Governor of Maryland. His estates were : " Portland 
Manor " Ann Arundel Co., and " The Woodyard," Prince 
George's Co., also " The Girls Portion " near Georgetown 
and "My Lord's Kindness." He died in 1711. Col. 
Henry* Darnall married twice, it is said, but of his first 
wife nothing is known. His second wife was Elinor, 
daughter of Richard Hatton and widow of Col. Thomas 
Brooke, of " Brookfield," Calvert Co. The will of Elinor 
Hatton (Brooke), Darnall was probated February 21st, 
1724. The children of Henry* and Elinor Darnall were 
Philip, 4 Henry, 4 Mary, 4 Anne, 4 Elizabeth. 4 Philip 4 Dar- 
nall married Elinor Brooke and died in 1705, leaving a 
son, Henry * Darnall of " Portland Manor " who married 
Elizabeth Lowe. Mary 4 Darnall, b. 1678 married Feb- 
ruary 14th 1693, Charles Carroll, the Immigrant. Anne 4 
Darnall married Clement Hill in 1696, and Elizabeth 4 
Darnall married Edward Digges. Henry 4 Darnall of 
"The Woodyard," born 1682, married Anne, daughter 
of Col. William Digges and his wife Elizabeth Sewall of 
Mattapony. He sold " The Woodyard " in 1728, to pay 

Appendix D. 447 

a debt. The children of Henry 4 Darnall and Anne 
Digges were Henry,* Elinor,* John,* and Mary.* Elinor * 
Darnall married 1727-28, Daniel Carroll of Upper 
Marlboro', Prince George's Co. Md., (son of Kean Car- 
roll, native of Ireland). Mrs. Elinor Darnall Carroll d. 
May 23, 1796, in her 93d year. Daniel and Elinor Dar- 
nall Carroll were the parents of Daniel Carroll, statesman, 
and Archbishop John Carroll. John * Darnall lived in 
Frederick Co. Md M and his will was probated 1768. 
Henry * Darnall of " Poplar Hill " (then called " My 
Lord's Kindness," ) which place was conveyed to him by 
his father in 1729, was born in 1703, was Attorney General 
of the Province 1754, was at Bruges, Flanders in 177 1, 
and was living in 1788. He married Anne, daughter of 

Talbot, Esq., "niece and ward to George, 14th 

Earl of Shrewsbury," (see Land Office Records). The 
children of Henry * and Anne Talbot Darnall were Rob- 
ert,* Henry,* John,* Katharine,* Anne* and a daughter 
who married Nicholas Sewall of St. Mary's Co. Robert * 
Darnall of " Poplar Hill," married twice but died child- 
less, leaving " Poplar Hill " to his nephew Robert Sewall. 
Henry* Darnall married Rachel, daughter of Henry 
Brooke, and these were the parents of Mary Darnall, wife 
of Charles Carroll of Carrollton. John * Darnall lived in 
Culpeper Co., Virginia, and died in 1819. He has des- 
cendants living in Kentucky and Arkansas. Katherine * 
Darnall married a Digges. (Condensed from chart pedi- 
gree prepared by Mrs. Vernon Dorsey, Genealogist, 
Washington, D. C). 

There was a relationship between the Calverts and 
Darnalls and in a Letter-Book extant of Charles Cal- 
vert's (this was the 3d Lord Baltimore) he writes from 
" Maryland, 10th July, 1697," to " Mrs. Mary Darnall, 
at the Lady Summersetts house near Heme Stile, 

448 Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 

In London," Calling her his "Cosen Ditrnall." He 
thanks her for several letters, and for her " trouble and 
pains " in letting him know how his children were. Mrs. 
Darnall seems to have charge of Lord Baltimore's chil- 
dren, as he and his wife thank her, in this letter for her 
great kindness to their children, begging its continuance, 
and that she will write by all opportunities. He is sorry 
to hear of her husband's indisposition, and will send him 
some money ; " as a small token of my kindness to your- 
self." Lady Summersett was Charles Calvert's aunt, 
and Mrs. Mary Darnall who was staying with her, was 
the wife of Philip Darnall, — evidently the Philip* Dar- 
nall of the above pedigree. " The Calvert Papers," Num- 
ber One, p. 310. (Publications of the Maryland 
Historical Society). 


Abercrombie, Gen. James, i, 380 
Acadia, Aca lie i. 15-17 
Acadians. St* French Neutrals 
Acosla. t)r I "1 !■• - ii. 439. 440 ; 

Mary, n/tCanoU. ii, 439, 440 : 

Rafaella, ii, 440 
Adams, Abigail, nit Smith, ii, 

138; Charles Frauds, i. 131 ; 

ii. 333: Herbert B.. ii. 326; 

John, i. 131, 145. '8a ; ii. 118. 

119. ia». 135. 137. ta8. 133, 

134. 138. 141. 14a. 'Ai. **<>. 

155. 150. "'2. I')". 193. 207. 

IJI. 234. 1.17-240, 345. 24B, 

149, »S8. 3«9. 337. 33"). 34'. 

358; John Quincy, ii. IBS. 

332-334. 343. 353 : S»imi«l. 

Adamses, Ihe. i. 136 

Adams's " Life and Wriiingi> of 

Jared Spirks." ii. 316 
Adams's '" Memoirs of John 

Quincy Adams." ii, 331 
Adams's '■ Work* o( John 

Adams." i. 131. 181: ii. 134. 

Adamstown. Ireland, i. 1 
Addisoti family, ii, 245 
" Address to the People of Mary- 
land," ii. 40, 41, ill 
Ahagurton, Ireland, i, 3 
Albany, i, 29, 147-149, 172. 314, 

■si, m, 367-370, 399 : ii. 362 
Aldie, Va., ii. 360 
Alexander, Mr., i, 315 ; Robert, 

i, 136 

Alexander, Emperor of Russia. 

ii. 2f\i. 170. 27T. 177. 178, 381 
\ .■«.-. .:.... Va . ii. 82. S3, too, 

<(>•). 170. 303 
Aleiandrians. ii. 170 
Allen. Colonel. 1. '50. 373 ; Mr., 

i, 37« 
Alum Works Company, ii. 330 
American Archives, i. 145. 153- 

15a. 163. 164, 160. 169. 185 
American Colonisation Society, 

Amherst, General, 

Amsterdam, ii. tio 

Aml3l.<M». ii. 2S7 

Andrews. Frank D.. ii, 328 

Anglaise. ii. 197 

Annapolis, i. 1. 0-8, u. 14, 15, 
18. 33. 37- 4t. 59- 00,65, TO, 
72. 73. 93-95. >**>. '*8. 130, 
13!, 134. J30. 138. 143, 143, 
177. 185. l£6. 191. 196, 197, 
224. 368 ; ii, 14. 2b. 40, 48. 55. 
50. 6fi. 75-77. 80. 87. QI, tot, 
tu3. 104. lit, 142. 167. 171, 

l8t. 191. IQ3, 198, 303. 333- 

335, 247. '49. 251, 258, 361, 
266. 269, 270, 273. 275. 279- 
282, 2E4, 268, 289, 292, 293, 
396, 397, 299-302, 315, 330, 
321, 326-328, 351. 357. 374- 
376, 381. 384, 385, 390, 393, 
39°. 398. 404, 439. 444. 44S 
Annemours, Chevalier d', con- 
sul-general of France, ii, 76 



Apalathean Mountains, i, 26 
Appleton's " Cyclopaedia of 
American Biography/ 1 i, 96; 

«, 359 
Archduke Charles of Austria, ii, 

262, 271, 281, 282 

Archduke John of Austria, ii, 262 

Arkansas, ii, 444, 447 

Arnold, Gen. Benedict, i, 147, 
152-155, 158, 161, 164-166, 
168, 214, 222, 392, 396, 397 

Articles of Confederation, i, 219, 

220, 232; ii, 4, 5, 7-9. n-13, 

44, 45, 80, 105, 114, n6, 177 
"Asserters of British American 

Privileges," i, 72 
11 Association of the Freemen of 

Maryland," i, 135 
Atlantic Ocean, i, 26 ; ii, 337, 

338, 444 J States, ii, 307 
Atlee, Mr., i, 223 
Attwood, Peter, ii, 388 
Augusta, Ga., ii, 158 
Austria, ii, 6, 217, 262, 263, 270, 

271, 281, 282, 294, 295, 443 
Aux Cayes, ii, 317 

Bacon, Lord, i, 325 
Badajos, ii, 287 
Badiere, Mons. La, i, 204 
Bagot, Mr., English minister, 

ii, 315, 323 J Mrs., ii, 315, 323 
Baile-mic-Adam (Cadamstown). 

See Adamstown 
Baird, General, ii, 281 
Baker, Louisa, i, 59-61, 63, 79, 

80, 87 ; Mr., i, 59, 6i 
Balche, Charles, h, 444 ; Mrs., 

«/<r Ellicott, ii, 444 
Baldwin, Mr., ii, 435 
Ballendine, John, i, 95 
Ballston Springs, ii, 266, 310 
Ballynure, Ireland, ii, 445 
Baltic Sea, ii, 277 
Baltimore, Md., i, 15, 72, 73, 

131, 137, 142, 143, 191, 19°, 

197, 209, 216, 220, 221, 231, 
m 232; ii, 40, 73, 74, 91. 96, 100, 

106, 107, 112, 157, 158, 193. 

300, 213, 234. 238, 243, 244, 

266, 284, 291, 294, 295, 298, 

300, 302-309, 312, 318, 320- 
322, 324, 325, 329, 332, 338- 

342, 348-350, 355, 356, 358, 

359. 364, 365, 367, 394-40I, 
404, 4x1, 419, 423, 436, 438, 

439, 440, 444 

Baltimore Library Company, ii, 

Baltimore Iron Works Company 
(Baltimore Iron Works. See 
Patapsco Iron Works), i, 23, 
60, 64, 92, 143, 144, 203 ; ii, 
73-75, 100, 171, 293 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, ii, 

360, 361 

Baltimore, Barons of. See Cal- 

Baltimore, Lady Jane, ne'e Lowe, 
i, 2, 76 ; ii, 446 ; Lady Mar- 
garet, i, n 

Banister, John, ii, 3 

Bank of England stock, ii, 43, 

44, 75, 76. 83, 84, 92, 98, 167, 
168, 214, 218, 219, 221-229, 
231, 251 
Barbadoes, ii, 252, 261 
Barber, Captain, ii, 254 
Barlow, Joel, ii, 290, 294 
Barnes, Richard, ii, 44, 49, 50, 

Barre\ Chevalier de, i, 226, 228 

Barrington, Daines, i, 66, 88, 89, 

Barron, Commodore James, ii, 


Barry, Robert, ii, 431 

Bassetier, Vicomte de la, ii, 441 ; 
Mary, Vicomtesse de la, ne'e 
O'Donnell, ii, 441 

Bassett, Richard, ii, 169 

Bathurst, Matthew, ii, 429, 431 

Batson, Mr., i, 5 

Bavaria, i, 238, 239 ; ii, 6 

Bay of Fundy (Baye Francois), 
i, 27 

Bayard, Mary Sophia, ne'e Car- 
roll, ii, 321, 331,400,403,406, 

407, 4", 413, 415, 438 ; Rich- 
ard H., ii, 331, 438 


45 1 

Bay Vert, i, 27 

Beale, John, ii, 386, 387, 389 

Beaubasin, i, 27, 28 

Beck with, Sir Peyton, i, 93 

Bedloe's Island, 1, 363 

Belfast, ii, 254 

Ben, Captain, ii, 296 

Bennett, Henrietta Maria, n/e 
Neale, ii, 446 ; Richard, ii, 

Beresford, Gen. William Carr, 
ii, 287, 288 

Berlin and Milan decrees, ii, 282, 

Berthier, i, 160 

Betham, Sir William, ii, 434 

Bickerton, Admiral, Sir Richard 
H., ii, 260 

Bilboa, ii, 4 

Bingham, Captain, ii, 286, 287 

Bird, Christopher, i, 79, 82, 85 

Birels-Place, ii, 445 

Bladen family, i, 103, 104 

Bladen, Mrs., n/e Jannsen, i, 
104 ; Thomas, ii, 45, 104 

Bladensburg, ii, 303 

Blake, Admiral, ii, 287 

Blandike, i, 22 

Board of War, i, 181-184, 203- 
205, 217, 220, 223-225, 231, 
235 ; ii, 3, 4, 6, 353, 354 

Bohemia, College of, i, 18 

Boles, Caroline, n/e Carroll, ii, 
443 ; Lieutenant, ii, 443 

Bollman, Dr. Eric, ii, 275, 277 

Bonaparte, Elizabeth, n/e Patter- 
son, ii, 243, 314, 325 ; Jerome, 
ii, 243; Napoleon, ii, 235, 
253-255* 262-264, 268, 270, 
272, 274, 276-279, 281-285, 
291, 293-296, 298, 302, 303, 

307, 323 
Boone, Melanie Athanaise, n/e 

Carroll, ii, 444 
Bordeaux, ii, 263 
Bordley, Thomas, ii, 380 
Boston, i, 131, 202 ; ii, 200, 297 
Boston Port Bill, i, 128 
Boswell, James, i, 67 
Boucher, Rev. Jonathan, i, 100 

Bourbons, the, ii, 255, 303 
Bourges, i, 19 
Boyd, Elinor, ii, 377 
Boyle, Esmeralda, i, 7 
Boyle's " Marylanders," i, 7 
Boyne, battle of the, ii, 437 
Braddock, Gen. Edward, i, 23, 

29. 30 
Bradford, John, ii, 377 ; Joyce, 

ii. 377 
Bradshaw, Mr., i, 77, 79 

Brandywine, battle of, i, 228-230 
Brasheass, John W., ii, 393 
Brazil (the Brazils), ii, 217, 268, 

Brehan, Marchioness de, ii, 124 
Brent, Anne, n/e Carroll, i, 18 ; 

Elizabeth, n/e Carroll, ii, 442 ; 

George, ii, 101 ; Henry J., 

ii, 442 ; John Carroll, i, 4 ; 

Robert, i, 18 
Brent's " Biographical Sketch of 

Rt. Rev. John Carroll," i, 4, 

Brest, ii, 30, 285 

Brice, John, Jr., i, 64 

Bristol, i, 217, 400 

Bronson, Isaac, ii, 400 

Brooke, Clement, i, i8;ii, 391, 
438 ; Clement, ii, 73, 74 ; Eli- 
nor, n/e Hatton. See Darnall ; 
Henry, ii, 447 ; Jane, n/e Sew- 
all, i, 18, 21 ; ii, 438 ; Col. 
Thomas, i, 9 ; ii, 446 

Brooke family, i, 2 

Brotherhood's "Book of the 
Signers," ii, 341 

Browere, John Henri Isaac, ii, 
342, 343 

Brown, Alida, n/e Carroll, ii, 
443 J Esther, i, 79, 82, 83, 85 ; 
Gen. John M., ii, 443 ; Major, 
i. 394. 395 J Mr., i, 45, 47; 
Mr., i, 241, 242 ; Mr., ii, 171; 
William, i, 85 

Brown, A., and Sons, ii, 428 

Brown's Battery, i, 164, 395 

Browne, William Hand, i, 12 

Browne's ** History of Mary-, 
land/' i, 12, 15 






Browning, Charles, i, 68, 69 ; 

Louisa, ne'e Calvert, i, 69 
Browning's " Brief Explanation, 

etc.," i, 69 
Bruges, ii, 447 
Brunswick, i, 206 
Bryce family, ii, 308 
Buchanan, John, ii, 331 ; Mr., i, 

221, 222 ; Mrs., i, 221, 222 
Buenos Ayres, ii, 274 
Buffalo, ii, 304 
Bullet, Mr., ii, 320 
Bunker Hill, battle of, ii, 342 
Burgoyne, Gen. John, i, 174, 

214, 220, 222, 223 
Burke, Edmund, i, 66 
Burke's '* General Armory," ii, 

Burlington, N. J., i, 231 

Burr, Aaron, ii, 236, 239, 240, 

249. 257. 25( >' 2 72-277 
Burrit, Captain, ii, 442 ; Eliza- 
beth, n/e Nicholson, ii, 442 
Butler, Pierce, ii, 131, 135, 141, 

147, 150, 151. 157. 158 
Butterfield, Major, i, 396 

Cadiz, ii, 287 

Cadwalader, Gen. John, ii, 48 

California, ii, 196, 444 

Calvert, Benedict Leonard, 4th 
Lord Baltimore, i, 12, 38, 42, 
43 ; Cecelius, 2d Lord Balti- 
more, 1, 5, 42, 69 ; Cecelius, 
i, 38, 44, 46, 65 ; Charles, 3d 
Lord Baltimore, i, 2-8, 11, 12, 
14, 38, 42, 43 ; ii, 44G-44S ; 
Charles, 5th Lord Baltimore, 
i, 38. 39. 42, 43. 69, 104 ; 
Frederick, 6th Lord Balti- 
more, i, 33, 38, 39, 42, 45. 65, 68 

Calvert, Jane. See Lady Balti- 

Calvert, Margaret. See Lady 

Calvert family, ii, 447 

Calvert Papers, i, 68 ; ii, 448 

Calvert Papers, MS., i, 6, 7, 18 

Calvert Kent Rolls, i, 6, 68 

Cambray, ii, 316 

Cambridge, University of, i, 190; 

ii, 315 
Campbell, Colonel, i, 157 
•Canada (New France), i, 25-27, 

142, 143. 145-147. 153-159, 
161, 167, 168, 170, 171, 173- 
177, 183, 207, 208, 366, 369, 
376. 379. 38o, 382, 386, 388, 
390, 393. 394, 396, 399; ". 
158, 292, 305, 307, 3", 321. 

324. 325 

Canadian Commission, i, 145, 
147, 163-165, 183 ; Commis- 
sioners, i, 147, 149, 152-159, 
161, 169, 170, 172 

Carey's t4 Olive Branch," ii, 308 

Carleton, Sir Guy, i, 394 ; ii, 50 

Carlisle, Pa., i, 218 

Carmichael, William, i, 206 ; 
ii, 11 

Carpenter, John C, ii, 370 

Carroll, Albert Henry, C. S. A., 
ii, 440 ; Albert Henry, d. 
y., ii, 440; Alert Henry, ii, 
441 ; Alexander, i, 50 ; Alida, 
n/e Van Rensselaer, ii, 442, 
443 ; Anita, ne'e Phelps, ii, 
439, 440 ; Ann, ne'e Rozier. 
See Young : Ann of •* The 
Cottage." ii, 444 ; Ann of 
" Duddington," ii, 442 ; Anna 
R., ne'e Boyce, ii, 441 ; Anne, 
ne'e Brent, ii, 441 ; Anne, n/e 
Sprigg, ii, 442 ; Anne Brooke, 
i, 221 ; ii, 54, 55, 438 ; Anthony 
of Lisheenboy, i, 22, 48, 59 ; 

ii, 433, 434. 437 J Anthony, 
son of Michael, ii, 383 ; An- 
thony, grandson of Anthony 
of Lisheenboy, i, 22, 24, 48- 
50; ii, 433, 434, 437 ; Anthony, 
son of Daniel and nephew of 
James of Ann Arundel County, 
i, 14 ; ii, 382-385 ; Anthony, 
ii, 383. 388, 389 ; Anthony, 
d. inf., i, 9 ; ii, 437 ; Anthonjr, 
d. inf., ii, 437 ; Benjamin 
Chew, ii, 438 ; Bridget, ii, 437 ; 
Caesar, i, 50 ; Caroline, ne'e 
Thompson, ii, 439 



Carroll, Charles, Attorney-Gen- 
eral of Maryland, born 1660, 
i, 1 ; educated at Douai, 2 ; 
studied at the Temple, 2 ; sec- 
retary to Lord Powis, 3 ; arrives 
in Maryland, 4 ; ii, 350 ; com- 
mission as Attorney-General 
confirmed, i, 4; resists the over- 
throw of the proprietary gov- 
ernment, 4 ; imprisoned by 
Gov. Copley, 4, 5 ; appointed 
Judge, and Register of the 
Land Office, 5 ; a favorite with 
Lord Baltimore, 5 ; patents 
land, 6 ; obtains lots in Annap- 
olis, 7 ; his instructions from 
Lord Baltimore, 7 ; his offices 
enumerated, 8 ; changes the 
motto of his family arms, 8; ii, 
351 ; his two marriages, i, 9 ; ii, 
437 ; letter to his sons, i, 10, 
11 ; made his will, 11 ; visited 
England, 11; attorney for 
Lady Baltimore, 11; his influ- 
ence in the colony, 12 ; his 
death, 11, 13; Gov. Sharpe's 
allusions to him, 13 ; his trus- 
tees and their religious differ- 
ences, 13 ; his manors and 
other property, 13, 14 ; patent- 
ing of "Carrollton Manor," 
68 ; his will given, ii, 373-379 \ 
his book-plate, i, 48, 59 ; ii, 
444; family of his second wife, 

Carroll, Charles, of Annapolis, b. 
1702, i, 9 ; ii, 437 ; sent to 
France for his education, i, 
10 ; ii, 350 ; his godfather 
manages his estate, i, 14 ; is liv- 
ing in Annapolis, 1 5 ; death of 
James Carroll at his house, 

15 ; sells land to trustees of 
Baltimore Town, 15 ; is inter- 
ested in a " Virginian project," 

16 ; guardian to his nephew 
Charles, 16 ; difficulty about 
quit-rent, 17 ; has share in 
44 Carroll's Delight " and ,l Car- 
rollsburg," 18 ; goes to Europe, 

19 ; letters to his son, 20-22 ; 
letter recommending a volun- 
teer for the war with France, 
23 ; member of the Baltimore 
Iron Works Company, 23 ; his 
intimacy with Dr. Carroll, 23 ; 
his cousins the Croxalls, 24 ; 
letter to his son, 24-31 ; dis- 
satisfied with the Maryland 
laws, 31 ; scheme for set- 
tling in Louisiana, 32 ; goes to 
France to secure a land grant, 
32 ; his character and attain- 
ments and motives for his voy- 
age discussed by Gov. Sharpe, 
32 ; writes to his son from Lon- 
don, 33 ; letters from Mary- 
land to his son, 38, 39 ; loses 
his wife, 40 ; lawsuit with his 
nephew, 41 ; letters to his son, 
42-61; ** Carrollton" confirmed 
to him, 68 ; welcomes him 
home, 70 ; entertains Washing- 
ton at Annapolis, 94 ; writes to 
his son, 136 ; is known in the 
land-books as "Charles Car- 
roll of Elk Ridge," 181 ; letter 
to his son, 196 ; elected one 
of the Governor's Council, 
198 ; declines the honor, 199; 
receives a letter from M. 
Fliarne, 220 ; wants to hire 
two weavers from among the 
British prisoners, 223 ; hears 
again from M. Pliarne, 225, 
231 ; his sudden death, ii, 55, 
56 ; mention of him in his 
father's will, 374, 376-378; 
mention of him in will of his 
godfather, James Carroll, 384, 
385. 387. 388; his own will 
given, 390-392 ; his book-plate 
mentioned, 444 ; arms on his 
silver-plate, 445 
Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton, 
his ancestry, i, 2 ; ii, 433, 437, 
445, 446 ; born, Sept. 19, 1737, 
i, 18 ; ii, 438 ; sent to school 
in Maryland, i, 18 ; goes to 
St. Omer's, 19 ; stands third 


L'L LB. *mmmr- 



Carroll, Charles — Continued. 
in the school, 21 ; is sent to 
Rheims, 22 ; at college in 
Paris, 24 ; good conduct and 
proficiency in his studies, 31 ; 
prudent in the expenditure of 
money, 35 ; reads civil law at 
Bourges, 19, 38 ; goes to Lon- 
don, 38 ; dines at William 
Sharpe'swith Mr. Calvert, 40; 
lives in handsome style, 44 ; 
his portrait painted by Reyn- 
olds, 52 ; ii, 324 ; attends 
debates in the House of Com- 
mons, i, 51 ; studies book- 
keeping and mathematics, 54, 
60 ; his law studies, 56, 66 ; 
engagement to Miss Baker, 59, 
66, 67 ; a tutor's tribute, 62 ; 
his English friends, 66, 67 ; 
companions at the *' Crown 
and Anchor," 67, 91 ; return 
to America, 70 ; denounces 
the Stamp Act in letters to 
England, 73-75 ; falls in love 
with Miss Cooke, 76, 78-80 ; 
grief at her death, 81-84 J 
engaged to Miss Darn all, 84- 
87 ; marriage to Mary Dar- 
nall, 88 ; letter to Daines Bar- 
rington about his book, 89 ; 
letter to Mr. Graves intro- 
ducing William Cooke, 90-92 ; 
writes of Col. Ludwell's be- 
quest, 92, 93 ; friendship for 
Washington, 94 ; subscribes to 
Totomac Company, 95 ; pa- 
tron of Charles Willson Peale, 
95, 96 ; his opposition to the 
Proclamation settling fees, and 
44 Letters of the First Citizen," 
99, 101-127, 245-362 ; is 
thanked by citizens of Annap- 
olis and others, 100 ; again 
in Annapolis, 130 ; repartee at 
entertainment of Lloyd Du- 
lany's, 130 ; advises burning 
of the Peggy Stewart, 130, 
131 ; joins the association to 
resist tax on tea, 132 ; visits 

Philadelphia, 131 ; attends po- 
litical meeting, 132; appointed 
on Non - Importation Commit- 
tee, 132; on Committee of Cor- 
respondence, 132 ; appointed 
delegate to Maryland Conven- 
tion, 133 ; on Provincial Com- 
mittee of Correspondence, 133; 
presides at meeting of County 
Committee o f Observation, 
134; in Convention, 134 ; signs 
Association of the Freemen 
of Maryland, 135 ; on impor- 
tant committees, 135, 136 ; on 
Committee of Observation for 
town and county, 136 ; in Con- 
vention, 136; member of Coun- 
cil of Safety, 135, 136 ; writes 
to Jenifer on Council business, 
137 ; letter to Washington 
introducing young Key, 138, 
139 ; with the Council at 
Chester Town, 140 ; in Con- 
vention, 140 ; opposes position 
taken against independence, 

141 ; attends Council of Safety, 

142 ; orders out the Elk Ridge 
Militia, 142 ; signs contract to 
lease Baltimore Iron Works 
Company property to the Stale, 
144 ; appointed by Congress 
on Canada Commission, 145 ; 
account of his journey, 147- 
152, 37I-39 2 ; reception by 
Gen. Arnold, 152, 153, 392 ; 
difficulties encountered in 
Canada, 154-158, 393-397 : 
letters to Generals Schuyler and 
Thomas, 158-160 ; labors and 
discouragements, 161-165; 
letters to Gen. Thomas, 166- 
168 ; last letter to Congress, 
169 ; the journey back to 
Philadelphia, 170-172, 397- 
400 ; letter to Gen. Gates, 174- 
176 ; in Maryland Convention, 
178 ; elected to Congress, 178 ; 
helps to procure resolution of 
Convention advocating inde- 
pendence, 179 ; takes his seat 



Carroll, Charles — Continued. 
in Congress, 180 ; signs Decla- 
ration of Independence, 1 80, 
181 ; on the Board of War, 
1 81-183 \ writes to Council of 
Safety, 184, 185 ; in Conven- 
tion, 186 ; on committee to 
prepare Declaration of Rights 
and Constitution, 186 ; returns 
to Congress, 187 ; again in 
Convention, 188, 189 ; his 
part in framing Maryland Con- 
stitution, 190, 191 ; suggests 
mode of electing Senate, 190 ; 
its excellence, 191-195 ; al- 
tered after his death, 196 ; in 
Congress, 197 ; member of 
first Maryland Senate, 197 ; 
prominent in its legislation, 
198-200 ; files a dissentient 
against a bill, 200 ; receives 
letter from Col. Fitzgerald, 
201, 202 ; again in Congress, 
203 ; member of Committee on 
Foreign Applications, 204 ; on 
Board of War, 205 ; returns to 
Maryland, 205 ; letter to Dr. 
Franklin, 206-211 ; again in 
Congress, 212 ; sent to see 
condition of the army, 212 ; 
letters to Gov. Johnson, 212- 
216 ; letters to Gen. Washing- 
ton, 217, 218 ; returns to Con- 
gress, 217, 219 ; votes on 
Articles of Confederation, 
219, 220; at •* Doughoregan 
Manor," 223; letter to Rich- 
ard Peters, 223, 224 ; receives 
letter from Gen. Conway, 225- 
230 ; in the Assembly, 232- 
234 ; in Congress, 235 ; sent 
to Valley Forge, 235 ; helps to 
defeat Conway Cabal, 236 ; 
writes from Congress to Gov. 
Johnson, 237-242 ; on com- 
mittee to give Washington 
larger powers, ii, 3 ; on more 
committees, 3, 4 ; letter to 
Gov. Johnson, 6-9 ; gives 
account of Maryland amend- 

ments to Articles of Confed- 
eration, 7-9 ; in Maryland 
Senate, 11 ; resigns seat in 
Congress, n, 26; on com- 
mittee to amend the criminal 
law, 14 ; again in Assembly, 
16 ; dissents to resolve increas- 
ing pay of members, 16 ; dis- 
sents to supply bill, 18 ; attends 
fall session, 20 ; on committee 
to procure supplies for troops, 
20 ; votes for non-exportation 
bill, 21 ; writes Senate mes- 
sages, 22-24 ; resists confisca- 
tion act, 25 ; letter to Dr. 
Franklin, 26-31 ; receives 
letter from Edmund Jennings, 
31-33 ; in the Assembly, 34 ; 
drafts bill for recruiting troops, 
35 ; with T. Stone writes mes- 
sage on confiscation bill, 38 ; 
attends extra session, 39 ; 
brings in embargo act, 39 ; on 
committee to prepare address 
to the people, 40 ; attends fall 
session, 41 ; on important com- 
mittees, 42 ; refuses re-election 
to Congress, 43 ; votes to ratify 
Articles of Confederation, 44 ; 
again in Maryland Senate, 46 ; 
attends fall session, 48 ; on 
committee to thank Washing- 
ton for victory at Yorktown, 
48 ; attends spring session, 
49 ; on joint committee to 
confer for protection of the 
Bay, 50 ; letter to Gov. Lee 
on death of Mrs. Darnall, 53, 
54 ; birth of youngest child, 
54 ; death of his father, 53. 55, 
56 ; death of his wife, 53, 55, 
56 ; in the Assembly, 56 ; dis- 
sents to supply bill, 58-61 ; 
with C. Carroll drafts mes- 
sage on defence of the Bay, 
62-64 ; drafts message to 
the House, 64-65 ; dissents to 
bill for defence of Bay, 65 ; 
in Assembly, May, 1783, and 
elected President of the Senate, 



Carroll, Charles — Continued. 
67 ; dissents to solicitors and 
attornies bill, 67-72 ; writes 
to members of Baltimore Iron 
Works Company, 74, 75 ; 
attends fall session, 75 ; on 
committee to confer with 
consul-general of France, 76 ; 
on committee to prepare ad- 
dress 10 Washington, 76; 
elected President of the Senate, 
77 ; member of Susquehanna 
Canal Company, 79 ; again in 
the Senate, 79; on committee 
to prepare address to Lafay- 
ette, 80 ; one of committee to 
confer with Virginia commis- 
sioners on navigation of the 
Potomac, 80 ; on committee 
to instruct Maryland commis- 
sioners, 82 ; opposed to Chase's 
management of Bank of Eng- 
land stock negotiation, 83, 84 ; 
dissents to resolution advanc- 
ing him money, 85-88 ; votes 
for non-jurors bill, 88 ; advo- 
cates permanent salaries for 
judges, 90, 91 ; in Senate, 
1786, and opposes emission 
of paper money, 93-96; allu- 
sion to this controversy, 97, 
105 ; helps to defeat the 
measure, 99, 100 ; elected to 
seat in Federal Convention, 
but declines it, 99 ; solicits 
subscriptions to Georgetown 
College, 101 ; sends his son 
to Liege, 101, 102 ; letters to 
Daniel Carroll of Duddington, 
103-106 ; marriage of his 
daughter Mary, 106 ; sends 
his daughter Catharine abroad, 
K36, 107 ; in the Assembly, 
108 ; becomes identified with 
the Federalists, 109, 117 ; on 
committee to settle Van Stap- 
horst claim, no ; attends May 
session, 114 ; drafts insolvent 
debtors bill, 114 ; in November 
Assembly, 114, 115 ; elected 

to U. S. Senate, 115 ; arrives 
in Philadelphia, 117; opposes 
titles, 118, 123, 125 ; on com- 
mittee to prepare an answer 
to President's address, 120- 
122 ; at the theatre with Wash- 
ington, 124 ; speaks on impost 
bill, 126-130 ; conversation 
with John Adams, 128 ; votes 
for tariff report, 131 ; speaks 
in favor of viva voce vote on 
presidential nominations, 132 ; 
approves of giving President 
power of removal, 133 ; on 
impost bill and compensation 
bill committees, 137 ; opposes 
high salaries, 139 ; speaks on 
residence bill, 141, 142 ; in 
Maryland Assembly, 142 ; 
drafts message on bill to abol- 
ish slavery, 143, 144 ; unites 
in address of Roman Catholics 
to President Washington, 145 ; 
again in Congress, 145 ; on 
important committees, 145, 
147 ; favors assumption bill, 
147 ; interested in the French 
Revolution, 148 ; moves that 
the Senate wear mourning for 
Franklin, 149 ; on committee 
to consider relations with 
Rhode Island, 150 ; reports 
additions to the bill, 151 ; 
votes for Rhode Island reso- 
lutions, 153 ; on committees 
for intercourse with foreign 
nations and post-office bills, 
155—1 59 ; discusses residence 
bill and advocates the Po- 
tomac, 157 - 160 ; promotes 
assumption bill, 160-163; 
letter to Governor of Mary- 
land, 165 ; votes on Indian 
treaty, 160 ; cannot collect 
interest on money loaned, 
167 ; in Maryland Assembly, 
167 ; re-elected to U. S. Senate, 
167 ; brings in bill on Bank 
of England stock, 168 ; in 
Congress, 168 ; moves amend- 



Carroll, Charles — Continued. 
ment to residence bill, 169 ; 
serves on committees, 170 ; 
writes from Annapolis to 
Thomas Jefferson, 171, 172 ; 
in the Assembly, 172; dis- 
sents to bill for relief of S. 
Sterrett, 173-176 ; his views 
on federal nature of U. S. 
Government, 177 ; in Con- 
gress, 179 ; votes for open 
sessions of Senate, 179 ; inter- 
ested in missions to the 
Indians, 179, 180 ; letter to 
Alexander Hamilton, 181 ; in 
the Assembly, 182 ; resigns 
his seat in U. S. Senate, 182 ; 
works on militia bill, 183 ; 
with J. E. Howard drafts 
message to the House, 183- 
*%1 \ gives account of Mary- 
land affairs in letters to John 
Henry, 189-196 ; receives let- 
ter from Washington, 197, 
198 ; declines appointment 
offered him, 198, 199 ; letter 
to Joshua Johnson, 200 ; enter- 
tains French royalist refugees, 
200, 202 ; receives letter from 
Washington, 204, 206 ; writes 
report against Virginia amend- 
ments to Federal Constitution, 
208-212 ; in the Assembly, 
213 ; on committee to hold 
lottery for benefit of Federal 
City, 213 ; interested in suf- 
ferers from St. Domingo, 213 ; 
approves of Jay's Treaty, 215 ; 
letter to Washington, 216- 
218 ; drafts reports on bank- 
stock affair, 219-229 ; last 
letter to Washington, 229- 
231 ; announces Washington's 
death in the Maryland Senate, 
232, 233 ; his retirement from 
public life, 234 ; correspond- 
ence with Alexander Hamil- 
ton, 235-238 ; marriage of his 
son, 241, 243 ; letters to 
Charles Carroll of "Home- 

wood," 245-249 ; marriage of 
Catharine Carroll, 249 ; letters 
to Robert Goodloe Harper, 
251-258 ; appointed one of a 
committee to report on con- 
dition and advantages of St. 
John's College, 253 ; interested 
in impeachment trial of Samuel 
Chase, 258 ; letters to Harper, 
258-264 ; his portrait painted 
by Field, 264, 265 ; has visi- 
tors at the Manor, 266 ; letters 
to his son, 265, 267-271 ; 
speculates on Burr's move- 
ments, 272-277 ; letters to his 
son, 273-276; writes to 
Harper, 277 ; writes to his son, 
277-280 ; letters to Harper, 
280-282 ; letters to his son, 
282, 283 ; the Decaturs visit 
him in Annapolis, 284 ; the 
Harpers with him at the 
Manor, 285 ; letter to his son, 
286 ; letters to his son-in-law, 
286-289 J writes to Charles Car- 
roll, Jr., 289, 290-292; opposed 
to the war with England, 291 ; 
writes to his son-in-law R. 
Caton, 292, 293 ; a ball given 
at his house in Annapolis, 
294 ; anxious for the downfall 
of Napoleon, 295 ; the enemy 
expected at Annapolis, 296, 
297 ; family letters continued, 
298-300 ; has trouble with an 
incompetent overseer, 300- 
302 ; letter to Harper, 302, 

303 ; writes of the occupation 
of Washington by the British, 

304 ; of Baltimore's danger, 
304, 305 ; family letters, 305- 
307 ; tells of festivities after 
the peace, 308 ; letters to 
Harper, 309-311 ; his portrait 
to be painted by King, 311 ; 
writes to Joseph Delaplaine, 

312 ; to Virgil Maxey, 312, 

313 ; sends his grandchildren 
to school in Europe, 314-316 ; 
letters to Harper, 315-317 ; 



Carroll, Charles — Continued. 
has a French chaplain at the 
Manor, 317 ; educates Emile 
Morancy, 318 ; letters to 
Harper, 320-322 ; writes of 
his Pennsylvania lands, 321 ; 
his guests and his hospitality 
described, 323-326 ; an Eng- 
lish visitor's impressions of 
him, 324, 325 ; goes to '• Mel- 
wood" and " Bel Air," 327 ; 
letter to his son, 327, 328 ; 
builds a church at Annapolis, 
328, 329; last letters to 
Harper, 329-331 ; invited to 
Yorktown celebration, 332 ; 
letter to Robert G. Scott, 
33 2 ; greets Lafayette in Balti- 
more, 332, 333 ; opposed to 
J. Q. Adams for President, 
334 ; loses his son, 334, 335 ; 
reflections on his 89th birth- 
day, 336 ; receives a gold 
medal, 337 ; letter of thanks, 
338 ; joins in memorial services 
on death of Adams and Jeffer- 
son, 339, 341, 342 ; letter to 
Charles H. Wharton, 340, 
341 ; sits for his bust to 
Browere, 342 ; letter to Archi- 
bald Robertson, 342, 343 ; 
commemorates 50th anniver- 
sary of American Independ- 
ence, 343 ; receives a poem 
from Mrs. Sigourney, 344- 
346 ; writes letter of thanks, 
34 i 347 I strikes a medal on 
his 90th birthday, 347 ; letter 
to Robert Gilmor, 348 ; de- 
scribed by Macready, 349, 350 ; 
writes to a namesake in Ire- 
land, 350, 351 ; letters to 
editor of the Ca?rolltonian % 
351. 35 2 I letter to Richard 
Peters, 353-35° , writes on 
religious liberty to Rev. J. 
Stand ford, 357, 358 ; Latrobe's 
description of him, 358, 359 ; 
letter to Monroe, 359, 360 ; 
lays corner-stone of B. and O. 

Railroad, 360, 361 ; writes to 
William Gibbons, 361 ; gives 
land for St. Charles College, 
362 ; described by Rev. Mr. 
Pise, 363-365 ; letter to I. J. 
Cohen, 365, 366 ; receives 
committee of young Whigs, 
367 ; last illness and death, 
368-370 ; tributes to his mem- 
ory, 367 ; named as heir and 
executor in his father's will, 
391 ; his will given, 393-431 
Carroll, Charles, son of Anthony 
of Lisheenboy, ii, 434, 437 ; 
Charles of " Duddington " and 
l4 Carrollsburg,"i, 16, 17, 40, 
41, 57, 181 ; ii, 56, 73, 102, 
390, 441 ; Charles of " Home- 
wood," i, 221 ; ii, 54, 55, 101, 
200, 206, 241, 243, 245, 247, 
250, 264-267, 286, 321, 326, 

331, 334, 335, 359. 394, 4<>i. 

405, 406, 420, 427, 438 ; 

Charles of *' Doughoregan 
Manor," ii, 53, 314, 315, 

318, 335, 393-396. 401, 403. 

406, 415, 416, 418, 422, 424- 

428, 438, 439 ; Charles of 
*' Bellevue," ii, 101, 102, 105, 
441, 442 ; Charles of " Dud- 
dington," ii, 442 ; Charles of 
Cork, Ireland, ii, 350, 351 ; 
Charles, ii, 378 ; Charles, d. 
inf., ii, 437 ; Charles, d. inf., 
ii, 437 ; Charles, ii, 425, 439 ; 
Charles, ii, 440 ; Charles, ii, 

Carroll, Charles, M.D., de- 
scended from eldest branch of 
the Ely O' Carrolls, i, I ; 
related to James Carroll and 
the Attorney-General, 2 ; mem- 
ber of the Baltimore Iron 
Works Company, 23 ; corre- 
sponds with Richard Croxall, 
23 ; writes to Charles Carroll 
of Annapolis, 23 ; dies Sept. 
29, 1755, 23 ; had lived forty 
years in the colony, 23 ; in- 
volved in lawsuit with his 



Carroll, Charles — Continued. 
cousin at time of his death, 
25 ; named in will of James 
Carroll, ii, 585 

Carroll, Charles, barrister, son of 
Dr. Charles Carroll, i, 23 ; 
graduated at Cambridge, Eng- 
land, 193 ; studied law at the 
Temple, 190 ; on Land Office 
books as l * Charles Carroll , bar- 
rister-at-law," 181 ; member of 
Maryland Committee of Cor- 
respondence, 133 ; delegate to 
Maryland Convention, 134 ; 
on Council of Safety, 135 ; 
chairman of a county political 
meeting, 136 ; in Maryland 
Convention, 140 ; member of 
Baltimore Committee of Ob- 
servation, 142 ; a partner in 
Baltimore Iron Works Com- 
pany, 143 ; ii, 74 ; consents to 
contract with Whitecroft, i, 
144 ; in Maryland Conven- 
tion, 177 ; again in Convention, 
186 ; on committee to frame 
Bill of Rights and Constitu- 
tion, 186; objects to plan for 
Constitution, 187 ; resigns from 
Convention, 187, 189 ; in Con- 
tinental Congress, 187 ; drafts 
Declaration of Rights, 190 ; 
legal learning and ability, 
190 ; in Maryland Senate, 
232 ; present at other sessions, 
ii, 11, 15, 21 ; accusation made 
against him by Chase, 15, 20 ; 
carries message to House of 
Delegates, 18 ; on committee 
to confer as to suspected 
persons in prison, 46 ; Sen- 
ator selected to present vote 
of thanks to Washington, 48 ; 
one of committee to draft 
message on civil list bill, 57 ; 
on joint committee to present 
vote of thanks to Rochambeau, 
61 ; with C. Carroll of Carroll- 
ton drafts message to the 
House, 62-64 ; opposes in- 

crease of allowance to mem- 
bers of Assembly, 64 ; his 
death in 1783, 67 ; his nephews 
made his heirs and take Car- 
roll name, 67 
Carroll, Charles Lee, ii, 440 ; 
Charles H., ii, 442, 443; Cla- 
rissa, n/e Mitchell, ii, 443 ; 
Daniel of Adams town, i, 48 ; 
Daniel of Litterlouna, i, 3, 

59 J ". 433, 437 J Daniel, son 
of Anthony of Lisheenboy, ii, 
433. 434. 437 ; Daniel, brother 
of James of Ann Arundel 
County, ii, 382, 384; Daniel, 
son of Michael, ii, 383 ; Dan- 
iel, ii, 378, 380 ; Daniel, i, 12 ; 
Daniel (ist)of " Duddington," 
i, 9, 10, 14-18, 68 ; ii, 102, 

374-377.437.44i ; Daniel (2d) 
of " Duddington," ii, 101, 
106, 230, 44.1, 442 ; Daniel, 
Midshipman, C. S. N., ii, 
444 ; Daniel, of Upper Marl- 
boro', ii, 443 ; Daniel (2d) of 
Rock Creek, ii, 444 
Carroll, Daniel, of Rock Creek 
or Upper Marlboro', son of 
Daniel of Upper Marlboro', ii, 
443, 447 ; born Tuly 22, 1730, 
443 ; married Eleanor Carroll 
of " Duddington," 441, 443 ; 
family prominent in Maryland, 
i, I, 2 ; mentioned in letter of 
Charles Carroll of Annapolis, 
35 ; loses his wife, 57 ; ii, 443 ; 
corresponds with Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton, i, 78 ; mem- 
ber of Maryland Council, 232 ; 
ii, 20 ; in Maryland Senate, 
75 ; elected President of the 
Senate, 75 ; on committee to 
draft address to Lafayette, 80 ; 
on committee to instruct Ma- 
ryland commissioners, 82 ; one 
of Senate conferrees on bank- 
stock controversy, 84 ; one of 
committee to answer House 
message on non-jurors bill, 
88 ; approves permanent sala- 



Carroll, Daniel — Continued, 
ries for judges, 90, 91 ; op- 
posed to Chase's management 
of bank - stock agency, 9a ; 
delegate to the Federal Con- 
vention, 99 ; voted with the 
Federalists, 108 ; in Maryland 
Senate, 108 ; elected to U. S. 
Congress, 117 ; rooms in house 
with Charles Carroll of Car- 
roll ton, 117 ; signs an address 
of Roman Catholics to the 
President of the United States, 
145; called "statesman" to 
distinguish him from his cousin 
of same name, 443, 447 

Carroll, Daniel Joseph, ii, 442 ; 
David Williamson, ii, 444 ; 
Dominick, ii, 378 ; Domi- 
nick, son of Michael, ii, 
383 ; Eleanor, i, 9, 11, 16, 
68 ; ii, 376, 377, 437 ; Elea- 
nor, d. inf., ii, 437 ; Eleanor, 
ne'e Carroll, I, 18, 57; ii, 56, 
390, 441 443 ; Eleanor, ne'e 
Darnall, i, 152 ; ii, 467 ; Elea- 
nor, n/e Van Swearingen, ii, 
435. 43& '» Elizabeth, n/e 
Brooke, i, 18, 21, 31, 40 ; ii, 
54, 39°. 39i. 438 ; Elizabeth, 
n/e Digges, ii, 444 ; Elizabeth, 
d. inf., ii, 54, 438 ; Eliza, ii, 
54, 438 ; Ella, ne'e Thompson, 
ii, 440; George Atwood, ii, 
444 ; George Richard, ii, 444 ; 
wife of George Richard, ne'e 
Clarke, 444 ; Hannah, ii, 442 ; 
Harriet, ne'e Chew, ii, 241, 
242, 246, 247. 33i, 402, 438 ; 
Helen, ne'e Bennett, ii, 443 ; 
Henrietta, ne'e Williamson, ii, 
444 ; Henry, i, 9, 10, 12 ; ii, 
374, 375, 378, 437 ; Henry, 
ii, 102 ; Henry of ** Dud- 
dington," ii, 442 ; Henry of 
41 Littcrluna," ii, 442 ; Cap- 
tain Henry, i, 35, 52, 62, 65 ; 
Henry of Ballynure, Ireland, 
ii, 445 ; Henry Hill, ii, 441, 
442 ; Henry James, ii, 436 ; 

wife of Henry James, n/e 
King, ii, 436 ; James, son of 
Anthony of Lisheenboy, ii, 
435, 437 ; James, son of Mi- 
chael, ii, 382, 383, 385 ; James, 
of Somerset County, i, 2 ; ii, 
43 5 1 436 ; James. See Mac- 
Carroll, James, of Anne Arundel 
County, conspicuous figure in 
Maryland, i, 2 ; related to Dr. 
Charles Carroll and the Attor- 
ney-General, 2 ; deputy sur- 
veyor and Keeper of the Rent 
Rolls, 14 ; granted 3500 acres 
of land, 68 ; one of the trus- 
tees named in will of Charles 
Carroll, Attorney-General, i, 
12 ; ii, 378 ; manages the estate 
for the heirs, i, 14 ; is god- 
father of Charles Carroll of 
Annapolis, 14 ; ii, 384 ; brother 
of Joanna Carroll (Mrs. Rich- 
ard Croxall), i, 24 ; ii, 436 ; 
leaves property in his will to 
Charles Carroll, his godson, i, 
15 ; ii, 384 ; dies at house of 
Charles Carroll, in Annapolis, 
i, 15 ; account of his funeral, 
15 ; his will given, ii, 380- 

Carroll, Jane, ii, 442 ; John, of 

Ireland, i, 50 ; John, of Anne 
Arundel County, ii, 435; John, 
Archbishop of Baltimore, i, 2, 
18, 2i, 64, 146, 152, 158, 162, 
170, 208, 293; ii, 53, 55, 145, 
180, 200. 260, 441, 447 ; John 
Lee, ii, 53. 72, 243. 247, 249, 
250, 265, 271, 276, 280, 283, 
286, 290, 292, 297, 299, 306, 
328, 439, 440 ; Judith Carter, 
ne'e Armistead, ii, 436 ; Kean, 
i, 59; Kean.i, 1 ; ii, 443,447; 
Louisa, d. inf., 439; Louisa 
Rachel, ii, 54, 438; Marion, ne'e 
Langdon, ii, 440 ; Martha, nie 
Underwood, i. 9 ; ii, 437 ; 
Mary, i, 9, 11, 17, 18, 68; ii, 
376. 377, 437 ; Mary (1st), */* 



Carroll, Mary — Continued. 
Darnall, i, 9, 15, 18 ; ii, 374- 

378, 38o, 384. 437. 446 ; Mary 
(2nd), n/e Darnall, i, 77, 81, 
84, 85, 86, 88, 171, 196, 20a, 
221, 222; ii, 53-55, 438,447; 
Mary, nee Carroll, ii, 442 ; 
Mary, ne'e Hill, i, 57 ; ii, 

441 ; Mary, ne'e Sewall, ii, 
435 ; Mary, ne'e Sterrett, ii, 

442 ; Mary Carter, ne'e Thomp- 
son, ii, 439, 440 ; Mary Cor- 
nelia, ne'e Read. See Lee ; Mary 
Diggcs (1st), ne'e Lee, ii, 53, 
439 ; Mary Digges (2nd), ne'e 
Lee, ii, 440, 441 ; Mary Irene, 
ii, 440 ; Michael, son of An- 
thony of Lisheenboy, i, 48, 50 ; 

ii. 434, 435, 437 ; Michael, 
brother of James of Anne 
Arundel County, ii, 382-384 ; 
Nicholas. See Maccubbin ; 
Oswald, d. inf., ii, 439 ; Philip 
Acosta, ii, 440 ; Rachel, ne'e 
Croxall, ii, 436 ; Rebecca, 
ii, 442 ; Richard (1st), ii, 
436; Richard (2nd), ii, 436; 
Robert Goodloe Harper, ii, 
440, 441 ; Royal Phelps, ii, 
440 ; Samuel Sprigg, ii, 443 ; 
Sarah, ne'e Rogers, ii, 442 ; 
Sarah, ne'e Sprigg, ii, 442, 443; 
Susanna, ii, 435 ; Susanne, ne'e 
Bancroft, ii, 440 ; Thomas 
King, i, 2 ; ii, 436 ; Thomas 
Sim Lee, ii, 425, 439 ; Thomas 
Sim Lee, d. inf., ii, 439 ; Wil- 
liam, ii, 289 ; William of 
Rock Creek, ii, 444 ; William 
Thomas, ii, 442, 443 
Carroll Arms, i, 8 ; ii, 351, 444, 

Carroll Family Papers, i, 3, 11, 

22, 31, 36, 39, 43, 47-50, 58- 
61, 71, 78, 79, 81, 83-89, 92 ; 
«. 54, 55, 103, 107, 200, 243, 
247. 249-251, 253, 258, 264, 
265, 271, 276, 277. 280, 282, 
283, 285, 286, 290, 292, 296, 
297, 299, 303, 306, 308, 310, 

311, 317, 321, 322, 327-329. 
33i. 351, 362 

Carroll graveyard, i, 15 

Carroll Papers, Scharf Collec- 
tion, i, 16, 17 

Carroll's Green, ii, 66 

Carroll's Isle, i, 50 

Carrolls of Carrollton, i, 1, 24, 

69 ; ii, 433, 437. 445 
Carrolls of Ely O'Carroll, i, I, 

48, 50 ; ii, 433 

Carrolls of Somerset County, 
Md., i, 2 

Carson, Joseph, ii, 1 

Carter, Bettie, ne'e Lewis, ii, 
167 ; Charles, ii, 167 ; Robert 
of " Nomini," i, 92, 143, 144, 
203 ; ii, 73, 96, 100 

Carter Letter-Books, i, 144, 203 

Carter Papers, ii, 75, 97 

Caton, Joseph, ii, 438 ; Marjr, 
ne'e Carroll, i, 171, 221 ; ii, 
54, 55, 102, 105, 106, 146, 
147, 244, 245. 247, 264, 266, 
267, 297, 322, 327, 349, 357, 
359. 364. 393, 394, 397-399, 
403, 404, 406, 407, 411, 412, 
418-420, 422, 426-428 ; Rich- 
ard, ii, 104, 106, 238, 244, 
245, 247, 266, 270, 283, 284, 
292, 293, 296, 307, 308, 328, 

356-358, 396-398, 415. 4i6, 

419, 420, 438 
Catonsville, Md., ii, 106, 420 
Chamblay, i, 152, 155, 161, 165, 

166, 168, 170, 370, 391, 393- 

Champagny, ii, 280 

Charleston, S. C., i, 213, 275 ; ii, 

3'7, 352 

Charlestown, i, 237 

Chase, Jeremiah Townley, i, 
189; ii, 112, 215, 259 

Chase, Samuel, one of the "Sons 
of Liberty," i, 73 ; has con- 
troversy about tithes with 
Rev. J. Boucher, 100 ; anec- 
dote relating to him and to 
Charles Carroll, 101 ; one of 
I the •' Independent Whigs," 



Chase, Samuel — Continued. 
106 ; delegate to Continental 
Congress, 131 ; introduces Car- 
roll to Adams, 131 ; member 
of Anne Arundel County Com- 
mittee of Correspondence, 132; 
on Provincial Committee of 
Correspondence, 133 ; member 
of Council of Safety, 135; 
writes to the Council of Safety 
from Congress, 140; delegate 
to Maryland Convention, 140 ; 
appointed commissioner to 
Canada, 145 ; mentioned in 
Carroll's Journal, 148, 364, 
305» 376, 385 ; writes from 
Montreal to Franklin and 
Schuyler, 158 ; writes to Con- 
gress and to Schuyler, 161 ; 
inspects forts with Carroll, 
164, 165, 394 ; writes to Gen- 
eral Wooster, 165 ; letter to 
General Thomas, 166-168 ; 
leaves Montreal to return to 
Philadelphia, 170; incidents 
of the journey, 171, 172, 399 ; 
interview with Washington, 
173 ; in the Maryland Conven- 
tion, 178 ; re-elected to Con- 
gress, 178 ; impatient for 
Maryland to act, 179; writes 
to Virginia, 180; letter from 
Congress, 184, 185 ; on the 
committee to prepare Declara- 
tion of Rights and Constitu- 
tion, 186 ; resigns from the 
Convention, 187 ; in the Oc- 
tober Convention, 188, 189 ; 
approves construction of Mary- 
land Senate, 192 ; elected to 
Congress, 199 ; mentioned in 
letter of Charles Carroll, 208 ; 
is sent by Congress to the 
army, 212 ; returns to his seat 
in Congress, 219 ; mentioned 
in letter of M. Pliarne, 220 ; 
again elected to Congress, 233 ; 
commissioner to settle ques- 
tions of jurisdiction with Vir- 
ginia, 234 ; mentioned in let- 

ter of Gen. Charles Lee, 236 ; 
mentioned in letter of Charles 
Carroll, 242 ; in Congress, ii, 
1 ; on committee with Duer 
and Carroll, r ; in the Mary- 
land Assembly, 15 ; makes ac- 
cusations of treason against 
members, 15 ; files a statement 
on the subject, 20 ; one of the 
House conferrees on the con- 
fiscation act, 43 ; sent to Eng- 
land to see about Bank of 
England stock, 75 ; his letters 
and papers read in the Senate, 
76 ; his portrait at the State 
House, 77 ; named - commis- 
sioner to settle boundary ques- 
tions, 82 ; discussions in the 
Assembly over his agency, 83- 
85 ; agreement reached to pay 
the fees, 92 ; a leader in the 
House of Delegates, 99 ; pro- 
poses issue of paper money, 
99 ; an Antifederalist, 109 ; 
writes to General Lamb, 112 ; 
more discussion of his bank- 
stock agency, 167, 168, 219, 
222 ; Judge of the Supreme 
Court, 258 ; had been promi- 
nent as a Federalist, 258 ; 
tried by impeachment for his 
action under the sedition law, 

258 ; his answer to the articles, 

259 ; his acquittal, 260 ; men- 
tioned in letters of Charles 
Carroll, 312, 329 ; his letters 
to Carroll destroyed, 348 

Chaunce, Rev. John E., ii., 369 
Chesapeake Bay, i, 142, 212, 

213, 232-234 ; ii, 2, 39, 82, 393 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal 

Company, ii, 330 
Chesshire, Mr., i, 398, 399 
Chestertown, i, 140 
Chew, Benjamin, ii, 3, 241 ; 

Benjamin, Jr. , 242 ; Samuel of 

" Maidstone," ii, 386 
Chew family, ii, 241, 242 
Chew House. See Country seats, 

41 Cliveden." 



Chicago, ii, 361 
China, ii, 130 
Christie, Col., i, 387 
Clark, George Rogers, ii, 10 
Clay, Henry, ii, 319, 333, 353, 

366, 367 
Clement, J., ii, 26 
Clifton, William, i, 49, 94 
Clifton estate, i, 93 
Clinton, De Witt, ii, 343; George, 

". 124,355 J Sir Henry, i, 214, 

22i ( 241 ; ii, 6 ; Mrs., ii, 124 
Cobb, Mr., ii, 308 
Cockburn, Admiral, ii, 303 
Cohen, I. J., ii, 365 ; Miss M. 

A., ii, 293, 340, 366 
Cohooes, Falls of, i, 368, 373 
Colt, Roswell L., ii, 424 
Commissioners Point, i, 385 
Connecticut, ii, 9, 124 ; ii, 237, 

270, 347 

Contee, Thomas, i, 197 

Continental Congress Journals, 
i, 182, 184, 204, 205, 220, 235 ; 
", 2-5 

Conway, Genl. Henry Seymour, 
i, 35 ; Genl : Thomas, i, 204, 
225, 230, 231, 236 

Conway Cabal, i, 224, 236 

Cook, George, ii, 418 

Cooke, Mr., ii, 316 ; Rachel, i, 
76, 78, 79, 81-85 ; William, i, 
90, 91 ; ii, 215, 243, 254, 305 ; 
William, Jr., ii, 305 

Cooke family, ii, 308 

Copley, Sir Lionel, i, 4, 5 

Corbin, Richard, i, 92, 93 

Cork, ii, 350, 351 

Corner and Soderholtz's " Ex- 
amples of Domestic Architect- 
ure in Maryland and Virginia," 

", 243 
Cornwallis, Lord Charles, i, 231 ; 

ii, 46, 332 
Coronada, Cal., ii, 196 
Coudray, Monsieur de, i, 204 
Counties : Anne Arundel, i, 13, 
15, 17, 23, 44, 73, 100, 132, 
134, 136, 140, 142, 143, 177, 
187, 205, 206, 238, 239, 362 ; 

", 373. 38o, 385-387, 389. 390, 
392, 393, 4i8, 434-436 ; Balti- 
more, i, 6, 13, 23, 41, 68, 100 ; 
ii, 377. 381, 383, 420, 441, 442; 
Bradford, Pa., ii, 321 ; Bucks, 
Pa., i, 213 ; Calvert, ii, 232, 
381, 446 ; Cecil, ii, 435 ; 
Charles, i, 13, 15 ; ji, 387 ; 
Charlotte, N. Y., i, 373 ; Cul- 
pepper, Va., ii, 167, 447 ; Fair- 
fax, Va., i, 94; Frederick, i, 
41, 67-69, 100 ; ii, 42, 403, 409, 
447 ; Galloway, Ireland, i, 50; 
Harford, ii, 115 ; Hertford- 
shire, Eng., i, 2 ; ii, 445, 446 ; 
Howard, ii, 362, 440 ; Kent, i, 
13, 140 ; King's, Ireland, i, 

1,48, 59; », 433, 434, 437; 
Loudon, Va. , ii, 360 ; Mont- 
gomery, ii, 326, 444 ; Prince 
George's, i, 6, 9, 13, 15, 17, 41, 
68, 88 ; ii, 375, 381, 385. 387, 
441, 444, 446, 447 ; Queens' 
Ireland, i, 48 ; St. Mary's, i, 13, 
203 ; ii, 44, 49, 232, 435, 447 ; 
Somerset, i, 13, 198 ; ii, 381, 
435, 436 1 Surrey, Eng., ii, 
437 ; Talbot, ii, 49 ; Tioga, N. 
Y., ii, 270, 400; Tipperary, 
Ireland, i, 50; ii, 381, 434, 
437 ; Tompkins, N. Y. f ii, 330 ; 
Tryon, N. Y., i, 214 ; Wash- 
ington, ii, 144, 441 ; Westmor- 
land, Va., i, 13, 92, 95 ; Wor- 
cester, i, 198 
Country Seats, Manors and Plan- 
tations : *' Arlington" Va., ii, 
332, 333; "Ayno," ii, 385, 
387 ; *' Beechwood," ii, 244 ; 
"Belair," (Bel Air) i, 39 ; ii, 
245, 327; "Belvedere," ii, 
244-246, 333 ; " Bellevue," ii, 
441. 442; "Bin," ii, 383; 
"Bright Seat," ii, 385, 387; 
" Brookefield," i, 2, 9; ii v 446; 
" Brook landwood," ii, 238, 
244, 245, 267, 272, 284, 391, 
419, 421 ; " Bush ford," i, 13 ; 
•' Carrollsburgh," i, 15, 17, 18; 
"f 385, 387, 441 ; " Carroll's 




Country Seats — Continued. 
Delight," i, 17, 18; " Carroll's 
Forest/' i, 6; " Carrollton | 
Manor," i, 61, 67-69 ; ii, 250, ■ 
278, 328 ; " Chance," i, 41, 61; ' 
' * Cheney's Plantation," ii, 385, I 
387 ; " Cliveden," ii, 242, 244 ; i 
"Clynmalyra,"i,6,4i ; "Dela 
Brooke," i, 2 ; " Doughoregan 
Manor," i, 1, 6, 23, 37, 4*» 61, 
67, 72, 136, 196, 205, 206, 223 ; 
«, 53. 74, 101, 142, 200, 202, 
216, 229, 244, 250, 252, 254, 
256, 260, 265, 266, 268, 269, 
277, 278, 285, 286, 297, 298, 
304, 306, 315, 317, 322-329, 
330, 33', 335. 339. 340, 342. 
343. 346, 348, 353, 355-357. 
362, 363, 393, 395, 4i6, 418, 
420-422, 424, 425, 427, 428, 
433. 439; "Druid Hill," ii, 
244 ; " Duddington Manor," 
i, 9 ; ii, 441, 442 ; Edges Addi- 
tion, ii, 393 ; Edges Advance, 
>i. 393 \ Encles Good Will, ii, 
377; "Enfield Chase," i, 6 ;ii, 
375; "Elyo Carroll," i. 6, 
41 ; " Garrison Forest," ii, 
436; "Green Mount," ii, 
244 ; " Green Spring," Va., i, 
92 ; " Hampton," ii, 244 ; 
" Hesse," Va., ii, 436 ; 
" Homewood," ii, 243, 247, 
265, 4 J 5 ; " Hop Yard," ii, 
383 ; Litterluna, Ireland, ii, 
433. 4371 "Litterluna," Md. 
(Litreach-Luna,) i, 6, 41 ; ii, 
441, 442; "Maidstone," ii, 
386 ; " Melwood." ii, 56, 245, 
327, 441 ; " Moreland Manor," 
N. Y., ii, 400; "Mount Dil- 
lon," ii, 436 ; " Mount Ver- 
non," Va., 83, 159; "My 
Lord's Kindness," See " Pop- 
lar Hill," "Needwood," ii, 
444; "Nomoni Hall," Va.,i, 
203 ; " Notley Hall," i, 9 ; ii, 
441 ; "Oakland," ii, 266, 400; 
"OxonHill,"ii, 245; "Perry 
Hall," ii, 286 ; •« Poplar Hill/' 

ii, 245-247 ; Pork Hall, ii, 383, 
384 ; " Portland Manor," i, 2 ; 
ii, 446; Push Pin, ii, 326; 
Ridgely and Tylor's Chance, 
«. 3»5, 387 : " St Clements," 
i, 13 ; "Sotterly," ii, 49; 
" The Barrens," i, 17 ; " The 
Cottage," ii, 444 : " The 
Farm," ii, 393 ; •' The Folly." 
ii, 395, 420, 427 ; The Girls* 
Portion, ii. 326, 446 ; " The 
Hermitage," N. Y., ii, 442; 
"The Homestead," ii, 243, 
244; "The Woodyard." i, 2 ; 
ii. 245, 246 ; Trusty Friend, 
ii. 393 ; " Tudor Hall," ii, 44 ; 
Underwood's Choice, i, 9 ; 
Vale of Jehosophat, i, 44 ; 
" Warburton," ii, 444 : "West- 
wood," i, 13 ; " Wye House," 
ii, 49 

Cowpens, battle of, ii, 142 

Craik, Dr. James, ii, 15 

Crawford, William H., ii, 331, 333 

Crouchs' Mills, i, 215 

Crown and Anchor Tavern, Lon- 
don, i, 67, 90, 91 

Crown Point, i, 146, 150, 170, 
206, 38 1. 3S3, 398 

Croxall, Charles, i, 24; ii, 436, 
Eleanor, ne'e Buchanan, ii, 436; 
James Carroll, ii, 436 ; Joanna, 
ne'e Carroll, i, 24 ; ii, 377, 383, 
436 ; Rebecca, ne'e Moale, ii, 
436 ; Richard (1st), ii, 384, 
436 ; Richard (2d), i, 23, 24, 
35; ii, 436; Richard (3d), ii, 

Croxall Family Bible, ii, 436 
Cruckshank (Crookshanks) Rob- 
ert (?) i, 34, 44 
Cuba, ii, 279 

Cumberland Bay, i, 385, 389 
Cumberland Head, i, 385, 397 
Cumming, William, i, 17 
Custis, George Washington 
Parke, ii, 332, 333 

Dalton, Tristram, ii, 135, 169 
Dana, Francis, i, 225, 325 ; ii, 3 



Darling, Gen. Charles W., ii, 

Darnall, Anne, n/e Digges, ii, 

446, 447 ; Anne, n/e Talbot, 

i, 447 ; Anne, i, 88 ; ii, 447 ; 

Elinor, n/e Hatton, widow of 

Col. Thomas Brooke, i, 9 ; ii, 

446 ; Elinor, n/e Brooke, ii, 

446 ; Elizabeth, n/e Lowe, ii, 

446 ; Henry of Birds- Place, 
ii, 446 ; Henry, i, 446 ; Col. 
Henry, i, 5, 7, 9 ; ii, 446 ; 
Henry of '• The Woodyard," 
i, 12, 14, 17; », 378, 380, 
446, 447 ; Henry of *' Portland 
Manor," ii, 446 ; Henry of 
" Poplar Hill," i, 45, 46 ; ", 

447 ; Henry, Jr., i, 87, 88 ; 
ii, 447 ; John, ii, 446 ; John, 
ii, 446 ; John, ii, 447 ; John, 
of Virginia, ii, 447 ; Mrs. 
Mary, ii, 446-448 ; Miss, 
ii, 103, 105 ; Philip, of Lon- 
don, ii, 446, 448 ; Philip, 
ii, 446 ; Rachel, n/e Brooke, 
i, 87, 88, 171, 221, 232 ; ii, 
53-55, 390, 447*. Ralph, ii, 
446 ; Susannah, n/e Bennett. 
See Lowe ; Sir Thomas, ii, 

Darnall family, i, 2, 18 ; ii, 245, 

Davis, Ignatius, ii, 409 
Day, Francis, ii, 384 
Dean, Mr., ii, 328 
Deane, Silas, i, 204, 205, 227, 

Decatur, Commodore Stephen, 

ii, 283, 284, 308, 320, 321; 

Mrs., 283, 284, 308, 320-322, 

Declaration of Independence, i, 
180, 181, 183; ii, 116, 319, 

324, 325, 333, 337-339, 341, 
343. 344, 347, 349, 361, 366 
De Haas, Colonel, i, 165, 168, 

396, 397 
Delaplaine, Joseph, ii, 206, 311, 


Delaplaine's *' Repository, Lives 

and Portraits of Distinguished 
Americans," ii, 311, 312 
Delaware, ii, 2, 9, 42, 92, 331, 

Delaware Bay, i, 213 ; ii, 2 

De Liniers, Captain, ii, 274 
Dent, George, ii, 172 
D'Estalng, Admiral, ii, 30 
Detroit, i, 162, 175 ; ii, 197 
Dickinson, John, i, 90, 232 
Didier, Eugene L., ii, 352 
Dieskau, Baron, i, 29, 374 
Digges, Catharine, ii, 442 ; 
Charles, i, 88 ; Charles, ii, 
442 ; Daniel Carroll, ii, 442 ; 
Edward, ii, 446; Elizabeth, 

n/e Sewall, (widow of 

Wharton), ii, 446 ; Elizabeth, 
n/e Darnall, ii, 446 ; George 
Attwood, ii, 442 ; Ignatius of 
" Melwood," i, 49, 94 ; ii, 
441 ; John, ii, 385 ; Joseph, 
i, 88 ; Katharine, n/e Darnall, 
ii, 447 ; Mary, n/e Carroll, i, 
18 ; ii, 56, 390, 441 ; Norah, 
n/e Carroll, ii., 442 ; Robert, 
ii, 442 ; Col. William, ii, 446 ; 
William, i, 94; William, Jr., 
i, 88 ; William Dudley, ii, 442 ; 
William Dudley, ii., 442 
Digges family, ii, 245 
Dirguill, Ireland, country of, i, 48 
Dissentients of Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton, i, 200 ; ii, 16, 
17, 58-61,68-72, 81, 82, 85-88, 
District of Columbia, ii, 322, 

330, 366, 442 
Doans, Mr., i, 212 
Donaho's tavern, i, 391, 397 
Dongan, Lord, ii, 434, 437 
Dorsey, Col. Thomas, i, 142 ; 
Thomas, ii, 391, 392; Mrs. 
Vernon, ii, 447 
Douai, University of, i, 2 
Dover, Del., i, 237 
Dover, Mr., i, 371 
Draper, Lyman C, ii, 344 
Draper's " Autograph Collections 
of the United States," ii, 344 


b **^ w ^ 





Dnimmond, Sir Gordon, ii, 304 
Dublin Castle, ii, 433 
Dublin, Ireland, ii, 352 
Dubois, Major, i, 161 
Dubourg, Rev. William, ii, 401 
Ducoudxay, Monsieur, i, 226, 

Duer, William, i, 205, 225, 236 ; 

ii, 1, 3 
Dulany, Anne, n/e Taskcr, 104 ; 

Daniel, i, 17, 104 ; ii, 379 
Dulany, Daniel (2nd), son of 
Daniel, commissary-general 
and attorney-general, i, 104 ; 
in London, 1761, 65 ; wrote 
pamphlet against the Stamp 
Act, 101, 102, 104 ; Secretary 
of Maryland, 102 ; distin- 
guished as a jurist, 100, 102 ; 
Josiah Quincy s tribute, 102 ; 
tics binding him to the govern- 
ment, 103, 104 ; his contro- 
versy with Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton, 106-127, 245-362 ; 
McMahon's estimate of his 
cssnys, 101 ; partner in the 
Baltimore Iron Works Com- 
pany, 143 ; consents to contract 
lor erecting iron mills for the 

State, 143. M4 

Dulany family, i, 103, 104 ; ii, 49 

Dulany, Lloyd, i, 52, 64, 94, 
130; ii, 49; Mary, n/e Graf- 
ton, ii, 66 ; Walter, i, 98, 104. 

Dulany's "Considerations," etc., 
i, 102, 334 

Dumfries, Va., i, 203 

Dunkirk, France, i, 11 ; ii, 254 

Dunlevy, Mr., ii, 316 ; Mrs., 
ii, 316 

Dutch loan. See Van Staphorst 

Dutchmen, i, 368 

D'Yrujo, Spanish minister, ii, 
253, 254 

Earle, Eleanor, ne'e Carroll, ii, 
435 ; James, ii, 435 ; Mary, 
n/e Carroll, ii, 435 ; Michael, 
ii, 435 

Eastern States. See New Eng- 
Eaton, George G.. ii, 435 
Eden, Lady Caroline, n/e Cal- 
vert, i, 104; Sir Robert, i, 
94, 98, 104, 105, 124, r8i f 265, 
35o ; ii, 57 
Elizabethtown, N. J., 172, 400 
Elk Ridge (Elk Ridge Landing), 
i, 72, 73, 142, 171, 232, 348 ; 

", 393 
Ellicott, Benjamin, ii. 444 ; Mary, 

n/e Carroll, ii, 444 
Ellicott City, Clerk's Office 

Records, ii, 362 
Elliot's " Debates of State 

Conventions," ii, ill 
Ellsworth, Oliver, ii, 120, 121, 

123, 124, 128. 129, 147, 149, 

150, 155* 161. 162 
Elmer, Jonathan, i, 220 ; ii, 

Ely O'Carroll, Ireland, country 

of, i, 48 
Emmet, Dr. Thomas Addis, i, 

139, 160 ; ii, 9, 199 
England, i, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 25, 28, 

40, 42, 53, 90, 92, "I, 130, 
139, 241, 283, 289, 290, 292, 

293. 313,331, 341 ; ii. 10, 27, 
30. 36, 66, 75, 200, 201, 202, 
207, 217, 241, 252, 254-257, 
259, 263, 264, 267-270, 272, 
277, 280, 282, 288, 289, 291, 
291, 296, 298, 299, 300, 302, 
303. 322, 331, 350, 352, 356» 
36r, 384, 385, 439 
Erie Canal, ii, 337, 338 
Essenden, England, ii, 445, 446 
Esterhazy, Count, ii, 443; Sarah, 
n/e Carroll, Countess, (m. 1st 
Gen. C. Griffin), ii, 443 

Falkner. Mr., i, 21 

Falmouth, Eng., i, 238 

Faris, Mr., i, 385 

Federal Congress, Executive 
Journal, ii, 136, 140, 166 

Federal Congress, Senate Jour- 
nal, ii, 118, 120, 123, 126, 



Federal Congress — Continued. 

129, 135-140, 142, 145. 148, 

151. 155, 157, 158, 161, 168- 

170, 179 
Federal Constitution, ii, 108, 

109, in, 112, 114, n6, 123, 

131, 135, 138, 139. 143, 149. 
152-154, 174, 177, 178, 186, 
187, 205, 208, 210-212, 213, 
214, 215, 299, 302. 354 

Fenner, Governor, of Rhode Isl- 
and, ii, 237 

Ferdinand VII., of Spain, ii, 

Ferrol, France, ii, 30 

Few, William, ii, 123, 129, 131, 

132, 145, 147, 155 

Fiam (Florence), King of Ely, 

Ireland, i, 1 
Field, R., artist, ii, 264 
Fisher, R. W., ii, 429 
Fisher's Mills, i, 215 
Fiteau, Messrs. Mat., i, 34 
Fitzgerald, Col. John, i, 201, 

202, 213, 214; ii, 100, 101 
Fitzhugh, Anna, ii, 443 ; Anne 
E., ne'e Carroll, ii, 443 ; Carroll, 
ii, 443; Catharine D., ne'e 
Brent, ii, 442 ; Gen. Charles 
Lane, ii, 443 ; Daniel Carroll, 
ii, 442 ; Daniel H., ii, 442 ; 
Edith Frances, ne'e Dantry, ii, 
443 ; Elizabeth Barbara, ne'e 
Carroll, ii, 442, 443 ; Emma, 
ne'e Shoenberger, ii, 443 ; 
George, ii, 443 ; Gerrit, ii, 
443; Henry, ii, 442, 443 1 
Henry, ii, 443 ; Henry, ii, 
443; Maria, ne'e Carroll, ii, 
442 ; Maria A., ne'e Fitzhugh, 
ii, 442 ; Mary M., ne'e Bell, 
ii, 443 ; Robert H., ii, 442 ; 
Col. Robert Hughes, ii, 443 ; 
Col. William of " Rousby 
Hall," i, 187, 189; ii, 48; 
William Dana, ii, 443 ; Wini- 
fred Lee, ne'e Poe, ii, 443 
Fitzredmund, William, ii, 378 
Fitzsimons, Thomas, i, 129, 145, 

J 47 

Florida (the Floridas), i, 26 ; ii, 

254, 261, 272 
Flowers, Commissary, i, 218 
Folsom, Nathaniel, i, 235 
Forbes, James, i, 235 ; ii, 5, 11 
Ford, Worthington C, i, 94, 

191 ; ii, 313, 356 
Ford's "Writings of Washing- 
ton," i, 94, 173, 235 ; ii, 167, 
Forrest, Uriah, ii, no, 191, 232, 

Forts : Ann, N. Y., i, 398 ; Con- 
stitution, N. Y., i, 365-367.; 
Cumberland, Md., i, 95 ; ii, 
144, 230; Du Quesne, Va., i, 
29; ii, 159; Edward, N. Y., 

i, 150, 172, 371-373, 379; 
Erie, N. Y., ii, 304 ; George, 
N. Y., i, 150, 155, 172. 372- 
375. 399 I McHenry, Md., ii, 
333; Miller, N. Y., i, 371, 
372 ; Montgomery, N. Y., i, 
221, 365 ; Mount Independ- 
ence, N. Y., 206; Pitt. See 
Du Quesne; St. Anne's Can- 
ada, i, 393; St. Frederic, N.Y., 
i, 29 ; Schuyler, N. Y., i, 214; 
Washington, N. Y., i, 196 ; 
William Henry, N. Y., i, 374 
Foster's '* List of Admissions 

to Gray's Inn," i, 9 

Four Brothers, islands of, i, 151 

Fox, Charles James, ii, 264, 267 

France, i, 2, 13, 25, 27, 33, 35, 40, 

44, 145, 202, 204, 205, 208,227, 

228, 239-242, 396 ; ii, 6, 10, 

27, 30,31,41, 50, 51, 76, 101, 

103, 126, 134, 171, 172, 181. 

195, 200, 201, 202, 207, 216, 

218, 224, 235, 241, 254-257. 

261-264, 268, 269, 271-273, 

276, 277, 280-282, 284, 285, 

288-290, 295, 303, 309, 323- 

325,341, 350,440,441 
Franconia, i, 51 

Francy, Mr., ii, 6 

Franklin, Benjamin, i, 145, 157, 
158, 162, 163, 170, 173, 202, 
204, 205, 363, 376, 393; ii, 




Franklin, Benjamin — Con. 

25, 26, 43, 149, 150, 238, 312, 

Fredericksburg, Va., i, 233; ii, 

Frederick town, Md., i, 69, 72, 

95. I37;H, 42 
Freeman, Mr., ii, 204 

French, Captain, i, 217 

French ana Indian War, i, 19, 

25-29, 380, 381, 383, 388 
French Neutrals, (Acadians), i, 

27, 28 
Frisby, William, ii, 435 
Fuller, Cornelia, n/e Carroll, 

ii, 443 ;E. P., ii, 443 

Gaines, Gen. Edmund Pendle- 
ton, ii, 304 
Gaither, Edward, Jr., ii, 391, 

Gale, George, ii, 82, 98, 117 
Gallager, Mr., ii, 305 
Gallatin, Albert, ii, 309, 314 
Galloker, John B., ii, 38S, 389 
Gantt, Mary, n/e Tabb, ii, 443 ; 

Thomas J., ii, 443 
Gardner, Luke, ii, 379 
Gardoqui and Sons, ii, 4 
Gardoqui, Don Diego, ii, 124 
Garvey, gunmaker, 1, 53 
Gaspe, Gaspesie (Gaspiesie,) 

Canada, i, 26 
Gassaway, Thomas, ii, 392 
Gates, Gen. Horatio, i, 138, 172- 

174, 206, 214, 224, 225, 231, 

236, 238, 399 ; ii, 3, 80 
Genesee country, N. Y., ii, 442 
Georgia, i, 25 ; ii, 9, 28, 76, 148, 

149, 158, 165 
Georgetown College, i, 67 ; ii, 

Georgetown, D. C, ii, 101, 229, 

Germantown, Pa., i, 220, 232 ; 

ii, 140, 142 ; battle of, i, 229, 

230 ; ii, 242 
Germany, i, 40, 238, 239 ; ii, 

264, 271, 282, 284, 295 
Gerry, Elbridge, ii, 4 

Ghent, Belgium, i, 44 ; ii, 306 ; 

treaty of, ii, 507 
Gibbons, William, ii, 361 
Giles, William Branch, ii, 195, 

Gilman, Nicholas, ii, 257 
Gilmor family, ii, 308 
Gilmor, Robert, ii, 244, 348, 349; 

Mrs., ii, 348 
Godard, Miss, i, 232 
Goldsborough, Judge H. N., ii, 

436 ; Robert, i, 131, 133, 136, 

197, 198 ; ii, 13, 36, 50 
Gouvion, Monsieur de, i, 204 
Grade, Mr., ii, 310 
Graham family, ii, 198 
Grahame. Charles, i, 198 
Grand Isle, Lake Champlain, i, 

Grange, Anita Maria, nie Car- 
roll, Baronne de la, ii, 440 ; 
Louis, Baron de la, ii, 440 
Gravel Hill, N. Y., 365, 367 
Graveling (Gravelines), France, 

i. 11 
Graves, William, i, 66, 71, 75, 

77, 81, 84, 86, 88-90 
Gratz, Simon, i, 165 
Grayson, William, ii, 128, 130, 

134, 135, 142, 149 
Greaton, Joseph, ii, 388 
Green, Frederick, ii, 57 
Green Spring Valley, Md., ii, 244 
Greene, Gen. Nathaniel, ii, 66, 

Greg, Percy, ii, 319 
Greg's •• History of the United 

States," ii, 319 
Gresham, John, ii, 379 
Griffin, Gen. Charles, ii, 443 
Griswold's " Republican Court," 

ii, 117, 166, 242 
Grove, Sylvanus, ii, 44, 45 
Grovenor, Lord, ii, 316 
Gunn, James, ii, 149 

Hagerstown, Md., ii, 442 
Hall, Benjamin, i, 12 ; ii, 378 ; 

Francis, ii, 385 ; John, i, 133 ; 

ii, 97, 98 



Hamilton, Alexander, i, 193 ; ii, 
147, 150, 160, 162, 180, 181, 
201, 202, 235, 236, 238, 241, 
245, 257 ; Elizabeth, n/e 
Schuyler, i, 148, 368 ; ii, 181, 

Hamilton's *' Works of Alexan- 
der Hamilton," ii, 181, 236, 
238, 241 

Hammond, John, i, 64; John, 
ii, 381 ; Matthias, i, 100 

Hanbury, Osgood, ii, 44, 45 

Hancock, John, i, 171, 181 ; ii, 


Hands, Thomas B., i, 198 

Hanson, Alexander, ii, 280, 281, 
291 ; Alexander Contee, i, 191; 
ii, 105, 190, 313 ; George A., 
i, 190 ; Judge, ii, 337 ; Mil- 
dred, i, 38 ; Mr., i, 59 ; Mr., 
ii, 289 

Hanson's " Edition of the Laws 
of Maryland," ii, 313 

Hanson's 4I Old Kent," i, 190 ; 

", 435 
Hardwicke, Philip Yorke, Earl 

°f. h 53, 326 
Harewood, Md., estate of, ii, 347 
Harford, Henry, ii, 91 
Harper, Catherine, tile Carroll, 

ii, 103, 105-107, 200, 249. 259, 
266, 267, 286, 304, 310, 315, 

316, 318, 321, 331, 357, 359, 
394, 399, 403, 405-407, 409, 
412, 418, 419, 426, 427. 438, 
439; Catherine Carroll, ii, 440; 
Charles Carroll, ii, 285, 314, 

315, 318, 395, 400, 405, 407, 
419, 427, 439 ; Charlotte, n/e 
Chiffelle, ii, 439; Emily Louisa 
Hinton, ii, 395, 400, 405-407, 
419, 439 ; Harriet Ladson, ii, 
440; Mary Diana, ii, 285, 314, 
439 ; Richard Caton, ii, 285, 
286, 439 ; Robert Goodloe, ii, 

316, 395. 400, 405-407, 419, 

Harper, Robert, Goodloe, b. in 

Virginia, 1765, ii, 249; a sol- 
dier of the Revolution, 250; 

sent to Congress from South 
Carolina, 1795, 250 ; became a 
Federalist later, 250 ; in U. S. 
Senate, 250 ; eminent as lawyer 
and statesman, 249 ; writes in 
defence of Jay's treaty, ii, 203; 
writes pamphlet on mode of ap- 
pointing presidential electors, 
235 ; marries Catherine Car- 
roll, 249, 439; corresponds with 
Charles Carroll, 250, 251 ; de- 
fends Chase in the impeach- 
ment trial, 258 ; drives from 
Baltimore to Washington in 
his "coachee," 266; letters 
to him from Charles Carroll, 
267 ; charged with being im- 
plicated in Burr's conspiracy, 
277 ; his opinions quoted in 
letter of Charles Carroll, 279 ; 
further correspondence with 
Charles Carroll, 280-282 ; goes 
to Doughoregan Manor with 
his children, 285 ; gives Carroll 
the news from Washington, 
294 ; is consulted by him on 
constitutional questions, 299 ; 
attends session of Court of Ap- 
peals in Annapolis, 300 ; ex- 
amines into the conduct of 
Carroll's overseer, 301, 302 ; 
makes a speech at Annapolis, 
302 ; Charles Carroll writes to 
him in Baltimore, 304-306 ; is 
commissioned brigadier-gen- 
eral of militia, 307 ; is again in 
Congress, 308 ; goes with Mrs. 
Harper to Ballston Springs, 
310 ; sends his daughter to 
school in France, 314 ; sails 
with his wife for Europe, 315 ; 
is received by the Duke of 
Wellington, 316 ; is again in 
Washington, 320 ; is staying 
with a party at Doughoregan 
Manor, 324, 325 ; visits his 
brother-in-law in New York, 

330 ; his death in Baltimore, 

331 ; mentioned in Charles 
Carroll's Will, 400, 427 




Harrison, Benjamin, i, 182, 203, 
236 ; Robert Hanson, ii, 52, 

Hartford, Conn., ii, 347 

Hartford Convention, ii, 334 

Harvard College Library, Lee 

papers, ii, 26, 33 ; Sparks 

MSS.,i, 168, 176, 211 ; ii, 31 
Harvey, Carroll, ii, 436 ; Mar- 

eeret, n/e Carroll, ii, 436 ; 

Mr., ii, 436 
Hatteras, Cape, ii, 105 
Hatton, Richard, ii, 446 
Hatton family, i, 2 
Havanna, ii, 287 
Havre de Grace, ii, 79 
Hawkins, William, i, 117, 278, 

326. 327 
Haydon, Rev. Horace Edwin, 

i. 145 
Haydcn's "Charles Carroll of 

CarroUion," i, 145 ; ii, 321 
llazcn, Colonel, i, 151, 152, 

Heath, General, i, 148, 366 
Hemsley, William, ii, 39, 93 
Henderson, Rev. Jacob, ii, 379 
Ilcnrick, Captain, i, 45 
Henry, Daniel Maynadier, ii, 

Henry, John, Member of Conti- 
nental Congress, i, 235 ; sends 
acts of Parliament to Gov. 
Johnson, 238 ; writes to Wil- 
liam Lux, and forwards money 
from Congress, 242 ; has leave 
of absence, ii, 4 ; re-elected to 
Congress, 11 ; in the Maryland 
Assembly, 43 ; votes to ratify 
the Articles of Confederation, 
44 ; on committee to confer 
about suspected persons in 
prison, 46 ; on an important 
joint committee, 50 ; one of a 
committee to draft message on 
civil list bill, 57 ; with Charles 
Carroll presents address to 
General Washington, 76 ; on 
committee to amend bdl lay- 
ing a duty on British vessels, 

77; on committee to prepare 
address to Lafayette, 79 ; ob- 
jects to emission of paper 
money, 94, 95 ; chairman of 
committee to answer a mes- 
sage from the House, 97 ; 
elected to the United States 
Senate, 115 ; has rooms on 
Queen street, 117 ; takes his 
seat, 118; obtains the long 
term in Congress, 123 ; in 
Washington's box at the the- 
atre, 124; votes against 
amendment to increase num- 
ber of representatives, 140; 
votes against Pennsylvania on 
the residence bill, 142 ; in the 
2d session of first Congress, 
145 ; votes against Rhode Isl- 
and bill, 151 ; conversation 
with William Maclay, 162 ; 
with Carroll, writes letter to 
Gov. Howard, 165 ; in the 
Maryland Senate, 167 ; again 
in Congress, 168, 172 ; in* 
st meted to vote for open ses- 
sions of U. S. Senate, 178 ; 
disregards instructions, 1 79 ; 
is censured by the House of 
Delegates, 188 ; receives let- 
ters from Charles Carroll, 189, 
191 ; elected Governor of 
Maryland, 218 ; writes to 
Charles Carroll about John 
Adams, 249 

Henry, J. Winfield, ii, 193 ; 
Patrick, i, 133, 179; ». *34; 
William Wirt, ii, 10 

Henry's " Life of Patrick 
Henry," ii, 10 

Henry's ,4 Memoir of John 
Henry," ii, 191 

Henzell, Captain, i, 134 

Herbert William, Lord Powis, 

i, 3 
Herman's Manor, Md., i, 18 

Hervey, Col., Sir Felton Bath- 

ilrst, ii, 314, 316, 438 
Ilesselius, John, i, 95 
Hessians, i, 214, 223 



Hickes, Major, i, 398 

Higgins, Mary, ii, 383 

Hill, Anne, n/e Dam all, ii, 
446 ; Clement, ii, 446 ; Clem- 
ent, i, 17, 40, 41 ; Henry, i, 
57 ; ii, 441 ; Richard, ii, 386 

Hill, Lord, ii, 305 

Hindman, William, ii, 17, 84 

Hinsdale, B. A., ii, 10 

Hinsdale's "Old Northwest," 
ii, 10 

Hoadley, Charles J., ii, 347 

Hodgson, Adam, ii, 323 

Hodgson's " Letters from North 
America," ii, 325 

Holland, i, 24 ; ii, 28, 264, 435 

Hollyday, James, ii, 183 

Holt, Sir John, Chief-Justice, i, 

Hood, Zachariah, i, 72, 73 

Hooe, Robert, i, 189 

Hooper, Maria, nie Carroll, ii, 
444; Mr., ii, 444 

Hope, General, ii, 281 

Hopkins, Stephen, ii, 364 

Hopkinson, Mr., i, 23 

Hornby Castle, England, ii, 314 

Horsey, Anna, nie Carroll, ii, 
444 ; Outerbridge, ii, 444 

Houses, Mrs., ii, 195 

Howard, Benjamin, ii, 329 ; 
George, ii, 418 

Howard, Col. John Eager, dis- 
tinguished in the Revolu- 
tion, ii, 142 ; hero of battle 
of Cowpens, 142 ; handsome 
country-seat on outskirts of 
Baltimore, 244; liberal gifts 
of ground to the city, 244 ; 
gave site for the Washington 
monument, 244; married 
" Peggy Chew " during session 
of Federal Convention, 242 ; 
Washington present at the 
ceremony, 242 ; elected Gov- 
ernor of Maryland, 142 ; re- 
ceives letter from Maryland 
Senators, Henry and Carroll, 
165 ; in the Maryland Senate, 
183 ; with Carroll, drafts mes- 

sage on the militia bill, 183 ; 
appointed presidential elector, 
190 ; favors the election of 
John Adams, 190 ; in Con- 
gress, 242, 232, 233 ; Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton visits him 
at " Belvedere," 245 ; loses his 
wife, 329 ; his grief at her 
death, 329 ; receives Lafayette 
in Baltimore, 332, 333 ; enter- 
tains him at " Belvedere," 
333 ; in the procession at the 
memorial services over Adams 
and Jefferson, 342 

Howard, John Eager, Jr., ii, 
308, 411-414; Margaret, nJe 
Chew, ii, 241, 242, 244, 246, 
329 ; Mary Wellesley, nJe 
McTavish, ii, 357 ; Mrs., nte 
Croxall, ii, 436 ; Dr. Wil- 
liam, ii, 411-414 

Howe, Lord, i, 150, 379 ; Rich- 
ard, Viscount, i, 212 ; ii, 6 ; 
Gen. Sir William, i, 206, 213, 
215, 223, 231, 241, 366; ii, 

3, 15 
Hoxton, Walter, i, 21, 25, 31, 

Hubbard, Robert J., ii, 201 

Hughes, Samuel, ii, 79, 80, 190 
Hunt, Wornell, ii, 376 
Hunter, James, ii, 100 
Huntington, Samuel, ii, 3 
Hurley, Mr., ii, 385 
Hussey, Mr., i, 66, 91 
Hyde Park, London, ii, 203 

He Royal, British America, i, 25 
India (Indies), ii., 130; East, ii, 

268 ; West, ii, 30, 31, 200, 

203, 260, 268, 279 
Indian missions, ii, 180 ; trade, i, 

154,155,163, 175 ; treaties, ii, 

140, 165, 166, 197 ; tribes, i, 

155, 175 ; ", 140, 148, 179. 180 
Indians, i, 30, 154, 162, 165, 

387 ; Creek, ii, 165, 166 ; 

Five Nations, ii, 180 
Inns of Court, Gray's Inn, i, 

9 J ». 445 



Ireland, i, 3, 6, 23, 50, 53 ; ii, 

30, 277, 350-352* 357, 361, 

381, 433-435 
Ireland, Captain, i, 232 
Irish Brigades, i, 209, 227 
Isle, aux Noix, i, 382, 387, 388, 

391 ; aux Tetes, i, 387, 390; 

de Belle Coeur, i, 389 ; la 

Motte, i, 151, 386, 389 (Lake 

Italy, ii, 264, 295 
Izard, ii, 119, 124, 129, 131, 

136, 150,152,153, 157; Mrs., 

ii, 124 

{acobite, i, 12 
ackson, Gen. Andrew, ii, 308, 
333, 334. 353. 366 ; Captain, 
i, 129, 130; Isaac Rand, ii, 
438 ; Louisa Catherine, n/e 
Carroll, ii, 321, 400, 403, 406, 
407, 412, 414, 415, 438 

Jacques Cartier, post of, i, 155, 
162, 166, 175 

Jamaica, island of, i, 277, 360 ; 
ii, 261 

Jay, John, ii, 28, 202-204, 207, 
an, 214, 312, 355 

Jay's " Correspondence and Pub- 
lic Papers," ii, 203 

Jay's Treaty, ii, 202-205, 207, 
215. 256, 312 

{earns, George, ii, 384 
efferson MSS., State Depart- 
ment, ii, 172 
Jefferson, Thomas, ii, 109, 117, 
156, 158, 160, 161, 166, 168, 
170, 171, 180, 203, 207, 234- 
237, 239, 240, 249, 251, 253, 

259. 332,337, 339-341. 358 
Jenifer, Daniel, of St. Thomas, 
on Council of Safety, i, 135 ; 
receives letter from Charles 
Carroll, 137 ; collects specie 
for Canada Campaign, 143 ; 
elected to Maryland Senate, 

197 ; President of the Senate, 

198 ; on committee to instruct 
Maryland Commissioners, 234; 
in Congress, ii, 11 ; President 

of Maryland Senate, 15 ; de- 
nies charges made against him 
by S. Chase, 15 ; objects to 
voting on Confiscation bill, 
36 ; on committee to settle 
questions of jurisdiction with 
Virginia, 82 ; elected delegate 
to Federal Convention, 99 

Jenifer, Mr., i, 44, 64, 74 

Jenison, Mr., i, 62 

Jennings, Edmund, i, 64, 66, 73, 
84, 95. 9°. i°2, 180 ; ii, 31, 
33 ; Thomas, ii, 11, 13-15. 20 

Johnson, John, ii, 331 ; Joshua, 
ii, 103, 107, 200 ; Robert C, 
ii, 400 ; Dr. Samuel, i, 67 

Johnson, Sir William, i, 29, 
374 ; William S., ii, 120, 
122, 124, 140, 145 

Johnson, Thomas, in Continental 
Congress, i, 131 ; on Anne 
Arundel Co. committee, 132, 
133; on Council of Safety, 135 ; 
in Maryland Convention, 177 ; 
in Congress, 178; again in Con- 
vention, 188 ; suggests amend- 
ments to draft of State Con- 
stitution, 189 ; objects to part 
of draft proposed, 190 ; elected 
to Maryland Senate, 197 ; 
declines election, 198 ; elected 
Gov. of Maryland, 198 ; re- 
ceives letters from Charles Car- 
roll, 212-216, 237-242 ; ii., 2 ; 
Maryland delegates in Congress 
report to him by letter, 6 ; 
in House of Delegates, Md. 
Assembly, 43 ; on important 
committees, 82, 98 ; on com- 
mittee to settle Van Staphorst 
claim, no; on committee to 
investigate revenue grievance, 
in ; mentioned in letter of 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 

Johnson's Ferry, i, 215 

Johnston, R. Le Grand, ii, 436 ; 
Samuel, ii, 158 

Johnstone, Governor, i, 240, 241 

Jones, Mr., i, 215 ; Mr., i, 399 



Jordan's Island, Del., i, 237 
*' Journal of William Maclay," 

11, 118, 120-133, 135, 137-142. 

146-150, 153, 156-160, 162- 

164. 170 

Kalb, Baron de, i, 224, 225, 230 
Katskill Mountains, i, 367 
Keaton, Doctor, i, 50 
Keith, Charles P., ii, 75, 97 
Kelty, Captain, i, 43, 59 
Kennedy, Mr., i, 59 
Kennett, Mr., i, 10 
Kentuckians, ii, 149 
Kentucky, ii, 447 
Keppel, Admiral, i, 240 
Kergolay, Jean, Comte de, ii, 
440 ; Mary Louisa, n/e Carroll, 
Comtesse de, ii, 440 
Key, Edmund, i, 40, 52, 64, 138 ; 
Francis Scott, i, 138 ; John 
Ross, i, 137, 138 ; Philip Bar- 
ton, ii, 215 
Kildare, Gerald, Earl of, i, 50 
King, the artist, ii, 311 ; Rufus, 
ii, 136, 137, 140, 149. 162, 218, 
221-224, 226, 227, 309, 310, 
Kingsbury Falls, N. Y., i, 373 
Knox, Gen. Henry, ii, 150 
Krom, Captain of French man- 
of-war, ii, 269 

La Chine, Canada, i, 165, 168, 

Lafayette, Gilbert Motier, Mar- 
quis de, ii, 46, 79, 178, 202, 

331-333, 355 
Lane, Anne, n/e Carroll, ii, 442 ; 

Dr., ii, 442 ; Hardage, ii, 

443 ; Harvey, ii, 443 
La Nore, i, 164, 395 
La Plata, province of Spanish 

America, ii, 270 
La Prairie, Canada, i, 152, 154, 

158, 159, 161, 391, 394 
Lakes, Champlain, i, 150, 153, 

206, 369, 375. 377-386, 388- 

391, 398; Erie, ii, 338; 

George, i., 150,370, 372, 375- 

381, 383. 399 J of the Sacra- 
ment, i, 29 ; Ontario, i, 29, 
30 ; ii, 304, 305 ; Oswego, 
i, 388 ; St. Pierre, i, 159,160 
Lamb, Gen. John, ii, 112 
Lancaster, Thomas, ii, 385, 388 
Lancaster, Pa., i, 217, 219, 223 
Langdon, John, i, 227 ; ii, 124 
126, 127, 129, 135, 147, 158, 
170, 257 
Latrobe, John H. B., i, 181 ; 

ii. 358 

Laumoy, Monsieur de, i, 204 

Laurens, Henry, ii, 28 

Law, Edmund, ii, 230 

Lawson, Alexander, i, 65 

Leake's " Life and Times of 
General Lamb," ii, 112 

Leamington, Eng., ii, 357 

Lebanon, Pa., i, 223 

Lee, Arthur, M.D., ii, 31, 33 ; 
Gen. Charles, i, 138, 203, 214, 
224, 236, 241 ; Charles Car- 
roll, M.D., ii, 54 ; Edmund 
Jennings, M.D., ii, 439, 440; 
Francis Light foot, i, 203 ; 
Harriet Juliana, n/e Carroll, 
ii, 321, 400, 403, 406, 407, 
4X1, 414, 415. 438 ; Henry, ii, 
79 ; James Fenner, ii, 440 ; 
John of " Needwood," ii, 
438 ; Mary Cornelia, n/e Read, 
widow of Albert H. Carroll, 
ii, 440 ; Philip, i, 64 ; Rich- 
ard Henry, i, 95, 96, 179, 180, 
236; ii, 3,5.26, 118,119, i2i, 
128-131, 135, 139. 142, 151. 
152, 159, 161, 179 ; Thomas 
Ludwell, i, 179 ; Gov. Thomas 
Sim, ii, 20, 41, 53, 57, 99, 
190; Rev. Thomas Sim, 
i, 3. ", 22, 31, 39, 43, 
48-50, 59. 00, 77. 79. 81 ; ii, 
55, 107, 200, 351, 362 ; Wil- 
liam, i, 92 

Lee Papers, i, 180 

Lee's M Lee of Virginia," ii, 

439. 440 
Leeds, Francis Osborne, Duke 
of, ii, 438 ; Louisa Catherine, 



Leeds, Francis Osborne — Con. 
*/* Caton (Lady Hervey), 
Duchess of, ii, 267, 294, 314- 
3i6, 353. 395, 398. 404, 406, 
407, 410-413. 419-423, 438 
Lees, the, i, 236 
Leghorn, Italy, ii, 357 
Lemmon, Robert, ii, 96 
Leesburg, Va., i, 203 
Leonard town, Md., i, 203 
Le Peltier, Madame, n/e Perigny, 

ii, 316-318, 330 
•' Letters of the First Citiien," 
i. 9°, 97, 99. 1 01-106, 113, 
114, 120-127, 243, 256, 318- 

" Letters of a Pennsylvania 
Farmer," i, 90, 125, 354 
Lewis, Eleanor Parke, n/e Custis, 

ii, 243 J Judge, ii, 257 
Lexington, battle of, i, 134 
Liege, Belgium, i, 44 ; ii, 101- 

103, 106, 107 
" Linea Antiqua," ii, 433 
Lincoln, Gen. Benjamin, i, 214, 

Lisbon, Portugal, ii, 281, 288 
L* Isle Dieu (Monsieur's), i, 34 
Littlejohn, Alida, n/e Tabb, ii, 

443 ; Mr., ii, 443 
Little Rock, Ark., ii, 444 
Livermore, Mr., i, 28I0, 282 
Liverpool, Eng., ii, 315, 438 
Livingston, Edward, ii, 275 ; 
Mr., ii, 256 ; Robert R., i, 
148, 367 
Lloyd, Edward of "Wye 
House," ii, 49, 56, 61, 78, 84, 
88, 92; Mrs., ii, 327; Anne, 
ii, 247 ; Philemon, i, 68 
London, i, 2, 19, 21, 32, 33, 36, 

38, 39, 44, 47. 48, 59, 64, 65, 
70, 73. 76, 9°, 92, 95, 202 ; ii, 
28, 87, 101, 103, 107, 168, 2oo, 
254, 283, 381, 385, 446, 448 
Longacre, engraver, ii, 265 
Long Branch, N. J. f ii, 357 
Long Island, N. Y., i, 222 
Longueil, Canada, i, 396 
Louis XVI., ii, 148, 179, 323 

Louisburg, Nova Scotia, {,35 
Louisiana, i, 25, 32 ; ii, 217, 

251, 254, 256, 257. 261, 276, 

L'Orient, France, ii, 285 
Lovell, James, i, 225 
Love Island, Susquehanna River, 

ii. 79 
Lowe family, i, 2 

Lowe, Henry, ii, 446 ; Mr., ii, 

435 ; Susannah, n/e Bennett, 

widow of John Darnall, ii, 


Lower Ormund, Ireland, ii, 380 

Ludwell, Col. Philip, i, 92 

Lux, Mr., i, 136, 220 ; William, 

i, 242 

Luzerne, Chevalier de la, ii, 97 

Lynch, Dominick, ii, 101, 145 

Maccoy, (Miss or Mrs.), ii, 377 
Maccubbin, Tames, (name changed 
to Carroll), ii, 67 ; Nicholas, 
(name changed to Carroll) ii, 

Maclay, William, ii, 118, 127, 

129-142, 145-153, 155-166, 

168-170, 179, 180 
Macnamara, Margaret, ii, 377 ; 

Thomas, ii, 378 
Macready, William Charles, ii, 

Macready's " Reminiscences," it, 


Madison, James, i, 192 ; ii, 132, 

159, 160, 254, 261, 280, 288, 

292, 295, 298, 305, 306, 332, 

Madrid, Spain, ii, 28, 276, 321 

Magazines : American Farmer % 
ii, 347 ; Appletoris Journal \ 
vol. 12, i, 66, 71, 75, 76, 78, 
83, 89, 180 ; ii, 55. 56, 216, 
247, 328, 370 ; Edinburgh Re- 
view , ii, 324 ; Harper's Maga- 
zine, ii, 106, 352 ; Journal of 
Royal, Historical, and Arch, 
Association of Ireland, i, 1 ; 
LittelVs Living Age, i, 95 ; ii, 
314; Magazine of American 



Magazines — Continued, 
History, i, 81, 139 ; ii, 370 ; 
The Crayon, i, 95 ; The Nine- 
teenth Century, ii, 314 ; Vir- 
ginia Historical Magazine, ii, 
203 ; Virginia Historical Reg- 
ister, i, 95 

Mahoney, Charles, ii, 252 

Malta, ii, 254 

Manjan, Mrs., i, 45 

Mantz, Peter, ii, 409 

MS. Letters, i, 8, 93, 139, 160, 
165, 191, 196, 216; ii, 9, 171, 
193, 196, 199, 201, 293, 313, 
328, 340, 341. 343. 347, 352, 
356, 357, 360, 366 

Marbler's Rock, Hudson River, 

i. 365 
Marechall, Rt. Rev. Ambrose, ii, 

400, 423, 424 
Margate, Eng., i, 66 
Marseilles, France, ii, 100 
Marshall, John, ii, 217 
Martin, Dr., ii, 436 ; Fanny, ne'e 

Carroll, ii, 436 ; Luther, ii, 99, 

109, 116, 258 
Martinique, ii, 260 
Martinsburg, Va., ii, 440 
Martin's paper, ii, 206 
44 MarylandArchives,"i,4, 5, 13, 

33.40,133,136, 137. M2.I43. 

Maryland Assembly, Resolutions 

of, ii, 50, 51 ; Senate, i, 190- 

197 ; ii, 312, 313 
Maryland Constitution and Dec- 
laration of Rights, i, 186-190 ; 

ii, 58, 67, 113, 192, 312, 313 
Maryland Convention Journals, 

i, 141, 177, 178, 186, 188, 189 ; 

Council Journal, i, 7 
Maryland, Eastern Shore, i, 135 ; 

ii, 2, 23, 115; Western Shore, 

i. 135. 143, 191 ; ». 64. 65. 76, 

"5. 183 
Maryland Historical Society, i, 

6, 7, 18, 68, 197, 202, 214, 216, 

222, 232, 238, 240-242 ; ii, 7, 

201, 219, 448 
Maryland Historical Society's 

41 Centennial Memorial," i, 63, 
100, 173 ; ii, 312, 367 

Maryland Land Office, Chancery 
Suits, i, 11,14, 18, 19; ii, 435J 
Deed Books, i, 6-8, 41, 68 ; ii, 

Maryland Laws, 1783, ii, 79 

Maryland Register of Wills Office, 
i, 12, 68 ; ii, 435 

Maryland Senate Journals, i, 200, 
233. 234 J ii. 12, 14, 17, 19, 21- 
23. 25, 35-38, 40, 42, 45-47, 
49, 5i, 52, 58, 61, 64-66, 72, 
77, 78, 82, 88, 90, 93, 96, 98, 
99, 109, in, 114, 115, 144, 
168, 176, 178, 183, 187-189, 
212-215, 225, 229, 232 

Mason, Eliza, ne'e Chew, ii, 242 ; 
George, i, 179 ; James Mur- 
ray, ii, 242 ; Stevens Thomson, 
ii, 202 

Massachusetts, i, 93, 225 ; ii, 4, 
9, 105, 127, 163, 180, 200, 213, 

Massena, Andre, ii, 262, 287 

Maxcy, Virgil, ii, 313 

Mayer, Brantz, ii, 367 

McCarty, William, i, 154, 163, 

McCaully, Mr., i, 385 
McDowell, Mr., ii, 264 
McGillivray, Alexander, ii, 165 
McHenry, James, ii, 49, 58, 99, 

183, 189 
McMahon, John V. L., i, 189, 


McMahon's " History of Mary- 
land," i, 101, 130, 190, 192 

McMechen, Margaret, ne'e Car- 
roll. See Harvey, Mr., ii, 436 

McNair, Mr., ii, 351 

McNeill's Ferry, N. Y., i, 371 

McSherry, James, i, 179 ; ii, 113 

McSherry's "History of Mary- 
land," i, 179; ii, 10, 113, 114 

McTavish, Alexander Simon, ii, 
439, 440 ; Charles Carroll, ii, 
428, 439, 440; Charles Car- 
roll, ii, 440 ; Ella, ne'e Gilmor, 
ii, 439, 440 ; Emily, ne'e Caton, 




McTavish, Alexander S. — Con, 
ii, 297. 320, 321, 327, 357, 395, 
398, 404, 406, 407, 410, 411, 

413, 416, 419-423. 428. 438, 
430 ; Emily, ii, 440 ; Francis 
Osborne, ii, 440 ; John, ii, 
320, 321, 327, 343, 396-399, 
401, 404, 415, 416, 410, 420, 
423, 438, 439; Marcella, n/e 
Scott, ii, 439 ; Mary, ii, 440 ; 
Paul Winfield Scott, ii, 440 ; 
Richard Caton, ii, 439; Vir- 
ginia Scott, ii, 440 

'* Memoir of Josiah Quincy, Jr.," 
i, 102 

Menon, Count dc, ii, 316 ; Julius 
de, ii, 315, 316, 330; Madame 
de, n/e Perigny, ii, 316 

Mercer, Col. George, i, 72 ; John, 
ii, 283, 290 ; John Francis, ii, 
99, 109, U2, 195, 283, 290, 
308 ; Thomas Swarm, M. D., 
ii, 443 ; Violetta Lansdale, n/t 
Carroll, ii, 443 

Mereweather, Reuben, ii, 391, 

Mexico, ii, 255, 263, 269, 270, 

274, 275 
Micklin, Maria, »/<? Chew, ii, 

242, 246, 247 
Middle States, i, 207 ; ii, 124, 

Mifflin, Gen. Thomas, i, 176, 

225, 231 ; ii, 3 
Minors, Mr., i, 3 
Miranda, Francisco, ii, 263, 272 
Missouri, ii, 319-321 
Missouri Compromise, ii, 319, 

Mitchell, Mr., ii, 330 
M'Kean, Thomas, ii, 3 
Moale, John, ii, 436 ; Richard, 

ii, 436 
Mobile, bay of, ii, 276 
Monongahela, battle of, i, 23 
Monroe, James, ii, 179, 255, 256, 

290, 292, 334, 339, 35',, 360 
Montcalm Bay, N. Y., i, 375 
Montcalm, Louis Joseph, Mar- 
quis de, i, 374 

Montevideo, South America, ii, 

Montgomery, John, ii, 340 ; Gen. 

Richard, i, 147 

Montreal, Canada, i, 147, 151, 

152, 155, 157. 158. 160. i6i, 
164-166, 169-171, 174, 376, 

389-394, 396. 397 
Montreul, Baron de, ii, 341 

Moore, Mr., ii, 296 

Morancy, Charles Carroll, ii, 
318 ; Charles Carroll, ii, 318 ; 
Emile, ii, 317, 318 ; Honore 
Pierre (Perigny), ii, 317, 318 ; 
Jean Francois, ii, 3x7; Mad- 
ame, ii, 317 ; Victoire, ii, 317, 

Mordaunt, Gen. Sir John, i, 

Morgan, General Daniel, i, 214 ; 

James Ethel bert, M.D., ii, 

442 ; Norah, n/e Digges, ii, 

Morris, Gouverneur, i, 235, 236 ; 

i», 34. 3" ; Mrs., ii, 310; 

Robert, i, 240; ii, 48, 124, 

129-131, 135-137, 140-142, 

150, 152, 170, 310 
Morristown, N. J., i, 201 
Motier's, tavern (?), i, 172, 399 
Moustier, Count de, ii, 124 
Moylan, Stephen, i, 172, 176, 

Murat, Joachim, ii, 270 

Murray, Elizabeth Hesselius, ii, 

66 ; Doctor, ii, 251 ; General, 

i, 240 
Murray's " Life and Times of the 

Rev. Walter Dulany Addison," 

ii, 66 

Natchez, Miss., ii, 369 

Neth, Louis, ii, 396-399, 404, 
419, 420, 423 

Neuville, Hyde de, French min- 
ister, ii, 323, 329 ; Madame 
de, ii, 323 ; Monsieur de la, 

• • 

», 3 
Newark, N. T., i, 197 

New England, or Eastern States, 



New England — Continued. 
i, 27, io2, 206, 207 ; ii, 124, 
127, 236, 237, 334 

New Hampshire, ii, 5, 7-9, 124, 
158, 258 

New Jersey, i, 197, 220 ; ii, 6, 9, 
120, 237 

New Mexico, i, 25 

New Orleans, La., ii, 253, 255, 
256, 273, 275, 276 ; battle of, 
ii, 306, 308, 342 

Newport, R. I., ii, 296, 297 

Newspapers : Boston Centinel, ii, 
288 ; Boston Patriot, ii, 288 ; 
Courier ; ii, 262 ; Federal Ga- 
zette, ii, 249, 298 ; Federal Re- 
publican, ii, 291 ; Maryland 
Gazette, i, 15, 38, 70, 88, 90, 
99, 105, 106, 108, 113, 114, 
248, 250, 254. 257, 297, 315 ; 
ii, 445 ; Maryland journal 
and Baltimore Advertiser, ii, 
41 ; National Gazette, ii, 320, 
321 ; National Intelligencer, 
ii, 257, 279 ; National Jour- 
nal, ii, 336 ; The Carrollton- 
ian % ii, 351, 352; Truth 
Teller, New York, i, 100, 101, 
180, 183 

Newton, Mr., i, 21 

New York, city of, i, 29, 136, 
I47-H9. 152, 160, 172, 173, 
185, 222, 334, 363, 364, 367, 
369. 382, 390, 399 ; ii, 30, 31, 
101, 106, 112, 117, 142, 145, 
146, 157, 158, 160, 165, 236, 
274, 295, 297, 337-339, 343, 
351, 357, 358, 439, 440 

New York Historical Society 
Collections, •' The Lee Pa- 
pers," i, 236 

New York State Library, ii, 362 

New York, State of, i, 207, 366, 
379. 38o, 383, 386, 387 ; ii, 
5, 8, 9, 124, 163, 257, 310, 

343, 442 
Niagara, N. Y., ii, 198 

Nicholas, Robert Carter, i, 92, 

Nichols, Mr., ii, 357 

Nicholson, Captain James, i, 143 ; 

Commodore, John B., ii, 202 ; 

Sir Francis, i, 398 ; Joseph, i, 

197, 233, 235 ; Major, ii, 442 ; 

Sarah ne'e Carroll, ii, 442 
41 Niles Register," ii, 332, 334, 

336, 338-340, 342, 348, 353, 

360, 36i, 367 
Noailles, Viscount, de, ii, 202 
Noland, Anne Victoria, ne'e Mo- 

rancy, ii, 318 
Norfolk, Va., ii, 297, 439 
North Carolina, i, 233 ; ii, 8, 9, 

76, 129, 141 
North, Frederick, Lord, Earl of 

Guilford, i, 239 
North Point, battle of, ii, 304, 

Notley family, ii, 441 
Nottingham, town of, i, 216 
Nourse, Mr., i, 203 
Nova Scotia, i, 25-27 
Nullification Ordinance, ii, 367 

O'Carroll, Frederick John, ii, 

O'Donnell, Aileen, ii, 441 ; 

Charles Oliver, ii, 440 ; Helen 

Sophia, ii, 440 ; John, ii, 441 
Ogle, Benjamin, i, 65 ; ii, 266 ; 

Samuel, i, 107, 108, 265, 312 
Ogle family, ii, 245, 327 
Oliver family, ii, 308 
Oliver, Robert, ii, 243, 415, 416 ; 

Mr., ii, 303, 329 
Oneida Historical Society, ii, 343 
Oswego, N. Y., i, 29, 30 

Paca, William, student at the 
Temple, i, 65 ; one of the Md. 
" Sons of Liberty," 73 ; rep- 
resented Annapolis in the 
House of Burgesses, 100 ; an 
44 Independent Whig," 106; 
in the Continental Congress, 
131 ; on the Anne Arundel Co. 
commiftee of correspondence, 
132 ; on provincial committee 
of correspondence, 133 ; one 
of the Council of Safety, 135, 



Paca, William — Continued. 
137; again in Continental 
Congress, 178 ; in the Mary- 
land Convention, 186 ; on 
committee to draft Dec. of 
Rights and Constitution, 186 ; 
returns to Congress, 187 ; again 
in Maryland Convention, 188 ; 
member of first Maryland Sen- 
ate, 197 ; in Congress, 199 ; 
declines re-election to Con- 
gress, 233, 235 ; again in Con- 
gress, ii, 11 ; in the Maryland 
Senate, 20 ; elected Governor 
of Maryland, 56 ; his portrait 
in the State House at Annap- 
olis, 77 ; re-elected Governor 
of the State, 79 ; in the Mary- 
land Convention called to vote 
on the Federal Constitution, 
112 ; a prominent An ti feder- 
alist, 112; his letters to 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton 
destroyed, 348 

Pacific Ocean (South Sea), i, 25, 
219, 220 ; ii, 5, 10 

Paine, Nathaniel, i, 93 ; Thomas, 
ii, 253 

Paris, France, i, 19, 24, 30, 32, 

33. 37, 44, 47, 59. 64. 67, 206, 
208, 240; ii, 282, 283, 293, 

294, 3i5i 317, 318, 433, 440, 

Parish, All Hallow's, Md., ii, 
380, 381, 387 ; English, Ire- 
land, ii, 380 ; Lorrah, Ireland, 
ii, 380 

Parran, John, i, 14 ; Mary, i, 14 

Patapsco, Iron Works. See Balti- 
more Iron Works Company 

Paterson, William, ii, 120-122, 
145. 161 

Patterson, Robert, ii, 314, 320, 
326,410, 412,413. 438 

Peake, Elizabeth, ne'e Lane, ii, 
443; S. H., ii, 443 

Peale, Charles Willson, i, 95, 96, 
ii, 79 ; Rembrandt, i, 95 

" Peggy Stewart Day," ii, 131 

Penn, John, i, 212 ; ii, 3 

Pennington, Charles Harper, ii, 
441 ; Clapham, ii, 441 ; Emily 
Louisa, n/e Harper, i, 22, 31, 
44, 58, 79, 83. 84. 92. 103, 251, 
253, 258, 264, 277, 282, 285, 
296, 303. 306, 308, 310, 311, 
317, 321, 322, 327, 329, 331, 
440, 441 ; William Clapham, 
ii, 440. 441 

Pennsylvania, i, 30, 223, 224, 
391 ; ii, 3,9,42,92,118, 119, 
124, 129, 141, 142, 145, 147, 
149, 160, 163, 241, 257, 270, 
289, 321, 330, 399, 419 

Pennsylvania Historical Society, 
i, 23, 55, 214, 224, 231 ; ii, 

337, 348, 356 
Pensacola, Florida, ii, 272, 276 
Perigny, George de, Rev., ii, 

315, 317 
Perkins, Messrs. and Co., i, 87 ; 

William, i, 24, 34, 38,47, 53, 65 
Perry, William, ii, 91, 98, no 
Peru, ii, 255, 263, 270 
Peters, Mrs., i, 223 ; Richard, i, 

182, 217, 220, 224; ii, 353, 

Phelps, Royal, ii, 439 

Philadelphia, Penn., i, 131, 136, 
158, 165, 170, 172-174. 179, 
184, 186, 188, 167, 212, 213, 
216, 217, 222, 223, 231, 232, 
241, 386, 400 ; ii, 5, 6, 21, 93, 

95,99. x o5, 141, 142, 157, 159. 
168, 180, 191, 197, 204, 241- 

243. 267, 294, 305, 312, 314, 

332, 340, 353, 356 
Philippine Islands, ii, 268 
Philips, Sophia, ne'e Chew, ii, 

Philipse, Colonel, i, 148, 172- 

174. 363 

Philpot, Mr., i, 33 

Pickell's, " History of the Poto- 
mac Company," ii, 80 

Pickering, John, ii, 224 

Picot de la Croix, Captain 
French man-of-war, ii, 269 

Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth, 
ii, 237, 239, 240 



Pine Creek, Pa., ii, 321 
Pine, Robert Edge, ii, 147, 242 
Pinkney, William, in Md. Con- 
vention called to vote on the 
Federal Constitution, ii, 112 ; 
prominent as an An ti federal- 
ist, 112 ; commissioner to set- 
tle with Virginia question of 
State boundaries, 215 ; sent 
to England by U. S. Govern- 
ment to negotiate Jay's treaty, 
215 ; mentioned in letters of 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
292, 305, 329 ; wounded at 
Bladensburg in War of 18 12, 
305 ; sudden illness and death, 
329 ; the Misses Pinkney men- 
tioned as visiting Louisa Caton 
in Annapolis, ii, 293 
Pipe Creek, Md., ii, 383 
Pise, Rev., Constantinc C, i, 63 ; 

ii, 363. 364, 368, 370 

Pise's " Eulogy on Charles Car- 
roll," i, 63, 66 ; ii, 365, 368 

Pitt, William, Lord Chatham, i, 
51, 66, 95 ; William, ii, 87, 

Plater, George, dines with 
Charles Carroll in London, i, 
40, 64 ; in Maryland Conven- 
tion, 186 ; on the committee 
to prepare Declaration of 
Rights and Constitution, 186 ; 
reports Declaration of Rights 
from committee to the Con- 
vention, 187 ; in first Mary- 
land Senate, 197 ; elected to 
Congress, 233 ; objects to Arti- 
cles of Confederation, ii, 4, 5 ; 
with Carroll writes to Gov. 
and Assembly of proceedings 
in Congress, 7-9 ; re-elected 
to Congress, 1 1 ; in Maryland 
Senate, 49 ; on committee to 
confer with consul-general of 
France, 76 ; elected President 
of the Senate, 79 ; in the Con- 
vention called to vote on the 
Federal Constitution, in ; as 
President of the Convention 

reads subsequent amendments 
reported to it by a committee, 
in ; writes to the Md. Assem- 
bly enclosing the ratification 
of the Federal Constitution, 
114; elected Governor of 
Maryland, 172 
Pliarne, Mons, i, 220, 221, 225, 

231 J ", 55 
Plymouth, Eng., ii., 307 
Poe, David, i, 242 
Point Deschambault, Canada, i, 

157, 158, 161, 162, 166, 171, 

Point aux Fer, Canada, i, 387, 

388, 391, 397 
Point aux Roches, Canada, i, 

Poison, Mons., i, 45 
Poitiers, France, ii, 314 
Poland, ii, 262, 270, 271, 293 
Pollock, Sir Frederick, ii, 350 
Poplar Island, Md., i, 389 ; ii, 

Portail, Chevalier du, i, 204, 

Port Lorient, i, 227 
Port Tobacco, Md., ii, 387, 388 
Portland, New Hampshire, 

(Maine), ii, 158 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, i, 

202, 227, 240 
Potomac Canal Company, ii, 100 
Potomac Company, i, 94, 95 ; ii, 

80, 229, 230, 330 
Portugal, ii, 217, 268, 282, 285, 

Potts, Richard, ii, 182, 188-190, 

Potts Groves, i, 217 
Power, Mr., i, 34 
Prescott, General, i, 164, 214, 

241, 395 
Preston, General, i, 382 

Price, Mr., 159, 160, 167 

Proclamation settling fees, i, 98, 

100, 102, 104-107, 109, 116, 

118, 119, I2i, 125, 248, 256, 

257, 260-265, 269, 271, 273, 

276, 278, 279, 281, 282, 284, 




286-288, 294, 299, 300, 306- 

314. 3«>-322, 328, 330, 351, 


"Protestant Revolution," Md., 

i.4. 8 
Provoost, Rt. Rev. Samuel, 

Bishop of New York, ii, 119 
Prussia, i, 36, 51 ; ii, 6, 217, 

262, 263, 270, 271, 277, 278, 

294, 295 
Purviance, Samuel, i, 143 
Putnam, Gen. Israel, i, 172, 221, 


Queen Ann's Town, Md., i, 15 ; 

ii, 385. 388 
Queen Caroline of England, ii, 

Quinze Chiens, Canada, i, 397 
Quebec Bill, i, 146 
Quebec, Canada, Province of, i, 

387 ; city of, i, 145, 147, 149, 

155, 157. 162, 175, 369, 390 
Queensbury, township of, N. Y., 

i, 373 

Ramboulet decree, ii, 290 

Ramsay, David, i, 192 

Ramsay's " History of the Amer- 
ican Revolution," i, 192 

Randall, John, ii, 357 

Randolph, Edmund, ii, 93 

Raymond, Lord, i, 330 

Read, George, ii, 129, 140, 162, 
170 ; William George, ii, 440 

Red Bank, N. J., i, 231 

Reed, Joseph, 1, 285 

Revolution of 1688, i, 4, 8, 48 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, i, 64 ; ii, 


Rheims, France, i, 19, 22 

Rhode Island, ii, 9, 129, 134, 
150-154, 236, 296, 297 

Richards, Rev. F. H., i, 67 

Richardson, Mr., ii, 190; Wil- 
liam, ii, 386 

Richelieu, falls of, Canada (Sorel 
River), i, 175, 176 

Richmond, Va., ii, 201 

Riddell, Robert, ii, 436 

Ridgely, Capt. Charles, ii, 244 ; 
Richard, i, 198 ; ii, 93, 98, 

Ridgely family, ii, 244 

Ridgley's "Annals of Annapo- 
lis," i, 13, 130, 179 ; ". 329 

Ridley, Mr., ii, 32 

Ridout, John, ii, 26 ; Thomas, 
ii, 26 

Riley, Elihu S., i, 130, 132, 154, 

Riley's "History of Annapolis," 
i, 130, 132, 134, 136. 179. *53 ; 
ii. 326, 329 

Rivers, Arkansas, i, 32 ; Ber- 
thier, Canada, i, 160 ; Chop- 
tank, Md., i, 185 ; Delaware, 
i, 197, 400 ; ii, 140, 159 I Elk, 
Md., i, 215, 216 ; Fishkill, N. 
Y., i, 369 ; Harlem, N. Y., 
i, 214 ; Hudson (North River), 
N. Y., i, 148, 172, 238, 363, 
366, 367, 369, 371-373. 379, 
399 ; ii, 198 ; Kennebec ,*Maine, 
i, 25 ; La Plata, So. America, 
ii, 274 ; Little Chamblay, Can- 
ada, i, 396 ; Mississippi, i, 25, 
220 ; ii, 5, 10, 46, 255, 261, 
276, 306 ; Mohawk, N. Y., i, 
149, 175, 214, 368, 373 ; Mo- 
nonacy, Md., i, 68, 69 ; Ohio, i, 
28 ; ii, 80, 330 ; Patapsco, Md., 
i, 15 ; Patuxent, Md., i, 46 ; ii, 
385, 387 ; Pocomoke,Va. and 
Md., i, 233-234 ; ii, 82 ; Po- 
tomac, Va. and Md., i, 68, 94, 
95, 179, 212, 232-234 ; ii, 80, 
82, 141, 142, 158-161, 163, 170, 
229, 230, 297, 330, 376 ; St. 
John's. See Sorel ; St. Law- 
rence, Canada, i, 26, 157, 159, 
160, 164, 170, 174-176, 369, 
377, 388, 392, 394, 396. 397 ; 
Sassafras, Md., i, 216 ; Savan- 
nah, Ga., i, 25 ; Seine, France, 
i, 24 ; Severn, Md., i, 130 ; 
Sorel, (Richelieu, St. John's) 
Canada, i, 27, 157-162, 164- 
166, 170, 174, 175, 369, 377, 
3 8 7. 390* 393-397; South, 



Rivers — Continued. 
Md., ii, 385, 387; Susque- 
hanna, Pa., i, 215 ; ii, 79, 140 
-143, 159, 160, 228,229 ; Wye, 
Md., i, 185 

Roberts, Charles, ii, 341, 352 ; 
George, ii, 384 

Robertson, Archibald, ii, 342, 

Robbins, Herbert D., ii, 440 ; 

Mary Helen, trfc Carroll, ii, 

Robinson, Anne, ii, 266 
Rochambeau, Jean Baptiste, 

Count de, ii, 61 
Rochefort, France, ii, 285 
Rock Creek, Md., ii, 53, 56 
Rockville, Md., ii, 326 
Rodgers, Commodore John, ii, 

286, 287 
Rogers, Col. Nicholas, ii, 244 ; 

Mr., i, 215 ; Mr., ii, 266 
Roll, Chief Justice, i, 330 
Rose, George, British agent, ii, 

Ross, General Robert, ii, 303, 

Rouen, France, i, 24 

Rozier, Henry, i, 43, 44, 65 ; 

Notley, i, 9 ; ii, 441 
Rozier family, ii, 441 
Rumney, Mary nie Croxall, ii, 

436 ; Nathaniel, ii, 436 
Rumsey, Col. Benjamin, i, 199, 

215, 216 
Russell, James, ii, 44, 218-227 
Russia, 1, 239 ; ii, 6, 217, 262- 

264, 268, 277, 278,292, 294, 

Rutland, Thomas, i, 14 
Rutledge, Edward, i, 182 
Ryegate, Eng., i, 66, 83 

Sabatay Point, Lake George, i, 

376, 381 
Sackett's Harbour, N. Y., ii, 


St. Anthony's Nose, Cape, Hud- 
son River, i, 364, 365 

St. Charles College, Md., ii, 362 

St. Clair, Colonel, i, 161, 214 
St. Domingo, West Indies, i, 

227 ; ii, 213, 217, 254, 317 
St. John's College, Md., ii, 214, 

St. John's, garrison of, Canada, i, 
150, 152, 154, 161, 165, 167, 
170, 171. 382, 383, 387, 388, 

390. 391. 393, 394, 397 
St. Marino, republic of, ii, 235 
St. Mary's, city of, Md., i, 7 ; 

ii, 446 . 
St. Mary's College, Md., ii, 369 
St. Omer's, College of, Flanders, 

i, 9, 18, 63, 106, 113, 312 
St. Tammany Society, Sons of, 

ii, 166 
St. Therese, Canada, i, 393 
Sanderson, John, ii, 265 
Sanderson's " Biography of the 

Signers," i, 141, 181 ; ii, 265, 

Sandy Hook, N. J., i, 213 
Saratoga, N. Y., i, 149, 220, 369- 

371, 399 
Saratoga Lake, i, 369 

Sawyer, Admiral, ii, 287 
Scharf, John Thomas, i, 12 
Scharf's "History of Maryland," 
i, 12, 69, 179, 236 ; ii, 25, 358 
Scheldt, France, ii, 285 
Schuyler, Mrs., i, 385, 389 ; Gen. 

Philip, i, 147-150. 157, 158, 
161, 162, 170-172, 206, 214, 
367-372, 375-377. 379. 380, 

383. 390. 398. 399; ». 147. 
170, 236 

Schuyler family, i, 172, 399 

Schuyler's Island, Lake Cham- 
plain, i, 385, 389 

Scott, Robert G., ii, 332 

Sears, overseer, ii, 301, 302 

Seney, James, ii, 190 

Serrurier, Mons., French Minis- 
ter, ii, 288 

Sewall, Jane, */? Lowe. Set 
Lady Baltimore ; Mai. Nicho- 
las, ". 435* 447 ; Mrs., n/e 
Darnall, ii, 447; Robert, ii, 






Sharpe, Horatio, Governor of 
Md., i, 12, 32, 39, 40 ; Wil- 
liam, i, 3a, 39. 40, 44. 46 

Shaw, Jane, ii, 416 

Shea's " Life and Timea of Arch- 
bishop Carroll," i, 153 ; ii, 101, 

Sherburne, Major, i, 162 
Sherman, Roger, i, 182 ; ii, 3 
Shippen, Joseph, ii, 241 
Ships : Adventure, i, 134 ; Al- 
fred, i, 240 ; Amphitrite, i, 204, 
227, 228 ; Asia, i, 363 ; Chesa- 
peake, ii, 280; Chesterfield, i, 
38 ; Defence, i, 143 ; ii, 62 ; 
Duke William, i, 38; 'Eole 
(Eolus), ii, 269; Fearnought, 
ii, 62 ; Francis Feeling, ii, 
296 ; Little Belt, ii, 286, 287 ; 
Mercury, \, 238 ; Otter, man- 
of-war, i, 142, 143 ; Pallas, ii, 
200 ; Patriot, ii, 269 ; Pegqy 
Stewart, i, 128, 130, 132 ; ii, 
49 ; President, ii, 286, 287 ; 
Robert, brig, ii, 288 ; Raleigh, 
i, 240 ; Royal Savage, i, 382 ; 
Sans Par eil, ii, 200 ; Terrible, 
ii, 62 ; The Two Sisters, i, 65 
Shirley, Gen. William, i, 29 
Short Hills, battle of, i, 229 
Shrewsbury, George, Earl of. 

See Talbot 
Shrie, Mr., i, 185 
Sigourney, Lydia H., ii, 344, 

Sigourney's "Poems," Boston 

edition, 1827, ii, 346 
Sim, Colonel, ii, 444 ; Mary, 

ne'e Carroll, ii, 444 
Simmons, John H., ii, 409 
Sinclair, Colonel, i, 101, 161, 

372, 373 
Skeene, Major, i, 171, 398 
Skeenesborough, N. Y., i, 171, 

379, 38i, 398 
Slingluff, Mary Le Grand, ne'e 

Johnston, ii, 436 
Smallwood, Gen. William, i, 184, 

185, 198, 212, 215, 216, 237 ; 

ii, I, 2, 58, 90, 93, 98, «« 

Smith, James, of Pennsylvania, 
ii, 3 ; John, of Maryland, ii, 
49, 77 ; Jonathan Bayard, of 
Pa., i, 225 ; Mr., ii, 304 ; Gen. 
Robert, of Md., ii, 287, 288, 
308 ; Mrs. Robert, ii, 308 ; 
Gen. Samuel, of Md., ii, 342 ; 
William, of Md., i, 199, 216, 
217, 219, 220 ; ii, 6, 117, 201 ; 
William, of South Carolina, i, 
194 ; William Loughton, of 
South Carolina, ii, 161 
Smith's " Address to the People 
of the United States," ii, 287, 
Smith family of Maryland, ii, 

Smithe, Edward, ii, 376 
Smith's " Comparative View of 
the Constitutions of the Sev- 
eral States," i, 194 
Sonona, Cal., ii, 444 
M Sons of Liberty," i, 72. 73 
Sorbonne, College of, Paris, 

France, ii, 20 
Soult, Nicolas, Marshal, ii, 287 
South Amboy, N. J., ii, 6 
South Carolina, ii, 9, 96, 124, 
147, 151-153, 163, 249, 250, 
352, 367 
South River Hundred, Md., ii, 

South Sea. See Pacific Ocean. 

Southern States, i, 102, 197 ; ii, 
124, 216, 309 

Spain, i, 13, 25, 86, 239 ; ii, 10, 
46, 217, 255, 257, 261, 264, 
268, 273, 275, 276, 281-283, 
285, 288 

Spanish Colonies, ii, 277, 279 ; 
Cortes, ii, 321 

Sparks, Jared, i, 139, 240 ; ii, 325 

Sparks MSS. See Harvard Col- 
lege Library 

Sparks, " Writings of Washing- 
ton," ii, 180, 198 

Speed, Dr. Joseph, ii, 330 

Spence, Captain, ii, 308 

Sprague, Rev. William B., i, 8 ; 
ii, 362 




Sprigg, Mr., ii, 204 

Stafford, Lady Elizabeth, n/e Ca- 
ton, ii, 267, 2S5, 286, 297, 
314-16, 352, 395, 398, 404, 
406, 407, 410, 411, 413, 41^- 
423, 428, 438 ; Sir George 
William, Baron, ii, 438 ; Ma- 
jor, i, 394 

SUmp Act, i, 71, 73-75. 101, 103 

Stamp Act Congress, i, 72 

Stanley, Mr., ii, 226 

Standford, Rev. John, ii, 357, 

Staten Island, N. Y., i, 172, 222, 

400 ; ii, 6 
States Rights, i, 220 ; ii, 5, 153, 

163, 213, 214, 319 
Stauffer, D. McN., ii, 351, 360 
SUmmata Carrollana, ii, 434, 

Sterett, James, i, 196, 197 ; Mr., 

ii, 305 ; Mrs., ii, 305 ; Samuel, 

ii, 172, 183 
Sterett family, ii, 308 
Sterling, William Alexander, 

Lord, i, 172, 400 
Steuart, Dr. Richard, i, 101 ; ii, 

3^8, 369. 39^-399. 404, 419. 
420, 423 

Stevenson, Dr. H., i, 215 
Stewart, Anthony, i, 128-130 ; 
Dugald, i, 192-194 ; Margaret, 
i, 130 ; Thomas, ii, 379 
Stewart's " Lectures on Political 

Economy," i, 194 
Stodd's tavern, Canada, i, 387 
Stone, Thomas, in the Conti- 
nental Congress, i, 133 ; on 
Maryland Council of Safety, 
135 ; re-elected to Congress, 
178 ; sends resolutions of that 
body to Maryland Convention, 
186, 187 ; in the Maryland 
Senate, 197 ; declines re-elec- 
tion to Congress, 199 ; on 
committee to draft instructions 
for Maryland com nr goners, 
233 ; appointed on,Vof the 

234 ; opposes confiscation of 
British property, ii, 25 ; with 
Carroll drafts Senate messages 
on the subject, 25, 26, 38 ; on 
important committees, 34-36 ; 
on joint committee to consider 
letters from the commander-in- 
chief and other communica- 
tions, 39 ; again in Md. Senate, 
41 ; on committee to instruct 
delegates in Congress on the 
subject of confederation, 42 ; 
votes to ratify Articles of Con- 
federation, 44 ; on joint com- 
mittee to consider subject of 
suspected persons confined in 
prison, 46 ; on committee to 
draft resolutions of thanks to 
Washington, 48 ; on other 
committees, 49, 50 ; files an 
answer to Carroll's " Dissen- 
tient " on solicitors and attor- 
nies bill, 77, 83 ; one of com- 
mittee to confer with Virginia 
commissioners on navigation 
of the Potomac, 80 ; on com- 
mission to confer with Virgin- 
ians on jurisdiction of rivers 
and bay, 82, 83 ; on committee 
to consider plan for recovering 
Bank of England stock, 84 ; 
one of a committee to answer 
House message on non-jurors 
bill, 88 ; advocates permanent 
salaries for judges, 90 ; one of 
a committee to draft message 
on this subject, 90, 91 ; on 
joint committee to consider 
changes in high court of chan- 
cery, 91 ; one of committee to 
confer on proposition from 
Virginia to revise the confed- 
err Vi*-Q3 ; opposes emission 
of * 7 * '-"mey, 93-95 ; with 

C *°°«to TJtoe Senate 
u> iniav~t^? JftaGk vii.93, 
oe 203 •»«. - »/\ 

di'CTlSssages to the house on 

commission to ' ffiA A^stioiifr ^— ■■'he subject, 95, 96 ; elected to 
of jurisdiction 1mn Virginia, IF 

Federal Convention but refuses 



Stone, Thomas — Continued. 
the appointment, 99 ; an Anti- 
federalist, 109 ; his death a loss 
to the party in Maryland, 109 

Stone, Colonel, ii, 189 

Stony Point, N. Y., i, 216 

Stormont, Lord, i, 228 

Streets : Arundel, London, i, 67 ; 
Calvert, Baltimore, ii, 244 ; 
Duke of Gloucester, Annap- 
olis, i, 14 ; ii, 329 ; Freder- 
ick, Bait., ii, 399; Gay, 
Bait., ii, 399, 419 ; Nassau, 
New York, ii, 117 ; Queen, 
N. Y. f ii, 117; St. Patrick, 
Cork, ii, 351 ; Second, Bait., 
ii, 399 I Smith, N. Y., ii, 117 ; 
Wall, N. Y.,ii, 117; Water, 
Bait., ii, 399 

Strong, Caleb, ii, 127, 147, 155, 
158, 161, 170 

Stuart, Gilbert, ii, 242 

Sugar Creek, Pa., ii, 321 

Sullivan, Gen. John, i, 170, 173, 
397 ; William, ii, 258, 349 

Sullivan's " Familiar Letters on 
Public Characters," ii, 117, 

258, 349 
Summerset, Lady, ii, 447, 448 
Susquehanna Canal Company, ii, 

Susquehanna Ferry, i, 12, 15 

Swan Creek, i, 215 

Swan Harbor, Md., ii, 435 

Swatout, Samuel, ii, 275 

Sweden, ii, 277 

Switzerland, ii, 264 

Tabb, Anne, ii, 443 ; Jane ne'e 
Carroll, ii, 442, 443 ; Mr. M., 
ii, 442, 443 

Taile, Andrew, ii, 386 

Talbot, George, Earl of Shrews- 
bury, ii, 447; Mr.,ii, 447 

Talleyrand, Charles Maurice, 

Marquis de, ii. ***•_ 
Tany~*r ^ary Le Grand, 95 . 

11, 99^00, V32,'s*h 1 . >Mi 
429 «_» 1, 

Tasker, Anne, nde Bladen, i, 4$T* 

104 ; Col. Benjamin, Sr., i, 

45. 103. 104 ; ii, 384 J CoL 
Benjamin, Jr., i, 39, 45, 103 
Tasker family, i, 103 
Tayloe, Mrs., n/e Ogle, ii, 297 
Taylor, George Cavendish, ii, 
439, 440 ; Louisa, n/e Carroll, 
ii, 439, 440 ; Michael, ii, 378, 

Taylord, William, ii. 376 

Temple, the, London, i, 14, 19, 
38-^40, 42, 49, 65, 90, 91, 190 ; 
Inner Temple, i, 2, 3 ; Mid- 
dle Temple, 64 
Temple, Sir William, i, 113 
Tessier, Rev. John, ii, 400 
The Buttermilk Cascade, Hud- 
son River, i, 365 
The Cedars, Canada, i, 162, 165, 

168, 174, 396 
The Endless Mountains, i, 366 
The Federalist % i, 192, 193 ; ii, 

The Four Brothers, islands of. 

Lake Champlain, i, 385 
Thomas, Allen, ii, 418 ; Dr., ii, 

299 ; Gen. John, i, 147, 149, 

157-159. 161. 162. 164. *6°. 
168, 169, 368, 370, 395 ; John 

ii, 424 
Thompson, General, i, 147, 158, 

161, 164, 165, 393, 395 ; 

George, ii, 441 
Thorold, George, i, 15 ; ii, 387, 

Three Rivers, Canada, i, 161, 162 
Thunder Hill bay, Hudson 

River, i, 364 
Ticonderoga, N. Y., i, 146, 150, 

152, 157. 170, 206, 222, 377, 

379-381, 383. 391. 398 
Tiernan's "Tiernan Family in 

Maryland," ii, 436 
Tttghman, Edward, i, 102, 198 ; 

Edward, ii, 435 ; James, i, 197, 

Tilghman, Matthew, in Conti- 
nental Congress, i, 131 ; in 

Ma«V^nd Convention, 133 ; 

on"comBufcee of correspond- 



Tilghman, Matthew — Continued. 
ence, 133 ; elected again to 
Congress, 178 ; President of 
the Maryland Convention, 
186 ; on committee to prepare 
Declaration of Rights and 
Constitution, 186 ; in the 
Maryland Senate, 197, 198 ; 
on committee to instruct dele- 
gates to Congress, ii, 11 ; on 
committee to consider the 
proposition for a confederation, 
13 ; accusations made against 
him by S. Chase, 15 ; assists 
in drafting address of thanks 
to the retiring governor, 20 ; 
with Carroll drafts message on 
bill relating to estates of de- 
ceased persons, 22 ; assists also 
in writing message on confisca- 
tion bill, 23 ; one of the Sen- 
ate's chosen penmen, 23 ; on 
other committees of import- 
ance, 38, 30, 41 ; on commit- 
tee to draft instructions to 
delegates in Congress on sub- 
ject of confederation, 42 ; one 
of joint committee to confer on 
the confiscation act, 43 ; on 
committee to inquire into sub- 
ject of suspected persons in 
prison, 46 ; one of committee 
to draft resolutions of thanks 
to Washington after York- 
town, 48 ; chairman of com- 
mittee to draft message on 
civil list bill, 57 ; opposed to 
increasing salaries of members 
of Assembly, 64 ; President of 
the Senate, and succeeded in 
this office by Charles Carroll 
of Carroll ton, 67 

Tingaul, Md., ii, 380 

Toner, Doctor Joseph M., i, 94, 

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, i, 27 
Treaty of Utrecht, i, 25, 26, 28 
Trenton, battle of, i, 203 
Trenton, New Jersey, i, 217 
Trumbull, John, ii, 242 

Tucker, Aaron, Doctor, ii, 438 ; 
Elizabeth Henrietta Chew, 
n/e Carroll, ii, 321, 400, 403, 
406, 407, 411, 414, 415, 418, 

Tully, Edward, ii, 383 ; Michael, 
ii, 383 

Tunbridge Wells, Eng., i, 66 

Turkey, Porte of, i, 239 ; ii, 6 

Turks, i, 238 

Turreau, Mons., French Minis- 
ter, ii, 269 

Tyler, Lyon G., ii, 203 ; Samuel, 
i, 195 ; ii, 100, 233 

Tyler's " Life of Roger Brooke 
Taney," i, 195 ; u, 100, 233 

Underwood, Antony, i, 9 
Upper Marlboro, Md., ii, 56, 

Valley Forge, i, 235, 236 ; ri, 11 
Van Rensselaer family, i, 148, 

Van Rensselaer, Margaret, n/e 

Schuyler, i, 148, 368 
Van Staphorst Claim, ii, no, 

183, 191 
Van Staphorst, Messrs., ii, 110, 

183, 191 
Van Swearingen, Garrett, ii, 435 ; 

Mary, n/e Smith, ii, 435 
Vans Murray, William, ii, 201 
Varnum, G. W., Doctor, ii, 196 
Vaughn, Mr., ii, 357 
Vienna, Congress of, ii, 307 
Ville Le Brun, Commodore, ii, 

Vineland, N. J., ii, 328 

Virginia, ii, 5, 6, 8-10, 39, 42, 
51, 52, 76, 80, 82, 83. 92, 93, 
100, 101, 141, 151, 157, 160, 
164, 169, 201-203, 208, 212, 
213, 215, 234, 239-242, 249, 
330, 332, 360, 447 

Virginia Coffee House, London, 
ii, 203 

"Virginian Project," i, 16 

Virginia's Western Lands, ii, 9, 





Wads worth, Jeremiah, ii, 4 
Walch, John, ii, 388, 389 
Walker, John, ii, 151 ; Thomas, 

i. 152, 393 
Wallace, Johnson, and Muir, 

London merchants, ii, 101, 

Walsh, Mr., ii, 320, 321 
Wansey's *' Voyage to the United 

States," ii, 201 
Wappeler, Mr., i, 20, 21 
Warfield, Mr., ii, 334; Ridgely, 

«. 39I.39 2 
Waring, Basil, i, 40, 41 
Warring, Mr., i, 21 
Warsaw, Poland, i, 238, 293 
Washington, Bushrod, ii, 362 ; 
George, i, 93-95, 137, 172, 
176, 185, 20T, 202, 204, 206, 
213, 215-218, 223-225, 231, 
235-238, 242, 399 ; ii, 2, 3, 6, 
26, 31, 39, 48, 76, 77. 79. 80, 
106, 119, 120, 124, 136-138, 
145, 147, 159, 160, 163, 165- 
167, 170, 178-180, 197, 198, 
201, 204, 206, 207, 215, 216, 
229, 232. 233, 242, 245, 253, 
266, 312, 325, 333, 365. 366, 
367; Henry Augustine, ii, 
161, 207 ; Martha, ne'e Dan- 
dridge, ii, 138, 230, 243 ; Wil- 
liam Augustine, ii, 79 
Washington College, Md., ii, 

Washington's '• Works of Jeffer- 
son," (Congress Edition), ii, 
161, 207 
Washington, D. C, ii, 172, 178, 
213. 234, 275. 280, 284, 294, 
295, 297, 302-304, 306, 308, 
315. 320, 324, 330, 334. 338- 
341. 355, 435. 436, 442, 447 
Washington Ledgers, i, 94 ; 
MSS., i, 139; MSS., State 
Department, i, 217, 231 ; ii, 
206, 218 
Waterloo, battle of, ii, 315, 316 
Waterpark, Lord, ii, 439 
Watterston, George, ii, 323 
Watterston's ' * L e 1 1 e r s from 

Washington on the Constitu- 
tion and Laws," ii, 116, 323 
Wellesley, Mary, Marchioness 
of, n/e Caton, (widow of Rob- 
ert Patterson), ii, 267, 314- 
316, 320, 326, 331, 352, 357. 
395. 398. 401, 404. 406, 407, 
410, 413. 419-421, 438 ; Rich- 
ard Colley, Marquis of, Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland, ii, 352, 

357. 438 
Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, 
Duke of, ii, 287, 288, 316, 

325. 361 
West River, Md., ii, 313, 443 
Western States, ii, 306, 307 
Wharton, Charles H., ii, 340 ; 

Dr., ii, 305 ; Elizabeth, ne'e 

Sewall. See Digges 
White, Alexander, ii, 161 ; John, 

». 43i 
Whitechurch, Eng., i, 2 

Whitecroft, William, i, 143, 144 

White Marsh, i, 225 

White Marsh, Md., ii, 327 

Whitten, Mr., i, 50, 

Whittington, Mr., ii, 251 

Whitworth, Lord, ii, 254 

Wilkinson, Gen., ii, 275 

William and Mary College 
Quarterly, ii, 203 

Williams, James, i, 129 ; Joseph, 
i, 122 ; Thomas, Charles, & 
Co., i, 128 

Williamsburg, Va., i, 93, 180 ; ii, 

Williamson, David, ii, 444 

Wilmington, Del., i, 237 

Wilna, Russia, ii, 293 

Wilson, James, i, 182 ; Samuel, 
i, 197 ; ii, 15, 20 

Willsborough, N. Y., i, 397 

Winder, Gov. Levin, ii, 308 

Windmill Point, Lake Cham- 
plain, i, 387 

Wingate, Paine, ii, 124, 135, 170 

Wing's Tavern, N. Y., i, 372, 

Wisconsin Historical Society, i, 

136 ; ii, 165 

Wood Creek, N. V., i, 369, 397, 

Wood, Major, i, 393 
Woodcott, Eng., ii, 437 
Wooster, Gen. David, i, 147, 

165-167, 169. 397 
Woottcn, Turner, ii, 385, 388 
Worcester, Mass., i, 93 
Worthington, Bricc Thomas 

Beale, i, 187, 197, 333, 334 ; ii, 

13, 17. W>. 35, 38-40, 43, 


ex. 48; 

Wright, Turbutt, i, 197, 833 

Yorktown, Pa., i, 319, 331, 334, 

a3l.=37 ;«. 6, 7 
Yorktown, Vo., ii, 48, 51, 303, 

33'. 33'. 34a 
Young, Anne, tUt Rozier, (widow 

of Daniel Carroll), i, 9, 64 ; ii, 

441 ; Benjamin, ii, 441 
Yucatan, Mexico, ii, 355 

Zafra, (Zap*), Spain, ii, 3S7 


3 bl05 024 b24 4b7 




(650) 723-9201 
All books are subject to recal 


&V -1